Politics of Chad

Politics of Chad takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Chad is both head of state and head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament.

Executive branch

President
Idriss Déby
MPS
2 December 1990
-
Prime Minister
Youssouf Saleh Abbas|
16 April 2008A strong executive branch headed by President Idriss Déby dominates the Chadian political system. Following his military overthrow of Hissène Habré in December 1990, Déby won presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. The constitutional basis for the government is the 1996 constitution, under which the president was limited to two terms of office until Déby had that provision repealed in 2005. The president has the power to appoint the prime minister and the Council of State (or cabinet), and exercises considerable influence over appointments of judges, generals, provincial officials and heads of Chad’s parastatal firms. In cases of grave and immediate threat, the president, in consultation with the National Assembly President and Council of State, may declare a state of emergency. Most of the Déby's key advisors are members of the Zaghawa clan, although some southern and opposition personalities are represented in his government.

Legislative branch

According to the 1996 constitution, the National Assembly deputies are elected by universal suffrage for 4-year terms. Parliamentary elections are scheduled for spring 2002. The Assembly holds regular sessions twice a year, starting in March and October, and can hold special sessions as necessary and called by the prime minister. Deputies elect a president of the National Assembly every 2 years. Assembly deputies or members of the executive branch may introduce legislation; once passed by the Assembly, the president must take action to either sign or reject the law within 15 days. The National Assembly must approve the prime minister’s plan of government and may force the prime minister to resign through a majority vote of no-confidence. However, if the National Assembly rejects the executive branch’s program twice in one year, the president may disband the Assembly and call for new legislative elections. In practice, the president exercises considerable influence over the National Assembly through the MPS party structure.

Judicial branch

Despite the constitution’s guarantee of judicial independence from the executive branch, the president names most key judicial officials. The Supreme Court is made up of a chief justice, named by the president, and 15 councilors chosen by the president and National Assembly; appointments are for life. The Constitutional Council, with nine judges elected to 9-year terms, has the power to review all legislation, treaties and international agreements prior to their adoption. The constitution recognizes customary and traditional law in locales where it is recognized and to the extent it does not interfere with public order or constitutional guarantees of equality for all citizens.

Political parties and elections

International organization participation

ACCT,
ACP,
AfDB,
AU,
BDEAC,
CEMAC,
FAO,
FZ,
G-77,
IBRD,
ICAO,
ICCt,
ICFTU,
ICRM,
IDA,
IDB,
IFAD,
IFC,
IFRCS,
ILO,
IMF,
Interpol,
IOC,
ITU,
MIGA,
NAM,
OIC,
ONUB,
OPCW,
UN,
UNCTAD,
UNESCO,
UNIDO,
UNOCI,
UPU,
WCL,
WHO,
WIPO,
WMO,
WToO,
WTrO


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