Voiced velar fricative


Voiced velar fricative

The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is IPA|ɣ (a variant of the Greek letter γ, gamma, which is used for this sound in Modern Greek), not to be confused with IPA|ɤ, the IPA symbol for a close-mid back unrounded vowel), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is G. The symbol IPA|ɣ is also sometimes used to represent the velar approximant, though that is more accurately written with the lowering diacritic: IPA|ɣ̞ or IPA|ɣ˕.

Features

Features of the voiced velar fricative:

* Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
* Its place of articulation is velar which means it is articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the velum).
* Its phonation type is voiced, which means the vocal cords are vibrating during the articulation.
* It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth.
* It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by allowing the airstream to flow over the middle of the tongue, rather than the sides.
* The airstream mechanism is pulmonic egressive, which means it is articulated by pushing air out of the lungs and through the vocal tract, rather than from the glottis or the mouth.

Occurrence

ee also

* List of phonetics topics

References

Bibliography

* Harvard reference
last=Barbosa
first=Plínio A.
year= 2004
title=Brazilian Portuguese
journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association
volume=34
issue=2
pages=227-232

* Harvard reference
last=Cruz-Ferreira
first=Madalena
year= 1995
title=European Portuguese
journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association
volume=25
issue=2
pages=90-94

* Harvard reference
last=Mateus
first=Maria Helena
last2=d'Andrade
first2=Ernesto
year= 2000
title=The Phonology of Portuguese
publisher=Oxford University Press
ISBN=0-19-823581-X

*Harvard reference
last = Okada
first = Hideo
year= 1991
title=Japanese
journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association
volume=21
issue=2
pages=94-97

*Harvard reference
last = Shosted
first = Ryan K.
last2 = Vakhtang
first2 = Chikovani
year= 2006
title=Standard Georgian
journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association
volume=36
issue=2
pages=255-264

*Harvard reference
last = Wheeler
first= Max W
year= 2005
title= The Phonology Of Catalan
place= Oxford
publisher= Oxford University Press
isbn= 0199258147


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