- Pax Romana
it is sometimes called Pax Augustus. Its timing was approximately from 27 BC to 180 AD.
The idea of Pax Romana was first presentedFact|date=April 2008 by
Edward Gibbon. Gibbon proposed a period of moderation" and peace under Augustus and his successors and argued that generals bent on expansion" (e.g. Germanicus, Agricola and Corbulo) were checked and recalled by the Emperors during their victories. Gibbon lists the Roman conquest of Britain under Claudiusand the conquests of Trajanas exceptions to this policy of moderation and places the end of the period at the death of Marcus Aureliusin 180 AD, despite the conclusion of peace by the latter's son Commoduslater in the same year.
Despite the term, the period was not without armed conflict, as Emperors frequently had to quell rebellions. Additionally, both border skirmishes and Roman wars of conquest happened during this period. Trajan embarked on a series of campaigns against the
Parthians during his reign and Marcus Aurelius spent almost the entire last decade of his rule fighting against the Germanic tribes.
Nonetheless, as the interior of the Empire remained largely untouched by warfare, the Pax Romana was an era of relative tranquility in which Rome endured neither major civil wars, such as the perpetual bloodshed of the third century AD, nor serious invasions, or killings, such as those of the
Second Punic Warthree centuries prior. During this time, Roman commerce thrived, unhampered by piracyor marauding enemy troops.
Given the prominence of the concept of "Pax Romana", historians have coined variants of the term to describe systems of relative peace that have been established, attempted or argued to have existed, usually under the hegemony of one power or of an idea. These include
Pax Americana, Pax Assyriaca, Pax Britannica, Pax Europeana, Pax Germanica, Pax Hispanica, Pax Minoica, Pax Mongolica, Pax Ottomana, Pax Sinica, and Pax Syriana.
* [http://www.unrv.com/early-empire/pax-romana.php www.unrv.com/early-empire/pax-romana.php]
* [http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Group/139585 Pax Romana Discussion group]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.