— City —
Coordinates: Country Jordan Governorate Capital Governorate Founded 7000 BC Municipality 1909 Government – Mayor Omar Maani Area – City 1,680 km2 (648.7 sq mi) Elevation 777–1,400 m (2,564 ft) Population (2010) – Urban 1,919,000 – Metro 2,125,000 Time zone GMT +2 – Summer (DST) +3 (UTC) Area code(s) +962(6) Website http://www.ammancity.gov.jo/en/gam/index.asp
Amman (Arabic: عمان //; ʿAmmān) is the capital and largest city of Jordan. It is the country's political, cultural and commercial centre and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The Greater Amman area has a population of 2,842,629 as of 2010. The population of Amman is expected to jump from 2.8 million to almost 6.5 million by 2025 due to constant and rapid immigration. The recent economic growth experienced in Amman is unmatched by any other Arab city except those located in the Gulf. Amman is also the administrative seat of the homonymous governorate. Amman is also ranked a Gamma global city on the World city index.
Amman was named one of the MENA's best cities according to economic, labour, environmental, and socio-cultural factors. It is a major tourist destination in the region and the capital is especially popular among Gulf tourists. Amman is considered one of the richest and most Western-oriented cities in the Middle East.
During its long history, Amman has been inhabited by several civilizations. The first civilization on record is during the Neolithic period, around 10050 BC, when archaeological discoveries in 'Ain Ghazal, located in eastern Amman, showed evidence of not only a settled life but also the growth of artistic work, which suggests that a well-developed civilization inhabited the city at that time. In the 13th century BC Amman was called Rabbath Ammon or Rabat Amon by the Ammonites. In the Hebrew Bible, it is referred to as Rabbat ʿAmmon (Tiberian Hebrew Rabbaṯ ʿAmmôn). It was later conquered by the Assyrians, followed by the Persians, and then the Macedonians. Ptolemy II Philadelphus, the Macedonian ruler of Egypt, renamed it Philadelphia. The city became part of the Nabataean kingdom until 106 AD when Philadelphia came under Roman control and joined the Decapolis.
Philadelphia became the seat of a bishopric during the beginning of the Byzantine era. One of the churches of this period can be seen on the city's Citadel. Philadelphia was renamed Amman during the Ghassanian era, and flourished under the Caliphates (with nearby capital) of the Umayyads (in Damascus) and the Abbasids (in Baghdad).
It was then destroyed by several earthquakes and natural disasters and remained a small village and a pile of ruins until the Circassians settlement in 1887. The tide changed when the Ottoman Sultan decided to build the Hejaz railway, linking Damascus and Medina, facilitating both the annual hajj pilgrimage and permanent trade, putting Amman, a major station, back on the commercial map.
In 1921, Abdullah I chose Amman instead of As-Salt as seat of government for his newly created state, the Emirate of Transjordan, and later as the capital of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. As there was no palatial building, he started his reign from the station, with his office in a train car. Amman remained a small city until 1949,and 1963, when the population expanded considerably due to an influx of Palestinian refugees from what is now Occupied Territories. Amman has experienced exceptionally rapid development since 2010 under the leadership of two Hashemite Kings, Hussein of Jordan and Abdullah II of Jordan.
In 1970, Amman was the site of major clashes between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the Jordanian army. Everything around the Royal Palace sustained heavy damage from shelling. The city's population continues to expand at a dizzying pace (fueled by refugees escaping the wartime events in the West Bank and Iraq). The city received refugees from these countries on a number of occasions. The first wave of Palestinian refugees arrived from Palestine in 1948.
A second wave arrived after the Six-Day War in 1967. A third wave of Palestinian and Jordanian and Southeast Asians, working as domestic workers, refugees arrived in Amman from Kuwait after the Gulf War of 1991. The first wave of Iraqi refugees settled in the city after the first Gulf War, with a second wave also arriving after the 2003 invasion of Iraq. During the last 10 years the number of new buildings within the city has increased dramatically with new districts of the city being founded at a very rapid pace (particularly so in West Amman), straining the very scarce water supplies of Jordan as a whole, and exposing Amman to the hazards of rapid expansion in the absence of careful municipal planning.
On November 9, 2005, coordinated explosions rocked three hotels in Amman, resulting in the death of 60 people and the injury of 115 others. Al-Qaeda claimed responsibility for the act, which was carried out despite the fact that the birthplace of since-killed Al Qaeda terrorist leader Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, is the town of Zarqa, less than 30 km (19 mi) from Amman. The sheer brutality of the attacks, which targeted, among other things, a wedding party being held at one of the hotels, caused widespread revulsion across the widest range of Jordanians. Large protests and vigils followed in the wake of the attacks.
Amman is situated on hilly area of north-western Jordan. The city was originally built on seven hills, but it now spans over an area of nineteen hills (each known as a Jabal, Tál, Mount or Mountain). The main areas of Amman gain their names from the hills and mountains on whose slopes they lie. The city's elevation changes from mountain to mountain. They range from 740 to 1400 m (2035–3610 feet).
Amman has a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk) with long, hot and dry summers and wet and cool winters with a mediterranean (dry-summer) rainfall pattern. It also has an influence of the continental climate because of its inland location and highland climate because of its high elevation. Amman's location and altitude has a profound effect on its climate. Spring is brief, mild and lasts a little less than a month, from April to May, with rain during the morning and the afternoons. High temperatures are around 14 °C (57 °F) and lows are a little less than 7 °C (45 °F) and several times going near 0 °C (32 °F) causing several freezes. Snow is known to fall on the city during the spring, sometimes with severe storms happening during the season.
Amman has moderate summers starting from mid June to mid September. Summer's high temperatures range from 25 °C (77 °F) to 30 °C (86 °F), usually with low humidity and frequent cool breezes. Most summers are rain-free with cloudless skies during the noon period and a brief shower or fog during the night-time. The summer's pleasant temperatures can be disturbed by heatwaves that suddenly raise the city's temperatures to around 35 °C (95 °F) and in some rare but recorded cases to as high as 41 °C (106 °F) such as during the summer of 1999. A much more common weather inconvenience is the sudden drop in temperatures, which occurs during many summer nights accompanied by moderate winds and in many cases fog. It should also be noted that throughout most of the summer, haze and smog are evident.
Autumn is usually mild and lasts from September to late November or mid-December. Autumn acts as a transition semester combining with either summer or winter, usually with both; it can range from being very rainy and even snowy, to arid dry. In either cases, autumn has pleasant temperatures that are between 10 °C (50 °F) and 20 °C (68 °F), 25 °C (77 °F) being the max.
Winter usually starts in late November or early December and continues to late April. Temperatures are usually near or below 0 °C (32 °F), with snow usually falling a few times each year. Due to its high altitude above sea level, winter in Amman is usually one of the coldest in any major city in the Levant or south-east of Europe and the surrounding countries; winters are usually foggy with at least 120 days of heavy fog per year, they are also quite rainy with many rain storms occurring during the season, a few of them accompanied by moderate to severe lightning storms – after a rainy afternoon with temperatures around 4 °C (39 °F) the night temperatures fall below 0 °C (32 °F) freezing any rainwater that had accumulated.
Sleet is very common, and dew in the dry winter mornings is usually found frozen until 10 am. Snowy winter storms occur several times around the city. Due to the difference in elevation, snow may accumulate in the western parts of Amman (an average altitude of 1200 m above sea level) when at the same time it would be raining in the city centre (776 metre elevation). On average at least one severe snow storm every couple of years will accumulate up to 15 or 20 inches of snow (40 to 50 centimetres) in any given place.
Climate data for Amman Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °C (°F) 12.3
Average low °C (°F) 3.6
Precipitation mm (inches) 63.4
Avg. precipitation days 7 7 5 3 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 5 32 Sunshine hours 179.8 182.0 226.3 266.6 328.6 369.0 387.5 365.8 312.0 275.9 225.0 179.8 3,298.3 Source no. 1: World Meteorological Organization Source no. 2: HKO
District Name 1 Âbdali 2 Abu Nsér 3 Um-Ožayna 4 Qwésmé, Jwaydé, Abu Âlanda and Raqim 5 Yarmuk 6 Jizah 7 Müwaqar 8 Mqabalayen 9 Bader 10 New Bader (Bader è Jadida) 11 Basmān 12 Hüsbān 13 Jbeyha 14 Xraybet è Suq 15 Marj ıl Hamām 16 Mārka 17 Médina 18 Nawur (Naûr) 19 Ohod 20 Rās ıl Êyn 21 Sahāb 22 Şafa Badran 23 Swéyleh 24 Tariq 25 Tlaâ’l Âli 26 Valley of Orchards (Vādi'l Sér) 27 Zahrān
The city's largest airport, Queen Alia International Airport, situated about 30 km (18.64 mi) south of Amman, is the major international airport in Jordan and the hub for Royal Jordanian, the flag carrier. The airport has three terminals, two passenger and one cargo, and in 2010 handled between 5.8 million passengers despite the airport's capacity to only handle 3.5 million visitors. The airport is undergoing expansion, including a new terminal costing $700M, that will allow the airport to handle over 12 million passengers. Marka International Airport is a one-terminal airport that serves primarily domestic and nearby international routes and the military.
The recently constructed Abdoun Bridge spans Wadi Abdoun, and connects the 4th Circle to Âbdoun Circle. It is considered one of Amman's many landmarks. It is the first curved suspended bridge to be built.
Currently under construction are dedicated lanes for bus services which will operate as part of the new urban rapid transit network. The Bus Rapid Transit project is expected to be completed by 2012. The BRT service entails premium, high-capacity buses running on exclusive and completely segregated lanes that can carry more than 120 passengers and run on a three-minute frequency during peak hours along Amman’s busiest corridors. The system includes high-quality stations and stops; express buses that can carry more than 120 passengers and will run on a three-minute frequency during peak hours along Amman’s busiest corridors; terminals and park-n-ride facilities, and an integrated fare collection system allowing passengers to pay the fare at stations before embarking on the bus. The BRT is planned to run along three major corridors. The first corridor connects Sweileh with Mahatta via Sport City with major service to the University of Jordan. The second corridor connects Sport City with downtown at Ras El-Ain. The third corridor connects Customs Square with Mahatta.
There are also plans to construct a three-line metro system in Amman. The first phase consists of two lines, the red and green lines, connecting East, Central, and West Amman with an interchange station (linking the two lines) at Amman Plaza with connections to the Northern and Southern suburbs. The second phase consists of the yellow line, connecting North and South Amman with an interchange to the red and green lines at the Abdali and City Hall stations. The project would cost more than half a billion dollars.
Amman will be connected by the Kingdom's national rail project that will link Amman with the rest of the Kingdom and the region. It should be completed by 2013.
Amman has an extensive highway system that links every part of the city to one another. Its highways also link nearby cities such as Zarqa and Madaba. The Amman–Zarqa highway becomes very congested with commuters at rush hour which is why a new commuter rail line is being constructed. Amman also has an extensive bus system. There are pedestrian tunnels that bring pedestrians from one side of a highway to another.
There are eight circles, or roundabouts, that span and connect West Amman. However, the city lacks an operable rail or metro system which causes severe congestion, especially in old Amman. To add to the congestion, all the Kingdom's highways pass through Amman, further increasing traffic in the capital.
By land, the city has frequent bus connections to other cities in Jordan, as well as to major cities in neighboring countries; the latter are also served by service taxis. Internal transport is served by a number of bus routes and taxis. Service taxis, which most often operate on fixed routes, are readily available and inexpensive. The two main bus and taxi stations are Abdali (near the King Abdullah Mosque, the Parliament and Palace of Justice) and the newly built Rağadan Central Bus Station (near the Roman Amphitheatre in downtown). The city can suffer from considerable traffic congestion at peak hours, especially during the summer months when affluent holidaymakers from the Persian Gulf region spend the summer in Amman to take advantage of its comparatively mild weather.
Amman is a regional hub in communications, transportation, medical tourism, education, and investment. Amman is aggressively positioning itself as a hub for business, and new projects are continually transforming the city's skyline. Following the 2003 Iraq War, all business dealings with Iraq flow through Amman in some way. Its airport, Queen Alia International Airport, is the hub of the national carrier, Royal Jordanian, which is a major airline in the region. The airline is headquartered in central Amman. Amman is a major tourist gateway in the country because most of the country's foreign tourists arrive in Jordan through Amman. Amman is currently experiencing rapid growth in many different areas, with large growth seen in the real estate, construction, banking, finance and business sectors. Numerous skyscrapers are under construction as the city municipality recently lifted the ban of buildings taller than 4 stories and allocated designated areas for high rises.
Amman is already being called the business capital of the Levant. Construction projects like the Abdali Urban Regeneration Project, the Jordan Gate Towers and TAJ Mall will just solidify Amman's claim to this title. With Jordan becoming known as the gateway to Iraq and the Palestinian territories and for its free trade policies, Amman has the potential to monopolize business and trade in the Levant.
The Greater Amman Municipality's heavy investment in its infrastructure, such as the expansion of Queen Alia International Airport, the construction of a state of the art public transportation system, a national railway, and expansion of road works, will ease the arrival of millions of new visitors and tonnes of cargo through this soon to be regional hub. Amman's increasing importance to the reconstruction of Iraq and the developing economy of the Palestinian territories make these investments unavoidable.
Amman has both a modern and historic touch. East Amman is the older part of the capital where single family dwellings on the hill side and small shops and bazaars in the wadis, or valleys, dominate East Amman's layout. Old Amman is filled with souks, or bazaars, small shops, and single family dwellings all.
Several industrial cities are being developed near Amman, most important being Mushatta.
West Amman, however, is less densely populated and more scenic. It is also the more prosperous part of Amman, with much of the city's economic activity being centered in West Amman. Most of the city's 5-star and 4-star hotels are located in West Amman. Important districts include Shmeisani and Abdali, the main economic centres of Amman, Abdoun, the up-scale residential district, and Jabal Amman, one of Amman's historic districts. A large contrast exists between the more affluent districts of West Amman and the lower class districts of East Amman.
Amman has a very large expatriate population, finding itself a haven for refugees seeking political asylum. Iraqis, Palestinians, Lebanese, and Armenians are among the many different expatriate populations currently residing in Amman. most guest workers are Egyptians, Syrians, and South East Asians. Many Westerners currently reside in Amman as many international organizations and diplomatic missions have regional offices in Amman.
New projects and proposals in and around the city include:
- TAJ Mall is envisioned to primarily be an up-scale retail and lifestyle development consisting of a multi purpose facility.
- The Abdali Downtown project: this new development in the heart of Amman is among the largest projects under construction in the kingdom, and is a mixed-use development consisting of retail, outdoor shopping and restaurants, residential and office buildings. The master plan includes a large public green park, along with an outdoor pedestrian strip. The $5 billion project will contain some of Jordan's tallest buildings and most prominent real estate. Jordan's largest skyscraper Capital Tower, Rotana Hotel-Amman, W Hotel-Amman, Business Heights, and the Abdali Central Market Place, Jordan's soon to be largest mall and shopping center, are located in this mammoth redevelopment. The first phase of the project is expected to be completed by the end of 2011 or early 2012. The entire project should be completed by 2015.
- The construction of the Jordan Gate Towers near the 6th Circle, which is nearly completed, is being funded by Bahraini and Kuwaiti entrepreneurs. The two identical skyscrapers will house office buildings and a five star hotel.
- Amman Financial Tower, consisting of around 60 floors, is under construction.
- Betina City consists of 3 central skyscrapers, a mega-mall, a suspended river, and 3 additional towers.
- Sanaya Amman, two identical 65 floor buildings connected by a pedestrian walkway that will house the world's highest swimming pool. This residential twin tower project is being built in Abdoun by Limitless.
- The Abdoun suspended bridge, which spans Wadi Abdoun. This recently completed project reduces congestion in Wadi Abdoun and creates a new highway link between West and South Amman..
- The St. Regis Amman in the Abdoun area worth about $300 million which will be completed in 2014.
- Multi-billion dollar Wadi Amman Regeneration Project. This project will completely revamp the old downtown and restore it to its previous prominence. It will also revitalise the entire area by attracting affluent Ammanis to settle and shop here.
- Al Andalucia, being constructed near Amman. This project will include over 600 villas, and consists of many facilities such as spas, fitness and health centres, swimming pools, and a recreation area which should be completed by 2011.
- A proposed Amman World Trade Centre, which will consist of 33 floors.
- Ähl Al Âzm, a $1 billion city near Queen Alia International Airport, will be built in several phases with a total of about 16,000 residential units and 800 offices. The city will be connected by rail to Amman. The residential city will mostly be inhabited by low and middle income families.
- A massive new Royal Jordanian headquarters.
East Amman is the historic city centre. Eastern Amman is more traditional and older than the newer West. Small shops and single family houses are dominant in East Amman's landscape. East Amman is the hub for the capital's historic sites and cultural activities.
West Amman is the current economic city centre, and is the modern, stylish extension of Amman. Malls, shopping centres, expensive hotels, bars and international restaurants are part of West Amman's development.
- Balqa Applied University - Polytechnic Faculty of Engineering Technology
- Balqa Applied University - Amman University College for Economic and Banking Sciences
- Amman Arab University
- Applied Science Private University
- Middle East University
- Arab Open University
- Arab Academy for Banking & Financial Sciences, Amman
- Al-Isra University
- Columbia University: Amman Center
- DePaul University: Amman Center
- German-Jordanian University
- Jordan Academy of Music
- New York Institute of Technology, Jordan
- Institute of Banking Studies: Amman Branch
- Princess Sumaya University for Technology
- Petra University
- Queen Noor Civil Aviation Technical College
- Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan
- Al Quds College
- Jordan Academy for Maritime Studies
Due to its stability and openness, Jordan—especially Amman—is home to many different artists, writers, and musicians, many of whom are expatriates from troubled areas like Iraq or the Palestinian territories. Amman is home to many diverse religious sects making up the two primary religions of Jordan, Islam and Christianity. Numerous mosques and churches dot the capital. The most famous mosque of Amman is the King Abduallah I Mosque which can house almost 3,000 people.
Numerous cultural centers can be found throughout Amman, most notably the Al Hussein Cultural Centre which contains over 30,000 books. Numerous IT and library centres can be found throughout the city.
Amman-based football clubs Al-Wahdat and Al-Faisaly have won the national league championship several times.
Amman hosts the Jordan Rally, which form part of the FIA World Rally Championship, becoming the biggest sporting event held in Jordan ever. Amman also hosts the Sama Tournament which is a part of the Trillium Championship.
Most Jordanian newspapers and news stations are situated in Amman. Most Jordanian daily newspapers are published in Amman such as Alghad, Alrai, Ad-Dustour, and the The Jordan Times. In 2010, Alghad newspaper was ranked as 10th most popular newspaper in the Arab World by Forbes Middle-East magazine. Al-Arab Al-Yawm is the only daily pan-Arab newspaper in Jordan. Amman is also a popular entry point for journalists entering the region to broadcast breaking news from volatile nations like Iraq and the Palestinian territories.
The Jordan Media City, established in 2001, is the first of its kind in the region and plans to make Jordan the regional hub of communications. It now transmits over 120 channels and still grows. Most channels are not Jordanian based, and the government still possess restrictions on Jordanian based channels which makes it hard to open new Jordanian television channels. Although not as popular as Beirut or Cairo, many Jordanian singers work out of Amman.
Much of Amman's tourism is focused in the older downtown area, which is centered around the old souk (a colorful traditional market) and the King Hussein Mosque. The main touristic sites in the city are:
- The downtown area (known locally as al-Balad) has been completely dwarfed by the sprawling urban area that surrounds it. Despite the changes, much remains of its old character. Jabal Amman is a known touristic attraction in old Amman, the capital's greatest souks, fine museums, ancient constructions, monuments, and cultural sites are found in Jabal Amman.
- The Citadel hill of Amman, known as Jabal al-Qal'a, is home to the Temple of Hercules which is said to have been constructed under the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius who reigned from 161 to 180 AD, is similar to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus. It has been inhabited for centuries, important as a military and religious site. It dates back to Roman and Byzantine times, and later work was carried out in the early Islamic era. Remains unearthed at the northern and eastern ends of the Citadel, possibly date back to the Bronze Age.
- The Roman forum and the Roman theatre — the largest theatre in Jordan — with room for 6,000 spectators. Thought to have been built between 138 and 161 AD by the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, it is constructed into the side of the mountain and is still used for sports displays and cultural events.
The Jordan Archaeological Museum is home to ancient findings from the whole country.
Amman is also home to some of the grandest mosques in the Middle East, although they compare less favorably to the ones to be found in Istanbul, Turkey. The newest of these is the enormous King Abdullah I Mosque, built between 1982 and 1989. It is capped by a magnificent blue mosaic dome beneath which 3,000 Muslims may offer prayer. The most unusual mosque in Amman is the Abu Darweesh Mosque atop Jabal Ashrafieh (the highest point in the city). It is covered with black and white checkered pattern and is unique to Jordan. It is visible from quite some distance. In contrast, the interior is totally free of the black and white scheme. Instead, there are light colored walls and Persian carpets. This religious building was erected by one of Amman's Circassians minority.
Tourism and lifestyle
Amman is considered to be one of the most "westernized" and cosmopolitan cities in the Arab World. Amman has become one of the most popular destinations for "Western" expats and college students who seek to live, study, or work in the Middle East or the Arab World in general. The city's culinary scene has expanded from its shwarma stands and falafel joints to embrace many popular American restaurants and fast-food outlets like McDonald's and T.G.I. Friday's, swank Asian fusion restaurants, French bistros such as La Maison Verte and Italian trattorias. The city has become famous for its cosmopolitan fine dining scene among Western expats and Persian Gulf tourists.
There are numerous nightclubs and bars across the city especially in West Amman. Modesty in dress for men and women is greatly relaxed and low-cut shirts, tank tops and short skirts are becoming commonplace. Abdoun Circle (not one of the eight) is a major center of the city’s night life where the chicest clubs maintain a strict “couples only” policy, meaning no unescorted men. Sweifieh is considered to be the unofficial red-light district of Amman as it holds most of the city's nightclubs, bars, strip-clubs, massage parlors, and other adult entertainment venues. The night-life scene is known to evolve so quickly that hot spots open and close almost before they can be published in magazines and tourist guide books.
Discothèques, music bars and shisha lounges have sprouted across Amman, changing the city's old image as the conservative capital of the kingdom. Jordan's young population is helping shape this new burgeoning nightlife scene. Amman has developed one of the Middle East's very few homosexual partying scenes that is mostly concentrated around liberal, affluent hangouts like Books@Cafe and Club Fame. The city is also infamously known to hold a significant population of Eastern European and East Asian female migrant workers that serve in the city's nightclub, bar, and restaurant industry.However, they are believed to form a significant part of the city's underground sex industry that has mushroomed in the past few years due to the War in Iraq and the tourism boom.
As well as the wide range of drinking and dancing venues on the social circuit of the city's affluent crowd, Amman has much cultural entertainment to indulge in like the annual Amman Summer Festival and Souk Jara.
Valued at more than US $5 Billion, the Abdali project is planned to create a new visible center for Amman and act as the major business district. The entire project is expected to be finished by 2015.
Amman is a hub for Persian Gulf vacationers who come to take advantage of the mild weather and liberal atmosphere during the summer. The summer of 2009 brought 2.5 million Arab tourists to the Jordanian capital.
Large malls were built during the 2000s in Amman, including the Mecca Mall, Abdoun Mall, Amman Mall, City Mall, Plaza Mall, Al Baraka Mall, Istikal Mall, Zara Shopping Center, Sweifieh Avenue Mall, and Mukhtar Mall. Furthermore, two new malls are currently under development: Taj Mall in the affluent neighbourhood Abdoun, and Abdali Mall in Al Abdali. The Wakalat Street (English: "Agencies Street") is Amman's first pedestrian-only street and carries a lot of label name clothes. The Sweifieh area in general is considered to be the main shopping district of Amman.
Twin towns — sister cities
- Pretoria, South Africa (2002)
- Tegucigalpa, Honduras (2002)
- Chicago, United States (2004)
- Genève, Switzerland (2005)
- Milan, Italy (2005)
- Calabria, Italy (2005)
- Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (2005)
- Moscow, Russia (2005)
- Central Governorate, Bahrain (2006)
- Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan (2006)
- San Francisco, United States (2010)
- Tokyo, Japan, starting 3 August 2011
- List of tallest buildings in Amman
- Disi Water Conveyance Project
- ^ http://www.dos.gov.jo/dos_home/dos_home_e/main/index.htm
- ^ a b http://www.trueknowledge.com/q/amman_population_in_2011
- ^ http://www.jo.jo/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1274:amman-city-in-2007-part-i&catid=55:society&Itemid=171
- ^ IANS/WAM (2010-11-26). "Abu Dhab duke City' in MENA region". sify news. http://sify.com/news/abu-dhabi-voted-best-city-in-mena-region-news-international-kl0wuhjcbdc.html.
- ^ http://www.bigfive.com/navigator-series/africa-middle-east/jordan.html
- ^ http://ammancity100.gov.jo/en/content/story-amman/end-ummayad-era-till-1878 Via GAM Official Website
- ^ Map
- ^ http://www.kinkaa.com/weather/Amman_Amman_Jordan.15670.html
- ^ Greater Amman Municipality Website[dead link]
- ^ http://www.albawaba.com/accelerating-passenger-growth-jordan%E2%80%99s-qaia-suggests-confidence-returning-386395
- ^ http://www.jordantimes.com/index.php?news=39192
- ^ http://english.business.jo/brt-project-on-track-gam/
- ^ http://www.ammanbrt.jo/maps.asp
- ^ "Royal Jordanian". oneworld. http://www.oneworld.com/ow/member-airlines/royal-jordanian. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
- ^ "Company Overview." Royal Jordanian. Retrieved on 30 May 2009.
- ^ "The Abdali Boulevard". Abdali-boulevard.jo. http://www.abdali-boulevard.jo/. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
- ^ http://www.jordantimes.com/?news=33330
- ^ University of Jordan
- ^ Philadelphia University
- ^ a b 
- ^ 
- ^ 
- ^ Alghad news of 27/Oct/2010 (in Arabic)
- ^ http://rt.com/news/media-jordan-breaking-taboos/
- ^ http://www.hyefinder.com/2011/04/12/amman-an-upcoming-career-destination/
- ^ a b Ferren, Andrew (2009-11-22). "A Newly Stylish Amman Asserts Itself". The New York Times. http://travel.nytimes.com/2009/11/22/travel/22next.html?pagewanted=1. Retrieved 2010-03-30.
- ^ "Jordan Guide – Rough Guides travel information". Roughguides.com. http://www.roughguides.com/website/travel/destination/content/default.aspx?titleid=87&xid=idh540853136_0151. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
- ^ http://www.france24.com/en/20100224-amman-bustles-with-nightlife-shedding-old-image
- ^ "Jordan Guide – Rough Guides travel information". Roughguides.com. http://www.roughguides.com/website/travel/destination/content/default.aspx?titleid=87&xid=idh340849616_0151. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
- ^ "Abdali". Abdali.jo. http://www.abdali.jo/overview.php. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
- ^ "Amman’s Relations with Other Cities". http://www.ammancity.gov.jo/english/relations/r12.asp.
- ^ "Sister Cities". Beijing Municipal Government. http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn/Sister_Cities/Sister_City/. Retrieved 2009-06-23.
- ^ Prefeitura.Sp - Decentralized Cooperation[dead link]
- ^ "International Relations – São Paulo City Hall – Official Sister Cities". Prefeitura.sp.gov.br. http://www.prefeitura.sp.gov.br/cidade/secretarias/relacoes_internacionais/cidadesirmas/index.php?p=1066. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
- ^ "Milano - Città Gemellate". © 2008 Municipality of Milan (Comune di Milano). http://www.comune.milano.it/portale/wps/portal/CDM?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/wps/wcm/connect/ContentLibrary/In%20Comune/In%20Comune/Citt%20Gemellate. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- ^ "Sarajevo Official Web Site: Sister cities". Sarajevo.ba. http://www.sarajevo.ba/en/stream.php?kat=160. Retrieved 2009-05-06.
- Amman travel guide from Wikitravel
- WikiTravel WikiTravel – Petra
- Website for Amman's centennial celebrations telling the modern history of the city
Towns and villages`Abdun, Abu `Alandah · Adh Dhuhaybah · Al `Al · Al `Amiriyah · Al Bahhath · Al Bassah · Al Bunayyat al Janubiyah · Al Bunayyat ash Shamaliyah · Al Hawwasiyah · Al Hummar · Al Jizah · Al Jubayhah · Al Jumayyil · Al Juwayyidah · Al Lubban · Al Mabrak · Al Mahattah · Al Manakhir · Al Muqabalayn · Al Mushaqqar · Al Mushayrifah · Al Mushayrifah · Al Muwaqqar · Al Qartu`iyah · Al Qastal · Al Qunaytirah · Al Quwaysimah · Al Yadudah · `Ammuriya · An Nuwayjis · Ar Rabahiyah · Ar Rajib · Ar Riwaq · Ash Shufatah · Ash Shumaysani · As Samik · As Saqrah · At Tunayb · Barazin · Barzah · Barzah · Bayt Zir`ah · Biddin · Bilal · Dab`ah · Dhuhaybah · Hawwarah · Hisban · `Iraq al Amir · Jalul · Jawa · Juraynah · Khilda · Khirbat `Assaf · Khirbat Badran · Khirbat Khaww · Khirbat Siran · Khuraybat as Suq · Ma`in · Manja · Marka · Mukawir · Mulayh · Natl · Na`ur · Qasr al Hallabat · Qubur `Abd Allah · Qurayyat Falhah · Qurayyat Nafi` · Qurayyat Salim · Rujaym Salim · Rujm ash Shami · Rujm ash Shara'irah · Sahab · Shunat Ibn `Adwan · Sufah · Sumiya · Suwaylih · Tabarbawr · Tila` al `Ali · Umm al `Amad · Umm al Birak · Umm al Hanafish · Umm al Kundum · Umm al Qanafidh · Umm ar Rasas · Umm as Summaq · Umm Juraysat · Umm Nuwarah · Umm Qusayr · Umm Qusayr · Umm Rummanah · Umm Shujayrah al Gharbiyah · Umm Zuwaytinah · `Urjan al Gharbiyah · `Urjan ash Sharqiyah · `Uyun adh Dhi'b · Wadi as Sir · Yajuz · Zaba'ir `Udwan · Zuwayza Capitals of Arab countries Africa Asia Capitals of Asia West and Southwest Asia Central Asia East Asia
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE)
Ankara, Turkey 8
Baku, Azerbaijan 8
Episkopi, Akrotiri and Dhekelia 7
Jerusalem, proclaimed for both Israel and Palestine 6 7
Kabul, Afghanistan 1
Kuwait City, Kuwait
Nicosia, Cyprus 7
Ramallah, Palestine Temporary
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Tbilisi, Georgia 8
Yerevan, Armenia 7Southeast Asia
Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei
Dili, East Timor 13
Kuala Lumpur 4 and Putrajaya,5 Malaysia
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea 9
1 Often considered part of Central Asia. 2 Commonly known as Taiwan. 3 Full name is Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte.4 Formal. 5 Administrative. 6 See Positions on Jerusalem for details on Jerusalem's status. 7 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe. 8 Transcontinental country. 9 Entirely in Melanesia but having socio-political connections with Southeast Asia. 13 Classified as Melanesia according to some definitions.
- Cairo 1996 (Egypt)
- Tunis 1997 (Tunisia)
- Sharjah 1998 (United Arab Emirates)
- Beirut 1999 (Lebanon)
- Riyadh 2000 (Saudi Arabia)
- Kuwait 2001 (Kuwait)
- Amman 2002 (Jordan)
- Rabat 2003 (Morocco)
- San'a 2004 (Yemen)
- Khartoum 2005 (Sudan)
- Muscat 2006 (Oman)
- Algiers 2007 (Algeria)
- Damascus 2008 (Syria)
- Jerusalem 2009 (Jerusalem)
- Doha 2010 (Qatar)
- Sirte 2011 (Libya)
- Manama 2012 (Bahrain)
- Baghdad 2013 (Iraq)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.