Arousal

Arousal

Arousal is a physiological and psychological state of being awake. It involves the activation of the reticular activating system in the brain stem, the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system, leading to increased heart rate and blood pressure and a condition of sensory alertness, mobility and readiness to respond.

There are many different neural systems involved in what is collectively known as the arousal system. Four major systems originating in the brainstem, with connections extending throughout the cortex, are based on the brain's neurotransmitters, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. When these systems are in action, the receiving neural areas become sensitive and responsive to incoming signals.

Importance

Arousal is important in regulating consciousness, attention, and information processing. It is crucial for motivating certain behaviours, such as mobility, the pursuit of nutrition, the fight-or-flight response and sexual activity (see Masters and Johnson's human sexual response cycle, where it is known as the "arousal phase"). It is also very important in emotion, and has been included as a part of many influential theories such as the James-Lange theory of emotion. According to Hans Eysenck, differences in baseline arousal level lead people to be either extraverts or introverts. Later research suggest it is most likely that extroverts and introverts have different "arousability". Their baseline arousal level is the same, but the response to stimulation is different. [Randy J. Larsen, David M Buss; "Personality psychology, domains of knowledge about human nature", McGraw Hill, 2008]

The Yerkes-Dodson Law states that there is a relationship between arousal and task performance, essentially arguing that there is an optimal level of arousal for performance, and too little or too much arousal can adversely affect task performance. One interpretation of the Yerkes-Dodson Law is the Easterbrook Cue-Utilisation hypothesis. Easterbrook states that an increase of arousal leads to a decrease in number of cues that can be utilised. (Easterbrooke, 1959).

Abnormally Increased Behavioral Arousal

This is a state caused by withdrawal from alcohol or barbiturates, acute encephalitis, head trauma resulting in coma, partial seizures in epilepsy, metabolic disorders of electrolyte imbalance, Intra-cranial space- occupying lesions, Alzheimer's disease, rabies, hemispheric lesions in stroke and multiple sclerosis (2001).

Anatomically this is a disorder of the limbic system, hypothalamus, temporal lobes, amygdala and frontal lobes (2001). It is not to be confused with mania.

References

Mirr, Michelne Pheifer. "Abnormally Increased Behavioral Asrousal" Cris Stewart- Amidei and Joyce A. Kunkel. Neuroscience Nursing: Human Response to Neurologic Dysfunction. W. B. Sunders Philadelphia: PA, 2001


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  • Arousal — A*rous al, n. The act of arousing, or the state of being aroused. [1913 Webster] Whatever has associated itself with the arousal and activity of our better nature. Hare. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • arousal — (n.) 1827, action of arousing, a being awakened from AROUSE (Cf. arouse) + AL (Cf. al) (2). Sexual association is from c.1900 …   Etymology dictionary

  • arousal — [[t]əra͟ʊz(ə)l[/t]] 1) N UNCOUNT Arousal is the state of being sexually excited. ...sexual arousal... Use this technique to control your level of arousal. 2) N UNCOUNT Arousal is a state in which you feel excited or very alert, for example as a… …   English dictionary

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  • arousal — noun 1. the act of arousing (Freq. 1) the purpose of art is the arousal of emotions • Syn: ↑rousing • Derivationally related forms: ↑rouse (for: ↑rousing), ↑arouse …   Useful english dictionary

  • Arousal — Activation physiologique L activation physiologique (dite aussi activation cérébrale ou arousal, importé de l anglais) désigne l état psychophysiologique correspondant à l activation de la formation réticulée activatrice (FRA) du tronc cérébral… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • arousal — a|rous|al [ ə rauzl ] noun uncount 1. ) a feeling of being sexually excited 2. ) the moment during which someone wakes after sleeping: a sudden arousal from sleep …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • arousal — n. 1) a state of alertness and of high responsiveness to stimuli. It is produced by strong motivation, by anxiety, and by a stimulating environment. 2) physiological activation of the cerebral cortex by centres lower in the brain, such as the… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • arousal — UK [əˈraʊz(ə)l] / US noun [uncountable] 1) a feeling of being sexually excited 2) the moment during which someone wakes after sleeping a sudden arousal from sleep …   English dictionary


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