Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon

Theatrical release poster
Traditional 臥虎藏龍
Simplified 卧虎藏龙
Mandarin Wòhǔ Cánglóng
Cantonese Ngo6fu2 Cong4lung4
Directed by Ang Lee
Produced by Hsu Li-Kong
William Kong
Ang Lee
Screenplay by Wang Hui-Ling
James Schamus
Tsai Kuo-Jung
Story by Wang Dulu
Starring Chow Yun-Fat
Michelle Yeoh
Zhang Ziyi
Chang Chen
Music by Tan Dun
Cinematography Peter Pau
Editing by Tim Squyres
Distributed by EDKO Film (HK)
Sony Pictures Classics
Release date(s) July 6, 2000 (2000-07-06) (HK[1])
July 7, 2000 (2000-07-07) (Taiwan)
December 22, 2000 (2000-12-22) (US)
Running time 120 minutes
Country Taiwan
Hong Kong
United States
China
Language Mandarin
Budget US$15 million
Gross revenue US$213,525,736[2]
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
Traditional Chinese 臥虎藏龍
Simplified Chinese 卧虎藏龙

Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon is a 2000 wuxia film. An American-Chinese-Hong Kong-Taiwanese co-production, the film was directed by Ang Lee and featured an international cast of ethnic Chinese actors, including Chow Yun-Fat, Michelle Yeoh, Zhang Ziyi, and Chang Chen. The film was based on the fourth novel in a pentalogy, known in China as the Crane Iron Pentalogy, by wuxia novelist Wang Dulu. The martial arts and action sequences were choreographed by Yuen Wo Ping.

Made on a mere US$15 million budget, with dialogue in Mandarin, Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon became a surprise international success, grossing $213.5 million. It grossed US$128 million in the United States, becoming the highest-grossing foreign-language film in American history. It has won over 40 awards. The film won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film (Taiwan) and three other Academy Awards, and was nominated for six other Academy Awards, including Best Picture.[3] The film also won three BAFTAs and two Golden Globes, one for "Best Foreign Film" as well as additional nominations for ten BAFTAs including "Best Picture".

Contents

Plot

The film is set in the Qing Dynasty during the 43rd year (1779) of the reign of the Qianlong Emperor. Li Mu Bai is an accomplished Wudang swordsman. Long ago, his master was murdered by Jade Fox, a woman who sought to learn Wudang skills but was rejected due to her gender. Mu Bai is also a good friend of Yu Shu Lien, a female warrior. Mu Bai and Shu Lien have developed feelings for each other, but have never acknowledged or acted on them. Mu Bai, intending to give up his warrior life, asks Shu Lien to transport his sword, also referred to as the Green Destiny, to the city of Beijing, as a gift for their friend, Sir Te. At Sir Te's estate, Shu Lien meets Jen, the daughter of Governor Yu, a visiting Manchu aristocrat. Jen, destined for an arranged marriage and yearning for adventure, seems envious of Shu Lien's warrior lifestyle.

One evening, a masked thief sneaks into Sir Te's estate and steals the sword. Mu Bai and Shu Lien, with the assistance of Sir Te's servant Master Bo, trace the theft to Governor Yu's compound and learn that Jade Fox has been posing as Jen's governess for many years. Bo makes the acquaintance of Inspector Tsai, a police investigator from the provinces, and his daughter, May, who have come to Beijing in pursuit of Jade Fox. While the three are eating lunch, Jade Fox fires a dart with a written message attached to it, challenging them to a showdown that night. Following a protracted battle, the group is on the verge of defeat when Mu Bai arrives and outmaneuvers Jade Fox. Before Mu Bai can kill Jade Fox, the masked thief reappears and partners with Jade Fox to fight. Jade Fox resumes the fight and kills Tsai before fleeing with the thief (who is revealed to be Jade Fox's protegée, Jen). After seeing Jen fight Mu Bai, Jade Fox realizes Jen had been secretly studying the Wudang manual and has surpassed her in skill. After finding out that Tsai was a police officer, a guilt-ridden Jen returns the Green Destiny to Sir Te's estate but is intercepted by Mu Bai. Mu Bai easily defeats her and asks her to become his pupil. Jen angrily rebukes his offer and flees. When she returns home, Jen confronts Jade Fox and banishes her from the Governor's compound.

That night, a desert bandit named Lo breaks into Jen's bedroom and asks her to leave with him. A flashback reveals that in the past, when Governor Yu and his family were traveling in the western deserts, Lo and his bandits had raided Jen's caravan; Lo took an heirloom comb from Jen and she pursued him to get it back, but succumbed to exhaustion in the desert. Lo took her to his cave hideout, where after an escape attempt and Lo's kind hospitality, the two fall in love. Lo eventually convinced Jen to return to her family, though not before telling her a legend of a man who jumped off a cliff to make his wishes come true. Because the man's heart was pure, he did not die. Lo came to Beijing to persuade Jen not to go through with her arranged marriage. However, when Jen refuses to leave with him, he returns the stolen comb and leaves.

After the wedding, Jen runs away and steals the Green Destiny again. Mu Bai, Shu Lien, and Lo are ordered to find and retrieve Jen. Jen visits Shu Lien at one of her dojos, who tells her that Lo is waiting for her at Wudang Mountain. After an angry dispute, the two women engage in a duel. Wielding the Green Destiny, Jen gains the upper hand by destroying every weapon that Shu Lien uses. However, Shu Lien finally uses a broken two-handed straight sword, jian, to her advantage, surprising Jen by managing to press its broken but still sharp edge to her throat. However, rather than acknowledging her defeat and handing over the Green Destiny, Jen injures Shu Lien when she lowers her broken weapon. Mu Bai arrives and pursues Jen into a bamboo forest. A duel ensues where Mu Bai overcomes a challenge Jen sets before him (to determine whether she will be his pupil), regaining possession of the Green Destiny. But when Mu Bai succeeds and Jen continues to refuse, Mu Bai realizes that she is without honor, thus unworthy of becoming his pupil despite her skills and throws the sword over a waterfall. In pursuit, Jen dives into an adjoining river to retrieve the sword, and is then rescued by Fox. Fox puts Jen into a drugged sleep and places her in a cavern in which later Mu Bai, Shu Lien and Bo discover her. Fox suddenly reappears and attacks the others with poisoned darts. Mu Bai blocks the needles with his sword and avenges his master's death by mortally wounding Fox, only to realize that one of the darts managed to hit him in the neck. Fox dies, confessing that her goal had been to kill Jen, because she was furious that Jen hid the secrets of Wudang from her.

As Jen runs off to prepare the antidote for the poisoned dart, Mu Bai prepares to die. With his last breaths, he finally confesses his love for Shu Lien, and dies in her arms as Jen returns too late to save him. The Green Destiny is returned to Sir Te. Jen later goes to Wudang Mountain and spends one last night with Lo. The next morning, Lo finds Jen standing on a balcony overlooking the edge of the mountain. In an echo of the legend that they spoke about in the desert, she asks him to make a wish. He complies, wishing for them to be together, back in the desert. Jen then flies over the side of the mountain and into the clouds.

Themes and Interpretations

The title of the film is a Chinese proverb that refers to the hidden mysteries and qualities underneath a person.[4] This theme of character development is central to the story and moves the plot forward.

Gender roles

The theme of gender roles and obligations is an important aspect of the plot. In a storyline that begins prior to the timeline of the movie, Jade Fox is denied entry to the Wudan monastery because she is a woman. Intent on learning the secrets of Wudang fighting style, she poisons the master and steals a manual to learn Wudang on her own, which sets in motion the events of the film.

In Cinema Journal, Kenneth Chan notes the restrictions binding the female characters and their freedom and resulting actions. There is Jade Fox, whose bitterness against the limitations male-dominated society has set upon her resulted in her open revolt. Then there is Jen, the young woman at the verge of her wedding is still wavering, battling between her desire to be accepted and respected by her family and society and her wish to be free.[5] Finally, there is Shu-lien. Although she lives the life of a warrior, Shu-lien adheres strictly to the moral codes and traditions of the patriarchal society she lives in. She respects male privilege[6] and consistently suppresses her desire for Li Mubai due to certain societal obligations.[7]

Rong Cai of Duke University asserts that the sword, Green Destiny, is passed along men, and is with the exception of Jen used only by male figures making the sword a phallic symbol of masculinity and male authority.[8] Jen’s desire to use the sword, and her theft of it, thus also represents her wish to attain both the freedom and the power Li Mu-Bai possesses.[9] Jen's suicide at the end of the film signifies the hopelessness of her quest for freedom. She realizes that marriage would confine her, the freedom she attempted killed someone, and her love for Lo would require her to give up the personal freedom she always wanted.[10]

Poison

Poison is also a significant theme in this movie, both literally and figuratively. In the world of martial arts, poison is considered the act of one who is too cowardly and dishonorable to fight; and indeed, the only character that explicitly fits these characteristics is Jade Fox. The poison is a weapon of her bitterness[11] and quest for vengeance: she poisons the master of Wudang, attempts to poison Jen and succeeds in killing Mu Bai.

However, the poison is not only of the physical sort: Jade Fox’s tutelage of Jen has left Jen spiritually poisoned, which can be seen in the lying, stealing and betrayal Jen commits. Even though she is the one who initially trained Jen, Jen is never seen to use poison herself. This indicates that there is hope yet to reform her and integrate her into society. In further play on this theme by the director, Jade Fox, as she dies, refers to the poison from a young child,"the deceit of an eight year old girl", obviously referring to what she considers her own spiritual poisoning by her young apprentice Jen.

Title

The name "Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon" is a literal translation of the Chinese proverb "卧虎藏龙" which refers to the mysteries that lie below the surface of an otherwise normal-looking individual. Whereas the first part of the film takes place in society restrained by law and order, the second part, including the flashback scene, occurs in the world of individuals and thus the characters seen in the first part of the film are revealed in their true form.[4]

Cast

  • Chow Yun-Fat as Master Li Mu Bai
  • Michelle Yeoh as Yu Shu Lien
  • Zhang Ziyi as Jen Yu (English dubbed version) / Jiao Long (Mandarin version)
  • Chang Chen as Lo "Dark Cloud" / Luo Xiaohu
  • Cheng Pei-pei as Jade Fox
  • Sihung Lung as Sir Te
  • Li Fazeng as Governor Yu
  • Gao Xi'an as Bo
  • Hai Yan as Madam Yu
  • Wang Deming as Police inspector Tsai / Prefect Cai Qiu
  • Huang Suying as Aunt Wu
  • Yang Rui as Maid
  • Li Kai as Gou Jun Pei
  • Feng Jianhua as Gou Jun Sinung
  • Ma Zhongxuan as Mi Biao
  • Li Baocheng as Fung Machete Chang
  • Yang Yongde as Monk Jing
  • Zhang Shaocheng as Nightman

Production

Although its Academy Award was presented to Taiwan, Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon was in fact an international co-production between companies in four regions: the Chinese company China Film Co-Production Corporation; the American companies Columbia Pictures Film Production Asia, Sony Pictures Classics and Good Machine; the Hong Kong company EDKO Film; and the Taiwanese Zoom Hunt International Productions Company, Ltd; as well as the unspecified United China Vision, and Asia Union Film & Entertainment Ltd., created solely for this film.

The film was made in Beijing, with location shooting in the Anhui, Hebei, Jiangsu and Xinjiang provinces of China. The first phase of shooting was in the Gobi Desert where it would consistently rain. Director Ang Lee noted that "I didn't take one break in eight months, not even for half a day. I was miserable—I just didn't have the extra energy to be happy. Near the end, I could hardly breathe. I thought I was about to have a stroke."[12] The stunt work was mostly performed by the actors themselves and Ang Lee stated in an interview that computers were used "only to remove the safety wires that held the actors". "Most of the time you can see their faces," he added, "That's really them in the trees."[13]

Another compounding issue were the varying accents of the four lead actors: Chow Yun Fat is from Hong Kong and spoke Cantonese natively and Michelle Yeoh is from Malaysia and spoke English. Only Zhang Ziyi spoke with a native Mandarin accent that Ang Lee wanted.[12] Chow Yun Fat said that on "the first day [of shooting] I had to do 28 takes just because of the language. That's never happened before in my life."[12]

Because the film specifically targeted Western audiences rather than the domestic audiences who were already used to Wuxia films, English subtitles were needed. Ang Lee, who was educated in the West, personally edited the subtitles to ensure they were satisfactory for western audiences.[14]

Post-development

A Taiwanese television series based on the original novel was produced. It was later compiled into a DVD film titled New Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon in the West in 2004. The DVD film was over an hour and half longer than the original theatrical film.

Soundtrack

Marketing

Video game

The film was also adapted into a video game.

Novels

Originally written as a novel series by Wang Du Lu starting in the late 1930s, the film is adapted from the storyline of the fourth book in the series.

Comics

The film was also adapted into a comic series.

Reception

Critical response

Crouching Tiger was very well received in the Western world, receiving critical acclaim and numerous awards. The review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported that 97% of critics gave Crouching Tiger positive reviews, based on 143 reviews,[15] while Metacritic reported the film had an average score of 93 out of 100, based on 31 reviews.[16]

Some Chinese-speaking viewers were bothered by the accents of the leading actors. Neither Chow (a native Cantonese speaker) nor Yeoh (who was born and raised in Malaysia) speaks Mandarin as a mother tongue. All four main actors spoke with different accents: Chow speaks with a Cantonese accent;[17] Yeoh with a Malaysian accent; Chang Chen a Taiwanese accent; and Zhang Ziyi a Beijing accent. Yeoh responded to this complaint in a December 28, 2000, interview with Cinescape. She argued that "My character lived outside of Beijing, and so I didn't have to do the Beijing accent". When the interviewer, Craig Reid, remarked that "My mother-in-law has this strange Sichuan-Mandarin accent that's hard for me to understand", Yeoh responded: "Yes, provinces all have their very own strong accents. When we first started the movie, Cheng Pei Pei was going to have her accent, and Chang Zhen was going to have his accent, and this person would have that accent. And in the end nobody could understand what they were saying. Forget about us, even the crew from Beijing thought this was all weird".[18]

The film led to a boost in popularity of Chinese wuxia films in the western world, where they were previously little known, and led to films such as House of Flying Daggers and Hero marketed towards western audiences. The film also provided the breakthrough role for Zhang Ziyi's career, who noted that:

Because of movies like Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, and Hero and Memoirs of a Geisha, a lot of people in the United States have become interested not only in me but in Chinese and Asian actors in general. Because of these movies, maybe there will be more opportunities for Asian actors".

The film also ranks at No.497 on Empire magazine's 2008 list of the 500 greatest movies of all time.[19]

The character of Lo, or "Dark Cloud," the desert bandit, influenced the development of the protagonist of the Prince of Persia series of video games.[20]

Ranked No.66 in Empire magazine's "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema" in 2010.[21]

Accolades

Gathering widespread critical acclaim at the Toronto and New York film festivals, the film also became a favorite when Academy Awards nominations were announced in 2001. The film was however screened out of competition at the 2000 Cannes Film Festival.[22]

Award[23][24] Category Nominee Result
73rd Academy Awards[25] Best Foreign Language Film Won
Best Picture Nominated
Best Director Ang Lee Nominated
Best Adapted Screenplay Tsai Kuo-Jung, Wang Hui-Ling, James Schamus Nominated
Best Original Song Jorge Calandrelli, Tan Dun, James Schamus Nominated
Best Costume Design Tim Yip Nominated
Best Art Direction Tim Yip Won
Best Editing Tim Squyres Nominated
Best Original Score Tan Dun Won
Best Cinematography Peter Pau Won
2000 American Society of Cinematographers Awards Best Cinematography Peter Pau Nominated
54th British Academy Film Awards[26] Best Film Nominated
Best Foreign Language Film Won
Best Actress in a Leading Role Michelle Yeoh Nominated
Best Supporting Actress Zhang Ziyi Nominated
Best Cinematography Peter Pau Nominated
Best Makeup and Hair Nominated
Best Editing Tim Squyres Nominated
Best Costume Design Tim Yip Won
Best Director Ang Lee Won
Best Music Tan Dun Won
Best Adapted Screenplay Tsai Kuo-Jung, Wang Hui-Ling, James Schamus Nominated
Best Production Design Tim Yip Nominated
Best Sound Nominated
Best Visual Effects Nominated
Broadcast Film Critics Association Awards 2000[27] Best Foreign Film Won
Chicago Film Critics Association Awards 2000[28] Most Promising Actress Zhang Ziyi Won
Best Original Score Tan Dun Won
Best Cinematography Peter Pau Won
Best Foreign Film Won
2000 Directors Guild of America Awards[29] Best Director Ang Lee Won
58th Golden Globe Awards[30] Best Foreign Language Film Won
Best Director Ang Lee Won
Best Original Score Tan Dun Nominated
20th Hong Kong Film Awards[31] Best Film Won
Best Director Ang Lee Won
Best Screenplay Wang Hui-Ling, James Schamus, Tsai Kuo-Jung Nominated
Best Actor Chow Yun-Fat Nominated
Best Actress Zhang Ziyi Nominated
Best Actress Michelle Yeoh Nominated
Best Supporting Actor Chang Chen Nominated
Best Supporting Actress Cheng Pei-pei Won
Best Cinematography Peter Pau Won
Best Film Editing Tim Squyres Nominated
Best Art Direction Tim Yip Nominated
Best Costume Make Up Design Tim Yip Nominated
Best Action Choreography Yuen Wo Ping Won
Best Original Film Score Tan Dun Won
Best Original Film Song Tan Dun, Jorge Calandrelli, Yee Kar-Yeung, Coco Lee Won
Best Sound Design Eugene Gearty Won
Independent Spirit Awards 2000 Best Picture Won
Best Director Ang Lee Won
Best Supporting Actress Zhang Ziyi Won
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards 2000[32] Best Picture Won
Best Cinematography Peter Pau Won
Best Music Score Tan Dun Won
Best Production Design Tim Yip Won
2000 National Board of Review of Motion Pictures Awards[33] Best Foreign Language Film Won
Top Foreign Films Won
2000 New York Film Critics Circle Awards[34] Best Cinematography Peter Pau Won
Toronto Film Critics Association Awards 2000[35] Best Picture Won
Best Director Ang Lee Won
Best Actress Michelle Yeoh Won
Best Supporting Actress Zhang Ziyi Won
2000 Toronto International Film Festival People's Choice Award Ang Lee Won
Writers Guild of America Awards 2000[36] Best Adapted Screenplay Tsai Kuo-Jung, Wang Hui-Ling, James Schamus Nominated
37th Golden Horse Awards – 2000[37] Best Feature Film Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon Won
Best Director Ang Lee Nominated
Best Leading Actress Michelle Yeoh Nominated
Best Leading Actress Zhang Ziyi Nominated
Best Screenplay Adaption Tsai Kuo-Jung, Wang Hui-Ling, James Schamus Nominated
Best Cinematography Peter Pau Nominated
Best Film Editing Tim Squyres Won
Best Art Direction Tim Yip Nominated
Best Original Score Tan Dun Won
Best Sound Design Eugene Gearty Won
Best Action Choreography Yuen Wo Ping Won
Best Visual Effects Leo Lo, Rob Hodgson Won

References

  1. ^ Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon at the Hong Kong Movie DataBase
  2. ^ "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon". Box Office Mojo. http://boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=crouchingtigerhiddendragon.htm. Retrieved May 3, 2010. 
  3. ^ Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Box Office Mojo. Accessed December 30, 2006.
  4. ^ a b "Croching Tiger Hidden Dragon – Title Meaning". http://csc.ziyi.org/filmography/cthd/titlemeaning.html. Retrieved June 29, 2011. 
  5. ^ Kenneth Chan, “The Global Return of the Wu Xia Pian: Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon” in Cinema Journal, Vol. 43, No. 4., p. 9
  6. ^ Rong Cai, “Gender Imaginations in Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon,” positions vol. 13 no.2 (Fall 2005), p. 455
  7. ^ Rong Cai, “Gender Imaginations in Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon,” positions vol. 13 no.2 (Fall 2005), p. 455
  8. ^ Rong Cai, “Gender Imaginations in Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon,” positions vol. 13 no.2 (Fall 2005), p. 450
  9. ^ Kenneth Chan, “The Global Return of the Wu Xia Pian: Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon” in Cinema Journal, Vol. 43, No. 4., p. 12
  10. ^ Kenneth Chan, “The Global Return of the Wu Xia Pian: Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon” in Cinema Journal, Vol. 43, No. 4., p. 14
  11. ^ Horace L. Fairlamb, “Romancing the Tao: How Ang Lee Globalized Ancient Chinese Wisdom,” symploke vol. 15, No. 1-2 (2007), p.196
  12. ^ a b c Corliss, Richard (December 3, 2000). "Year of the Tiger". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,90548-1,00.html. Retrieved June 29, 2011. 
  13. ^ Ebert, Roger (December 20, 2000). "Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon". Chicago Sun Times. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20001222/REVIEWS/12220304/1023. Retrieved 2011-006-29. 
  14. ^ "Interview: Zhang Yimou". http://www.monkeypeaches.com/hero/interview01.html. Retrieved June 29, 2011. 
  15. ^ "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (1999)". Rotten Tomatoes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/crouching_tiger_hidden_dragon/. Retrieved July 27, 2010. 
  16. ^ "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon". Metacritic. http://www.metacritic.com/movie/crouching-tiger-hidden-dragon. Retrieved July 21, 2008. 
  17. ^ Hu, Brian (December 20, 2006). An Accent on Acting: An Interview with Gong Li. UCLA Asia Institute. Accessed December 30, 2006.
  18. ^ Reid, Craig (December 28, 2000). Crouching Tigress: Michelle Yeoh, Part 2. Mania. Accessed May 3, 2010.
  19. ^ The 500 Greatest Movies Of All Time. Empire. Accessed July 27, 2010.
  20. ^ "Prince of Persia: Anatomy of a Prince", PlayStation: The Official Magazine 13 (December 2008): 50.
  21. ^ "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema". Empire. http://www.empireonline.com/features/100-greatest-world-cinema-films/default.asp?film=66. 
  22. ^ "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon". festival-cannes.com. http://www.festival-cannes.com/en/archives/ficheFilm/id/10532/year/2000.html. Retrieved October 17, 2009. 
  23. ^ "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon: Awards & Nominations". MSN Movies. http://movies.msn.com/movies/movie-awards-and-nominations/crouching-tiger-hidden-dragon/. Retrieved May 4, 2010. 
  24. ^ "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000)". Yahoo! Movies. http://movies.yahoo.com/movie/1800424121/awards. Retrieved May 4, 2010. 
  25. ^ "The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences". Oscars.org. http://awardsdatabase.oscars.org/ampas_awards/DisplayMain.jsp?curTime=1272967642285. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  26. ^ "British Academy of Film and Television Arts". BAFTA.org. http://www.bafta.org/awards-database.html?year=2000&category=Film&award=false. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  27. ^ "The 6th Critics' Choice Awards Winners And Nominees". BFCA.org. http://www.bfca.org/ccawards/2000.php. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  28. ^ "Chicago Film Critics Awards – 1998-07". ChicagoFilmCritics.org. http://www.chicagofilmcritics.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=48&Itemid=58. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  29. ^ "2000s – DGA Award Winners for: Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Feature Film". Directors Guild Of America. http://www.dga.org/index2.php3. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  30. ^ "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon". GoldenGlobes.org. http://www.goldenglobes.org/browse/film/23903. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  31. ^ "Hong Kong Film Awards History". Hong Kong Film Awards. http://www.hkfaa.com/history/home.html. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  32. ^ "26th Annual Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards". LAFCA.net. http://www.lafca.net/years/2000.html. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  33. ^ "Awards for 2000". National Board of Review. http://www.nbrmp.org/awards/past.cfm?year=2000. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  34. ^ "2000 Awards". New York Film Critics Circle. http://www.nyfcc.com/awards.php?year=2000. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  35. ^ "TFCA Awards 2000". Toronto Film Critics Association. http://torontofilmcritics.com/blog/2000/12/. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  36. ^ "Awards Winners". Writers Guild Awards. http://www.wga.org/awards/awardssub.aspx?id=1517. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  37. ^ (Chinese) Golden Horse Awards offical homepage 37th Golden Horse awards winners and nominees list Retrieved May 21, 2011

External links


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