- Transportation in Canada
Canada is a developed country whose economy relies on the extraction and export of raw materials. Because of this, it has a very large transportation system which includes more than 1.4 million
kilometres of roads, 10 major international airports, 300 smaller airports, 72,093 kilometres of functioning railroad track, and more than 300 commercial ports and harbours that provide access to the Pacific, Atlanticand Arctic oceans as well as the Great Lakesand the St. Lawrence Seaway. [cite web |url=http://www41.statcan.ca/2007/4006/ceb4006_000_e.htm |title= Transportation in Canada| publisher= Statistics Canada| accessdate=2008-03-26] In 2005, the transportation sector made up 4.2% of Canada's GDP, compared to 3.7% for Canada's huge mining and oil and gas extraction industries.cite web |url=http://www.statcan.ca/english/research/11-621-MIE/11-621-MIE2006044.pdf |title= An Analysis of the Transportation Sector in 2005| publisher= Statistics Canada| accessdate=2008-03-27|format= PDF] Transport Canadaoversees and regulates most aspects of transportation within Canadian jurisdiction. Transport Canada is under the direction of the federal government's Minister of Transport. The Transportation Safety Board of Canadais responsible for maintaining transportation safety in Canada by investigating accidents and making safety recommendations.
Commuter train systems
Commuter trains exist in Montreal, Torontoand Vancouver:
European settlers and explorers in Canadaintroduced the wheelto North America's Aboriginal peoples, who relied on canoes, kayaks, umiaks and bull boats, in addition to the snowshoe, tobogganand sledin winter. Europeans adopted these technologies as they pushed deeper into the continent's interior, and were thus able to travel via the waterways that fed from the St. Lawrence Riverand Hudson Bay. [ [http://www.collectionscanada.ca/virtual-vault/ Virtual Vault] , an online exhibition of Canadian historical art at Library and Archives Canada]
In the 1800s and early 1900s transportation relied on harnessing oxen to "red river carts" or horse to wagon. Maritime transportation was via manual labour such as
canoeor wind on sail. Water or land travel speeds was approximately 8 to 15 kilometres per hour (5 to 9 miles per hour).cite web
first = Dr. Jean-Paul
title = Historical Geography of Transportation - Part I
work = Dept. of Economics & Geography
publisher = Hofstra University
date = 1998-2008
accessdate = 2008-01-18]
Settlement was along river routes. Agricultural commodities were perishable, and trade centres were within 50 kilometres. Rural areas centred around villages, and they were approximately 10 kilometres (6 miles) apart. The advent of steam railways and steamships connected resources and markets of vast distances in the late 1800s. Railways also connected city centres, in such a way that the traveller went by sleeper, railway hotel, to the cities. Crossing the country by train took four or five days, as it still does by car. People generally lived within five miles of the downtown core thus the train could be used for inter-city travel and the tram for commuting.
The advent of the interstate or
Trans-Canada Highwayin Canada in 1963 established ribbon development, truck stops, and industrial corridors along throughways.
Quotation|Different parts of the country are shut off from each other by Cabot Strait, the Strait of Belle Isle, by areas of rough, rocky forest terrain, such as the region lying between New Brunswick and Quebec, the areas north of Lakes Huron and Superior, dividing the industrial region of Ontario and Quebec from the agricultural areas of the prairies, and the barriers interposed by the mountains of British Columbia|The Canada Year Book 1956 Citation
last =Howe, C.D.
first =the Right Honourable Minister of Trade and Commerce
last2 =Canada Year Book Section
first2 =Information Services Division Dominion Bureau of Statistics
title =The Canada Year Book 1956 The Official Handbook of Present Conditions and Recent Progress
publisher =Kings Printer and Controller of Stationery
id = page 713 to 791
isbn = ] The Federal Department of Transport established
November 2, 1936supervised railways, canals, harbours, marine and shipping, civil aviation, radio and meteorology. The Transportation Act of 1938 and the amended Railway Act, placed control and regulation of carriers in the hands of the Board of Transport commissioners for Canada. The Royal Commission on Transportation was formed December 29, 1948to examine transportation services to all areas of Canada to eliminate economic or geographic disadvantages. The Commission also reviewed the Railway Act to provide uniform yet competitive freight-rates.
The current situation, has resulted in a lack of public transportation for the increase in ridership and may influence the next federal election. [cite news|url=http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20080901/public_transit_080901/20080901?hub=Canada|title=Lack of public transit hurting Canadian consumers|date=2008-09-01|publisher=CTV News]
Canadian Forces VIP aircraft
Transportation in the United States
Steamboats in Canada
* [http://www.collectionscanada.ca/virtual-vault/026018-119.01-e.php?q1=Transportation+and+Maps&PHPSESSID=4nel0brdl9jig2875u4atpbmc4 "Transportation and Maps" in "Virtual Vault"] , an online exhibition of Canadian historical art at Library and Archives Canada
* [http://nats.sct.gob.mx/ North American transportation statistics]
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