Voiceless uvular fricative


Voiceless uvular fricative

The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is IPA|χ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is X.

It is not to be confused with the voiceless velar fricative (IPA IPA|x, X-SAMPA x.)

Features

Features of the voiceless uvular fricative:

* Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
* Its place of articulation is uvular which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) against or near the uvula.
* Its phonation type is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords.
* It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth.
* It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by allowing the airstream to flow over the middle of the tongue, rather than the sides.
* The airstream mechanism is pulmonic egressive, which means it is articulated by pushing air out of the lungs and through the vocal tract, rather than from the glottis or the mouth.

Occurrence

ee also

* List of phonetics topics

References

Bibliography

* cite journal
last=Hess
first=Wolfgang
year=2001
chapter= [http://www.oefai.at/~hannes/esslli03/hess_signalproc_kap3.pdf Funktionale Phonetik und Phonologie]
title=Grundlagen der Phonetik
place=Bonn
publisher=Institut für Kommunikationsforschung und Phonetik, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität

*Harvard reference
last = Watson
first= Janet
year= 2002
title= The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic
place=New York
publisher= Oxford University Press


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