Cardiology

Cardiology

[
ECG indicator; diagrams like this are used in Cardiology.] Cardiology (from Greek _gr. καρδίᾱ, "kardiā", "heart"; and _gr. -λογία, "-logia") is the branch of internal medicine dealing with disorders of the heart and blood vessels. The field is commonly divided in the branches of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology. Physicians specializing in this field of medicine are called cardiologists. Cardiologists should not be confused with cardiac surgeons who are surgeons who perform cardiac surgery - operative procedures on the heart and great vessels.

The term "cardiology" is derived from the Greek word "καρδιά" (transliterated as "kardia" and meaning "heart" or "inner self").

The heart

Cardiac pacemaker (Electrical system of the heart)

* Electrical conduction system of the heart
** Action potential
*** Ventricular action potential
* Sinoatrial node
* Atrioventricular node
* Bundle of His
* Purkinje fibers

Basic cardiac physiology

* Systole
* Diastole
* Heart sounds
* Preload
* Afterload
* Kussmaul's sign

Disorders of the heart

Disorders of the coronary circulation

* Atherosclerosis
* Restenosis
* Coronary heart disease (Ischaemic heart disease, Coronary artery disease)
* Acute coronary syndrome
** Angina
** Myocardial infarction (Heart attack)

Sudden cardiac death (The abrupt cessation of blood flow, leading to death)

*Cardiac arrest

Treatment of sudden cardiac death

*Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

Disorders of the myocardium (muscle of the heart)

* Cardiomyopathy
** Ischemic cardiomyopathy
** Nonischemic cardiomyopathy
*** Amyloid cardiomyopathy
*** Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)
**** Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) (Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS))
**** hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
*** Dilated cardiomyopathy
**** Alcoholic cardiomyopathy
**** Tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy
**** Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (Transient apical ballooning, stress-induced cardiomyopathy)
*** Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy)
*** Restrictive cardiomyopathy
* Congestive heart failure
** Cor pulmonale
* Ventricular hypertrophy
** Left ventricular hypertrophy
** Right ventricular hypertrophy
* Primary tumors of the heart
** Myxoma
* Myocardial rupture

Disorders of the pericardium (outer lining of the heart)

* Pericarditis
* Pericardial tamponade
* Constrictive pericarditis

Disorders of the heart valves

* Aortic valve disorders
** Aortic insufficiency
** Aortic stenosis
** Aortic valve replacement
** Aortic valve repair
** Aortic valvuloplasty
* Mitral valve disorders
** Mitral valve prolapse
** Mitral regurgitation
** Mitral stenosis
** Mitral valve replacement
** Mitral valve repair
** Mitral valvuloplasty
* Pulmonary valve disorders
** Congenital pulmonic stenosis
* Tricuspid valve disorders

Disorders of the electrical system of the heart (Cardiac electrophysiology)

* Tachycardia
* Cardiac arrhythmias
** Supraventricular tachycardia (Fast rhythms that originate above the ventricles)
*** Atrial fibrillation
*** Atrial flutter
*** Atrial tachycardia
*** Sick sinus syndrome (Tachy-Brady syndrome)
*** AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT)
*** AV reentrant tachycardia (AVRT)
** Bigeminy
** Premature ventricular contraction
** Ventricular tachycardia
*** Torsades de pointes
** Ventricular fibrillation
** Sick sinus syndrome
** Bundle branch block
*** Left bundle branch block
*** Right bundle branch block
** Heart block
*** First degree AV block
*** Second degree AV block
*** Bifascicular block
*** Trifascicular block
*** Third degree AV block
**** Lev's disease
* Specific diseases of the electrical system of the heart
** Brugada syndrome
** Long QT syndrome
*** Andersen-Tawil syndrome
*** Romano-Ward syndrome
*** Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome
** Short QT syndrome
** Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW syndrome)

Inflammation and infection of the heart

* Endocarditis
** Rheumatic heart disease
* Myocarditis
* Pericarditis

Congenital heart disease

* Atrial septal defect
* Ventricular septal defect
* Patent ductus arteriosus
* Bicuspid aortic valve
* Tetralogy of Fallot
* Transposition of the great vessels (TGV)
* Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
* Truncus Arteriosus

Diseases of blood vessels (Vascular diseases)

* Vasculitis
* Atherosclerosis
* Aneurysm
* Varicose veins
* Economy class syndrome
* Diseases of the aorta
** Coarctation of the aorta
** Aortic dissection
** Aortic aneurysm
* Diseases of the carotid arteries
** Carotid artery disease
** Carotid artery dissection

Procedures done for coronary artery disease

* Percutaneous coronary intervention
** Atherectomy
** Angioplasty (PTCA)
** Stenting
* Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG)
* Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP)

Devices used in cardiology

* Stethoscope
* Devices used to maintain normal electrical rhythm
** Pacemaker
** Defibrillator
*** Automated external defibrillator
*** Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
* Devices used to maintain blood pressure
** Artificial heart
** Heart-lung machine
** Intra-aortic balloon pump
** Ventricular assist device


= Diagnostic tests and procedures =

* Blood tests
* Echocardiogram
* Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
* Cardiac stress test
* Auscultation (Listening with the Stethoscope)
Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
** QT interval
** Osborn wave
* Ambulatory Holter monitor
* Electrophysiologic study
** Programmed electrical stimulation
* Sphygmomanometer (Blood pressure cuff)
* Cardiac enzymes
* Coronary catheterization
** Myocardial Fractional Flow Reserve (FFRmyo)
** IVUS (IntraVascular UltraSound)

Cardiac pharmaceutical agents

The followings are medications commonly prescribed in cardiology:
* Antiarrhythmic agents
** Type I (sodium channel blockers)
*** Type Ia
**** Quinidine
*** Type Ib
**** Lidocaine
**** Phenytoin
*** Type Ic
**** Propafenone
** Type II (beta blockers)
*** Metoprolol
** Type III (potassium channel blockers)
*** Amiodarone
*** Dofetilide
*** Sotalol
** Type IV (slow calcium channel blockers)
*** Diltiazem
*** Verapamil
** Type V
*** Adenosine
*** Digoxin
* ACE inhibitors
** Captopril
** Enalapril
** Perindopril
** Ramipril
* Angiotensin II receptor antagonists
** Candesartan
** Eprosartan
** Irbesartan
** Losartan
** Telmisartan
** Valsartan
* Beta blocker
* Calcium channel blocker

ee also

* Interventional cardiology
* Clinical cardiac electrophysiology
* American Heart Association
* National Heart Foundation of Australia

External links

* [http://www.cardiacforum.co.cc/ Cardiology Discussions and New Social Network]
* [http://www.cardiologytoday.com/ Cardiology News]
* [http://www.escardio.org European Society of Cardiology]
* U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH) [http://health.nih.gov/search.asp/10 : Heart and Circulation]
* [http://www.acc.org American College of Cardiology]
* [http://know-heart-diseases.com Coronary heart disease]
* [http://www.virtualcardiaccentre.com Virtual Cardiac Centre] - latest comprehensive information on the field of Cardiology.
* [http://www.cvphysiology.com Cardiovascular Physiology] - comprehensive explanation of basic concepts in cardiology.
* [http://www.lejacq.com/Journal_PC.cfm?CFID=3025482&CFTOKEN=85552068 Preventive Cardiology]
* [http://atlas.scmr.org/ A cardiac atlas using CMR images]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cardiology — Cardiology …   Википедия

  • Cardiology — Album par Good Charlotte Sortie 29/10/2010 (France) [1] Enregistrement Août 2009 – avril 2010 Durée 46:52 Genre …   Wikipédia en Français

  • cardiology — 1847, from CARDIO (Cf. cardio ) + LOGY (Cf. logy). Cardiologist attested from 1885 …   Etymology dictionary

  • cardiology — ► NOUN ▪ the branch of medicine concerned with diseases and abnormalities of the heart. DERIVATIVES cardiological adjective cardiologist noun. ORIGIN from Greek kardia heart …   English terms dictionary

  • cardiology — [kär΄dē äl′ə jē] n. [ CARDIO + LOGY] the branch of medicine dealing with the heart, its functions, and its diseases cardiologist n …   English World dictionary

  • cardiology — cardiologic /kahr dee euh loj ik/, cardiological, adj. cardiologist, n. /kahr dee ol euh jee/, n. the study of the heart and its functions in health and disease. [1840 50; CARDIO + LOGY] * * * Medical specialty dealing with heart diseases and… …   Universalium

  • Cardiology — The study and treatment of heart disorders. * * * The medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease. [cardio + G. logos, study] * * * car·di·ol·o·gy .kärd ē äl ə jē n, pl gies the stu …   Medical dictionary

  • cardiology — [[t]kɑ͟ː(r)diɒ̱ləʤi[/t]] N UNCOUNT Cardiology is the study of the heart and its diseases …   English dictionary

  • cardiology — n. the science concerned with the study of the structure, function, and diseases of the heart. See also: nuclear cardiology Derivatives: cardiologist n …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • cardiology — noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary Date: 1847 the study of the heart and its action and diseases • cardiological adjective • cardiologist noun …   New Collegiate Dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.