- Antanas Mockus
Antanas Mockus Šivickas Mayor of Bogotá In office
1 January 2001 – 31 December 2003
Preceded by Enrique Peñalosa Londoño Succeeded by Luis Eduardo Garzón In office
1 January 1995 – 10 April 1997
Preceded by Jaime Castro Castro Succeeded by Enrique Peñalosa Londoño Personal details Born Aurelijus Rutenis Antanas Mockus Šivickas
March 25, 1952
Bogotá, DC, Colombia
Nationality Colombian Political party Independent Other political
Colombian Green Party
Indigenous Social Alliance Movement
Visionarios con Antanas Mockus
Spouse(s) Adriana Córdoba Alma mater National University of Colombia
University of Burgundy
Occupation Politician, Activist Profession Philosopher, Mathematician Religion Roman Catholic
The son of Lithuanian immigrants, he left his post as the president of the National University of Colombia in Bogotá in 1993, and later that year ran a successful campaign for mayor. He proceeded to preside over Bogotá as mayor for two (non-consecutive) terms, during which he became known for springing surprising and humorous initiatives upon the city's inhabitants. These tended to involve grand gestures, including local artists or personal appearances by the mayor himself—taking a shower in a commercial about conserving water, or walking the streets dressed in spandex and a cape as Supercitizen. On March 4, 2010, he was elected in a public consultation as the Colombian Green Party candidate for the presidential election in 2010.
On April 4, 2010, Antanas Mockus chose Sergio Fajardo, former mayor of Medellín, as his vice-presidential running mate. On April 9, 2010 he announced that he had been diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. He told La W radio: "The prediction is that this will not affect my mental activities. I think it is absolutely fitting to tell the people about the diagnosis and about the prognosis—which is 12 years or more of normal life thanks to medication." Mockus finished second in the polling, leading to a runoff election with Juan Manuel Santos, which Santos won. Mockus resigned from the Green Party in June 2011 because he opposed its Bogotá mayoral candidate being supported by former right-wing President Álvaro Uribe.
Early life and career
Mockus was born in Bogotá. He holds a 1972 Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics from the University of Burgundy in Dijon, France and a 1988 Master of Arts degree in philosophy from the National University of Colombia. He has been a professor and researcher at the university since 1975 and has served as its vice president (1988–1991) and president (1991–1993). As its president, he contributed to the formulation of the Colombian Constitution of 1991, focusing on educational issues. In a notable 1993 incident, when confronted with a disruptive group of students, he mooned them. He later explained his action by saying "Innovative behavior can be useful when you run out of words", and linked it to philosopher Pierre Bourdieu's concept of "symbolic violence." He resigned as University president during the aftermath but gained a higher public profile that benefited his subsequent run for the mayorship.
Under Mockus's leadership, Bogotá saw improvements such as: water usage dropped 40%, 7000 community security groups were formed and the homicide rate fell 70%, traffic fatalities dropped by over 50%, drinking water was provided to all homes (up from 79% in 1993), and sewerage was provided to 95% of homes (up from 71%). When he asked residents to pay a voluntary extra 10% in taxes, 63,000 people did so. His market-oriented social policies were much less successful. Poverty and unemployment levels were high throughout his tenures and continue to be a pressing issue in Bogotá's social life.
Famous initiatives included hiring 420 mimes to make fun of traffic violators, because he believed Colombians were more afraid of being ridiculed than fined. He also put in place one "Women's Night", on which the city's men were asked to stay home for an evening to look after the house and the children. The city sponsored free open-air concerts, bars offered women-only specials, Ciclovia and the city's women police were in charge of keeping the peace. Amassing political support mainly from Bogotá's middle and upper classes, he has been much less successful attracting voters in the national level.
During Mockus' unsuccessful presidential bid in 1998, Enrique Peñalosa replaced him as mayor. Peñalosa worked in a similar way instituting popular new bike paths and bus systems. When Mockus ran again for the 2001 mayorship, he held a ceremony in a public fountain "to ask forgiveness for leaving the mayor's office in an unsuccessful bid for the presidency." The impact of Mockus and Peñalosa on the development of Bogotá is described in a documentary film released in October 2009 with the title CITIES ON SPEED - Bogotá Change.
In 2003 Mockus stepped down as mayor, to be replaced by Luis Eduardo Garzón, and took a year's sabbatical, traveling and speaking around the world. He planned to return to teaching at National University of Colombia the following year, although he said he was "considering the possibility of launching a presidential campaign". After spending two weeks as a visiting fellow at the Harvard's Kennedy School of Government in the United States in 2004, "to share lessons about civic engagement with students and faculty", Mockus returned to Harvard as a Visiting Professor of Romance Languages and Literatures to teach two Spanish classes during the Fall 2004–2005 semester. In November, Mockus made a special trip to the University of Virginia to speak about the use of positive social mechanisms in relation to his tenure as the mayor of Bogotá.
In 2004 Lithuanian worldwide daily Draugas chose Mockus as Lithuanian of the Year. In October, 2004 he for the first time visited Lithuanian community in Chicago, Illinois, which is the biggest Lithuanian community outside the Republic of Lithuania, and delivered a speech in his native Lithuanian language. He is currently the President of Corpovisionarios, an organization that consults to cities about addressing their problems through the same policy methodology that was so successful during his terms as Mayor of Bogotá.
In between his two terms as mayor, Mockus ran an unsuccessful 1998 bid for the presidency, first in his own name and later as Noemí Sanín Posada's running mate. Mockus ran in the 2006 presidential election as a member of the Indigenous Social Alliance Movement. He finished fourth in the election, attracting 1.24% of the vote.
In August 2009, Mockus and two other past mayors of Bogotá (Enrique Peñalosa and Luis Eduardo Garzón) joined a new political movement, Colombian Green Party and decided that one of them would run for office in the 2010 Colombian presidential elections. Mockus, Peñalosa and Garzón embarked on an innovative campaign, in which they acknowledged and honored each other's qualifications and preparedness for the job, and telling people to choose whomever they liked best. Through a popular consultation carried on March 14, 2010, which he won by a large margin, Mockus became the Colombian Green Party presidential candidate. On April 4, 2010, Antanas Mockus chose Medellín's former mayor Sergio Fajardo as his running mate, unifying two groups at the center of the political spectrum. Mockus finished second in the first round of voting, with 21.5% of the vote, qualifying him to participate in a runoff election with Juan Manuel Santos, which Mockus lost decisively with 27.5% of the vote.
- ^ Bronstein, Hugh (2010-04-09). "Second-placed Colombian candidate has Parkinson's". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE6384A420100409. Retrieved 2010-04-12.
- ^ Associated Press (2010-04-09). "Colombia candidate discloses Parkinson's diagnosis". The Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2011567266_apltcolombiaelections.html. Retrieved 2010-04-13.
- ^ Tom Heyden (2011-06-10). "Mockus quits Green Party over Uribe support". Colombia Reports. http://colombiareports.com/colombia-news/news/16880-mockus-quits-green-party-over-uribe-support.html. Retrieved 2011-06-13.
- ^ a b "Mayor Antanas Mockus Sivickas, Bogotá, Colombia". Columbia250. Columbia University. 2004. http://c250.columbia.edu/c250_events/symposia/constitutions_bios.html#mockus. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
- ^ a b c Romero, Simon (2010-05-07). "A Maverick Upends Colombian Politics". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/08/world/americas/08colombia.html. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
- ^ a b Caballero, María Cristina (March 11, 2004). "Academic turns city into a social experiment". Harvard University Gazette. http://www.news.Harvard.edu/gazette/2004/03.11/01-mockus.html. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
- ^ "Election Profile: Country: Colombia". International Foundation for Electoral Systems. http://www.electionguide.org/election.php?ID=1011. Retrieved 2010-06-03.
- ^ "Presidential Candidate Performance:". International Foundation for Electoral Systems. http://www.electionguide.org/reports3.php?region=3&start_year=2001&submitted=1. Retrieved 2010-06-03.
Municipal mayorsJavier Tobar Ahumada (1910–1911) · Manuel María Mallarino (1911–1913) · Emilio Cuervo Márquez (1913–1914) · Andrés Marroquín Osorio (1914–1917) · Raimundo Rivas (1917) · Gerardo Arrubla (1917–1918) · Santiago de Castro (1918–1920) · Tadeo de Castro (1920) · Cenón Escobar (1920) · Ernesto Sánz de Santamaría (1920–1925) · Leonidas Ojeda (1925) · José Posada Tavera (1925–1926) · José María Piedrahita (1926–1929) · Luis Borrero Mercado (1929) · Luis Augusto Cuervo (1929) · Alfonso Robledo (1929) · Hernando Carrizosa (1929–1930) · Luis Carlos Páez (1930) · Enrique Vargas Nariño (1930–1931) · Francisco Umaña Bernal (1931) · Enrique Vargas Nariño (1931) · Luis Patiño Galvis (November 1931 – December 1933) · Alfonso Esguerra (December 1933 – March 1934) · Julio Pardo Dávila (March 1934 – January 1935) · Diego Montaña Cuéllar (January 1935 – February 1935) · Jorge Merchán (February 1935 – October 1935) · Carlos Arango Vélez (October 1935 – March 1936) · Francisco José Arévalo (March 1936 – June 1936) · Jorge Eliécer Gaitán Ayala (June 1936 – March 1937) · Gonzalo Restrepo (March 1937 – May 1937) · Manuel Rueda Vargas (May 1937 – March 1938) · Gustavo Santos (Narch 1938 – October 1938) · Germán Zea Hernández (October 1938 – April 1941) · Julio Pardo Dávila (May 1941 – August 1942) · Carlos Sanz de Santamaría (August 1942 – March 1944) · Jorge Soto del Corral (March 1944 – November 1944) · Gabriel Paredes (November 1944 – january 1945) · Juan Pablo Llinás (January 1945 – June 1945) · Ramón Muñoz Toledo (June 1945 – September 1946) · Juan Salgar Martín (October 1946 – March 1947) · Francisco José Arévalo (April 1947 – March 1948) · Fernando Mazuera Villegas (April 1948 – October 1948) · Carlos Reyes Posada (October 1948 – December 1948) · Fernando Mazuera Villegas (December 1948 – May 1949) · Carlos Reyes Posada (May 1949 – June 1949) · Gregorio Obregón (June 1949 – September 1949) · Marco Tulio Amaya (September 1949 – October 1949) · Santiago Trujillo (October 1949 – July 1952) · Manuel Briceño (July 1952 – June 1953) · José Rodríguez Mantilla (June 1953 – July 1953) · Col. Julio Cervantes (July 1953 – September 1954) Mayors of the Special DistrictRoberto Salazar Gómez (1954–1955) · Andrés Rodríguez Gómez (1955–1957) · Fernando Mazuera Villegas (1957–1958) · Juan Pablo Llinás (1958–1961) · Jorge Gaitán Cortés (1961–1966) · Virgilio Barco Vargas (1966–1969) · Emilio Urrea Delgado (1969–1970) · Carlos Albán Holguín (1970–1973) · Aníbal Fernández de Soto (1973–1974) · Alfonso Palacio Rudas (1974–1975) · Luis Prieto Ocampo (1975–1976) · Bernardo Gaitán Mahecha (1976–1978) · Hernando Durán Dussán (1978–1982) · Augusto Ramírez Ocampo (1982–1984) · Hisnardo Ardila (1984–1985) · Diego Pardo Koppel (1985–1986) · Julio César Sánchez (1986–1988) · Andrés Pastrana Arango (1988–1990) · Juan Martín Caicedo Ferrer (1990–1991) Principal Mayors of the
Capital District of Santa Fe de BogotáJuan Martín Caycedo Ferrer (1991–1992) · Sonia Durán de Infante (ad-hoc) (1992–1992) · Jaime Castro Castro (1992–1994) · Antanas Mockus Sivickas (1995–1996) · Paul Bromberg Silverstein (1996–1997)
Principal Mayors of the
Capital District of Bogotá
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