- Brigham Young
Brigham Young c. 1870
2nd President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints December 27, 1847– August 29, 1877 Predecessor Joseph Smith, Jr. Successor John Taylor President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles April 14, 1840– December 27, 1847 End reason Became President of the Church Quorum of the Twelve Apostles February 14, 1835– December 27, 1847 Called by Three Witnesses End reason Became President of the Church LDS Church Apostle February 14, 1835– August 29, 1877 Called by Three Witnesses Reason Initial organization of Quorum of the Twelve Reorganization at end of term No apostles immediately ordained Governor of Utah Territory In office February 3, 1851 – April 12, 1858 Succeeded by Alfred Cumming Personal details Born June 1, 1801
Died August 29, 1877(aged 76)
Salt Lake City, Utah Territory
Cause of death Ruptured appendix Resting place Brigham Young Cemetery, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States Children 56 Website brighamyoung.org Signature
Brigham Young (pronounced /ˈbrɪɡəm/; June 1, 1801 – August 29, 1877) was an American leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and a settler of the Western United States. He was the President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from 1847 until his death in 1877, he founded Salt Lake City, and he served as the first governor of the Utah Territory, United States. Young also led the foundings of the precursors to the University of Utah and Brigham Young University.
Young had a variety of nicknames, among the most popular being "American Moses," (alternatively the "Modern Moses" or the "Mormon Moses") because, like the biblical figure, Young led his followers, the Mormon pioneers, in an exodus through a desert, to what they saw as a promised land. Young was dubbed by his followers the "Lion of the Lord" for his bold personality, and was also commonly called "Brother Brigham" by Latter-day Saints. Young was a polygamist and was involved in controversies regarding black people and the Priesthood, the Utah War, and the Mountain Meadows massacre.
- 1 Early life until Joseph Smith's successor
- 2 Governor of Utah Territory
- 3 Church Presidency
- 4 Legacy
- 5 Literature references and works
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Early life until Joseph Smith's successor
Young was born to a farming family in Whitingham, Vermont and worked as a travelling carpenter and blacksmith, among other trades. Young first married in 1824 to Miriam Angeline Works. Though he had converted to the Methodist faith in 1823, Young was drawn to Mormonism after reading the Book of Mormon shortly after its publication in 1830. He officially joined the new church in 1832 and traveled to Upper Canada as a missionary. After his first wife died in 1832, Young joined many Mormons in establishing a community in Kirtland, Ohio. Young was ordained a member of the original Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1835, and he assumed a leadership role within that organization in taking Mormonism to the United Kingdom and organizing the exodus of Latter Day Saints from Missouri in 1838.
While in jail awaiting trial for alleged treason charges, Joseph Smith, president of the church, was killed by an armed mob in 1844. Several claimants to the role of church President emerged during the succession crisis that ensued. Before a large meeting convened to discuss the succession in Nauvoo, Illinois, Sidney Rigdon, the senior surviving member of the church's First Presidency, argued there could be no successor to the deceased prophet and that he should be made the "Protector" of the church. Young opposed this reasoning and motion. Smith had earlier recorded a revelation which stated the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles were "equal in authority and power" to the First Presidency, so Young claimed that the leadership of the church fell to the Twelve Apostles. Many of Young's followers would later reminisce that while Young spoke to the congregation, he looked or sounded similar to Joseph Smith, to which they attributed the power of God. These recollections indicate an experience of some kind that persuaded them that the Quorum of the Twevle Apostles was to lead the church with Young as the Quorum's President. Young was ordained President of the Church in December 1847, more than two and a half years after Smith's death. Rigdon became the president of a separate church organization based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and other potential successors emerged to lead what became other denominations of the movement.
Governor of Utah Territory
As colonizer and founder of Salt Lake City, Young was appointed the territory's first governor and superintendent of American Indian affairs by President Millard Fillmore. During his time as governor, Young directed the establishment of settlements throughout Utah, Idaho, Arizona, Nevada, and parts of southern Colorado and northern Mexico. Under his direction the pioneers built roads and bridges, forts, irrigation projects, and established public welfare, organized a militia, and pacified the Native Americans. Young organized the first legislature and established Fillmore as the territory's first capital.
Young organized a Board of Regents to establish a university in the Salt Lake Valley. The university was established on February 28, 1850, as the University of Deseret, the precursor to the University of Utah.
In 1856 he organized an efficient mail service. In 1858 he stepped down to his successor Alfred Cumming.
Brigham Young was the longest serving President of the LDS Church in history, having served for 29 years.
After three years of leading the church as the President of the Quorum of the Twelve, in 1847 Young reorganized a new First Presidency and was declared president of the church on December 27, 1847. Repeated conflict led Young to relocate his group of Latter-day Saints to a territory in what is now Utah, then part of Mexico. Young organized the journey that would take the faithful to Winter Quarters, Nebraska, in 1846, then to the Salt Lake Valley. Young arrived in the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847, a date now recognized as Pioneer Day in Utah. Young organized the Mormon Tabernacle Choir just 29 days after arriving for a conference of the church on August 22, 1847.
Having previously established the University of Deseret (the precursor to the University of Utah) during his tenure as governor, on October 16, 1875, Young personally purchased land in Provo, Utah, to possibly extend the reach of the University of Deseret. Young said, "I hope to see an Academy established in Provo... at which the children of the Latter-day Saints can receive a good education unmixed with the pernicious atheistic influences that are found in so many of the higher schools of the country." The school broke off from the University of Deseret and became Brigham Young Academy, the precursor to Brigham Young University.
Young was involved in temple building throughout his membership in the LDS Church and made temple building a priority of his presidency. Under Joseph Smith's leadership, Young participated in the building of the Kirtland (Ohio) and Nauvoo (Illinois) Temples. Just four days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Young, who was now church president, designated the location for the Salt Lake Temple and presided over its groundbreaking on April 6, 1853. During his tenure, Young oversaw construction of the Salt Lake Tabernacle, and he announced plans to build the St. George (1871), Manti (1875), and Logan Temples (1877) — all in Utah. He also provisioned the building of a "temporary temple" called the Endowment House, which began use in 1855 to provide temple ordinances to church members while the Salt Lake Temple was under construction.
Mormonism and polygamy Background Prominent practitioners Related legislation Related case law
- Reynolds v. United States
- LDS Church v. United States
The LDS Church under Brigham Young is perhaps best known for its practice of polygamy. Most historians have documented that polygamy among Latter Day Saints was taught and practiced by Joseph Smith, Young's predecessor. Adherents to some other Latter Day Saint denominations believe that polygamy originated under Brigham Young's leadership of the church. In 1853, Young made the church's first official statement on the subject after the church had arrived in Utah. He spoke about the issue nine years after the purported original revelation of Joseph Smith, and five years after the Mormon Exodus to Utah following Smith's death in Illinois.
Brigham Young is generally credited with having been responsible for revoking the priesthood and temple blessings from black members of the LDS Church, who had been treated equally in this respect under Joseph Smith's presidency. In 1863, Young reported that he said, "Shall I tell you the law of God in regard to the African race? If the white man who belongs to the chosen seed mixes his blood with the seed of Cain, the penalty, under the law of God, is death on the spot. This will always be so" (Journal of Discourses, vol. 10, p. 110). After settling in Utah in 1848, Brigham Young announced a priesthood ban which prohibited all men of black African descent from holding the priesthood. In connection, Mormons of African descent could not participate in Mormon temple rites such as the Endowment or sealing. These racial restrictions remained in place until 1978, when the policy was rescinded by President of the Church Spencer W. Kimball.
Shortly after the arrival of Young's pioneers, the new Mormon colonies were incorporated into the United States through Mexican Cession, Young petitioned the U.S. Congress to create the State of Deseret. The Compromise of 1850 instead carved out Utah Territory, and Young was installed as governor. As governor and church president, Young directed both religious and economic matters. He encouraged independence and self-sufficiency. Many cities and towns in Utah, and some in neighboring states, were founded under Young's direction. Young's leadership style has been viewed as autocratic. When federal officials received reports of widespread and systematic obstruction of federal officials in Utah (most notably judges), U.S. President James Buchanan decided to install a non-Mormon governor. Buchanan accepted the reports of the judges without any further investigation, and the new non-sectarian governor was accompanied by troops sent to garrison forts in the new territory. The troops passed by the bloody Kansas–Missouri war without intervening in it, as it was not open warfare and only isolated sporadic incidents. When Young received word that federal troops were headed to Utah with his replacement, he called out his militia to ambush the federal column. During the defense of Deseret, now called the Utah War, Young held the U.S. Army at bay for a winter by taking their cattle and burning supply wagons. The Mormon forces were largely successful thanks to Lot Smith. Young made plans to burn Salt Lake City and move his followers to Mexico, but at the last minute he relented and agreed to step down as governor. He later received a pardon from Buchanan. Relations between Young and future governors and U.S. Presidents were mixed.
A controversial issue is the extent of Young's involvement in the Mountain Meadows massacre, which took place in Washington County in 1857. Leonard J. Arrington reports that Brigham Young received a rider at his office on the same day. When he learned what was contemplated by the members of the LDS Church in Parowan and Cedar City, he sent back a letter that the Fancher party be allowed to pass through the territory unmolested. Young's letter supposedly arrived two days too late, on September 13, 1857. As governor, Young had promised the federal government he would protect immigrants passing through Utah Territory. But he had also allegedly told local Native American leaders that they had his permission to steal cattle from these wagon trains. Over 120 men, women and children were killed by the Mormons and their Native American allies. It is clear that local Mormons were the principal perpetrators. United States Army officer James Henry Carleton was sent to investigate the massacre and was convinced that the Mormons were the perpetrators. Only children survived, the murdered members of the wagon train (known as the Fancher Party) were left unburied, and the surviving children were cared for by local Mormon families. The remains of about forty people were found and buried and Carleton had a large cross made from local trees, the transverse beam bearing the engraving, "Vengeance Is Mine, Saith The Lord: I Will Repay" and erected a cairn of rocks at the site. A large slab of granite was put up on which he had the following words engraved: "HERE 120 MEN, WOMEN AND CHILDREN WERE MASSACRED IN COLD BLOOD EARLY IN SEPTEMBER, 1857. THEY WERE FROM ARKANSAS." For two years the monument stood as a warning to those travelling the Spanish Trail through Mountain Meadow. Some claim that, In 1861, Young brought an entourage to Mountain Meadows and had the cairn and cross destroyed, while exclaiming, "Vengeance is mine and I have taken a little".
Before his death in Salt Lake City at 4:00pm on August 29, 1877, Young was suffering from "cholera morbus and inflammation of the bowels". It is believed that he died of peritonitis from a ruptured appendix. His last words were "Joseph, Joseph...". On September 2, 1877, Young's funeral was held in the Tabernacle with an estimated 12,000 to 15,000 people in attendance. He is buried on the grounds of the Mormon Pioneer Memorial Monument in the heart of Salt Lake City. A bronze marker was placed at the grave site June 10, 1938, by members of the Young Men and Young Women organizations, which he founded.
The Salt Lake Tribune, which was founded in 1870 by opponents of the LDS Church, posted the following obituary:
"[Young] was illiterate and he has made frequent boast that he never saw the inside of a school house. His habit of mind was singularly illogical and his public addresses the greatest farrago of nonsense that ever was put in print. He prided himself on being a great financer, and yet all of his commercial speculations have been conspicuous failures. He was blarophant, and pretended to be in daily [communion] with the Almighty, and yet he was groveling in his ideas, and the system of religion he formulated was well nigh Satanic."
Memorials to Young include a bronze statue in front of the Abraham O. Smoot Administration Building, Brigham Young University; a marble statue in the National Statuary Hall Collection at the United States Capitol, donated by the State of Utah in 1950; and a statue atop the This is the Place Monument in Salt Lake City.
Family and descendants
Young was a polygamist, marrying a total of 55 wives, 54 of them after he converted to become a Latter Day Saint. The policy was difficult for many in the church. Young stated that upon being taught about plural marriage, "It was the first time in my life that I desired the grave." By the time of his death, Young had 56 children by 16 of his wives; 46 of his children reached adulthood.
Sources have varied on the number of Young's wives, due to differences in what scholars have considered to be a "wife". There were 55 women that Young was sealed to during his lifetime. While the majority of the sealings were "for eternity", some were "for time only". Researchers believe that not all of the 55 marriages were conjugal. Young did not live with a number of his wives or publicly hold them out as wives, which has led to confusion on the number and identities. This is in part due to the complexity of how wives were identified in the Mormon society at the time. If a woman was married and her husband died, she often married another man in proxy of her former husband. All of her resulting children were considered fathered by her late husband. For a time women had themselves "sealed" to men without the men knowing about it.
Of Young's 55 wives, 21 had never been married before; 16 were widows; six were divorced; six had living husbands; and the marital status of six others are unknown. In 1856, Young built the Lion House to accommodate his sizable family. This building remains a Salt Lake City landmark, together with the Beehive House, another Brigham Young family home. A contemporary of Young wrote: "It was amusing to walk by Brigham Young's big house, a long rambling building with innumerable doors. Each wife has an establishment of her own, consisting of parlor, bedroom, and a front door, the key of which she keeps in her pocket." At the time of Young's death, 19 of his wives had predeceased him, he was divorced from ten, and 23 survived him. The status of four was unknown. In his will, Young shared his estate with the 16 surviving wives who had lived with him; the six surviving non-conjugal wives were not mentioned in the will.
Descendants of Young include three LDS Church apostles: Brigham Young, Jr., John Willard Young, and Joseph Angell Young. Another descendant, Leah D. Widtsoe, was wife of apostle John A. Widtsoe and herself a leading expert in home economics. Other descendants include sculptor Mahonri Young, best-selling novelist Orson Scott Card, women's right activist Susa Young Gates, NFL Hall of Fame athlete Steve Young, and Richard Whitehead Young, U.S. Army Brigadier General and an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines. Others include Mormon critic Sandra Tanner and William Hooper Young, 20th-century convicted murderer.
Literature references and works
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle based his first Sherlock Holmes novel, A Study in Scarlet, on Mormon history, mentioning Young by name. When asked to comment on the story, which had "provoked the animosity of the Mormon faithful", Conan Doyle noted, "all I said about the Danite Band and the murders is historical so I cannot withdraw that though it is likely that in a work of fiction it is stated more luridly than in a work of history." However, Doyle's daughter stated that "You know father would be the first to admit that his first Sherlock Holmes novel was full of errors about the Mormons."  Florence Claxton's graphic novel The Adventures of a Woman in Search of her Rights (1872), satirises a would-be emancipated woman whose failure to establish an independent career results in her marriage to Brigham Young before she wakes to discover she's been dreaming. Mark Twain devoted a chapter and much of an appendix to Brigham Young in his book Roughing It.
Brigham Young authored several books and discourses himself during his lifetime.
- Young, Brigham (1952). The Best from Brigham Young: Statements from His Sermons on Religion, Education, and Community Building. selected by Alice K. Chase. Deseret Book Company.
- Everett L. Cooley, ed (1980). Diary of Brigham Young, 1857. Tanner Trust Fund, University of Utah Library. http://content.lib.utah.edu/u?/tanner,2124.
- Brigham Young (1925). Discourses of Brigham Young. selected by John A. Widtsoe. Deseret Book. http://www.archive.org/details/discoursesofbrig028407mbp.
- Dean C. Jessee., ed (1974). Letters of Brigham Young to His Sons. Deseret Book Company.
- Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 1801-1844. Eldon J. Watson. 1969.
- Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 1846-1847. Eldon J. Watson. 1971.
- Teachings of President Brigham Young: Salvation for the Dead, the Spirit World, and Kindred Subjects. Seagull Press. 1922.
- Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Brigham Young. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1997. LDS Church publication number 35554.
- Young, Brigham (2009). Richard Van Wagoner. ed. The Complete Discourses of Brigham Young. 5. Smith-Pettit Foundation. ISBN 978-1560852063
- Brigham Young: American Moses
- Brigham Young (1940 film)
- Joseph Young, elder brother of Brigham Young
- The Mormon Prophet and His Harem (book)
- Phineas Young
- Richards–Young family
- This Is The Place Heritage Park
- Brigham Young Winter Home and Office
- Adam–God doctrine
- ^ A year after Young's death, Orson Hyde died and Moses Thatcher was ordained an apostle. The First Presidency was not reorganized until 1880-10-10, after which Francis M. Lyman and John Henry Smith were ordained. Orson Pratt died in 1881, and the Quorum of the Twelve did not have twelve members again until 1882-10-16, when George Teasdale and Heber J. Grant were ordained.
- ^ Newsroom — The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
- ^ Trails of Hope: Overland Diaries and Letters, 1846–1869 - Maps: Their Use by Overlanders
- ^ Sheret, John G.: Brigham Young: Carpenter and Cabinet Maker
- ^ Roberts, B. H. (ed.) History of the Church, vol. 7, ch. XVIII.
- ^ Doctrine and Covenants 107:23-24.
- ^ Roberts, B. H. (ed.) History of the Church, vol. 7, ch. XIX.
- ^ Quinn, D. Michael (1994). The Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power. Signature Books. p. 166. ISBN 1560850566. ; Harper 1996; Lynne Watkins Jorgensen, "The Mantle of the Prophet Joseph Smith Passes to Brother Brigham: One Hundred Twenty-one Testimonies of a Collective Spiritual Witness" in John W. Welch (ed.), 2005. Opening the Heavens: Accounts of Divine Manifestations, 1820-1844, Provo, Utah: BYU Press, pp. 374-480; Eugene English, "George Laub Nauvoo Diary," BYU Studies, 18 [Winter 1978]: 167 ("Now when President Young arose to address the congregation his voice was the voice of Bro[ther] Joseph and his face appeared as Joseph's face & should I have not seen his face but heard his voice I should have declared that it was Joseph"); William Burton Diary, May 1845. LDS Church Archives ("But their [Joseph Smith and Hyrum Smith's] places were filed by others much better than I once supposed they could have been, the spirit of Joseph appeared to rest upon Brigham"); Benjamin F. Johnson, My Life's Review [Independence, 1928], p. 103-104 ("But as soon as he spoke I jumped upon my feet, for in every possible degree it was Joseph's voice, and his person, in look, attitude, dress and appearance; [it] was Joseph himself, personified and I knew in a moment the spirit and mantle of Joseph was upon him"); Life Story of Mosiah Hancock, p. 23, BYU Library ("Although only a boy, I saw the mantle of the Prophet Joseph rest upon Brigham Young; and he arose lion-like to the occasion and led the people forth"); Wilford Woodruff, Deseret News, March 15, 1892 ("If I had not seen him with my own eyes, there is no one that could have convinced me that it was not Joseph Smith"); George Q. Cannon, Juvenile Instructor, 22 [29 October 1870]: 174-175 ("When Brigham Young spoke it was with the voice of Joseph himself; and not only was it the voice of Joseph which was heard, but it seemed in the eyes of the people as though it was the every person of Joseph which stood before them"). However, historians have come to different conclusions on whether the occurrence of such events is supported by contemporary records. Van Wagoner observed of contemporary accounts that "none of these references an explicit transfiguration, a physical metamorphosis of Brigham Young into the form and voice of Joseph Smith," and "[w]hen 8 August 1844 is stripped of emotional overlay, there is not a shred of irrefutable contemporary evidence to support the occurrence of a mystical event either in the morning or afternoon gatherings of that day.": Van Wagoner, Richard S. (Winter 1995). "The Making of a Mormon Myth: The 1844 Transfiguration of Brigham Young". Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 28 (4): 1–24.
- ^ Jorgenson, Lynne W. (1996–97). "The Mantle of the Prophet Joseph Passes to Brother Brigham: A Collective Spiritual Witness". BYU Studies 36 (4): 125–204.
- ^ Arrington, Leonard J. (1986). Brigham Young: American Moses. University of Illinois Press. pp. 114–115. ISBN 0252012968.
- ^ Yvette D. Ison (January 1995). "The Beginnings of the University of Utah". State of Utah. http://historytogo.utah.gov/utah_chapters/pioneers_and_cowboys/thebeginningsoftheuniversityofutah.html. Retrieved 5 October 2011.
- ^ "Choir faq". Mormon Tabernacle Choir. http://mormontabernaclechoir.org/faq. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- ^ "BYU: The "almost" college of Draper, Utah". http://www.russpage.net/byu-the-almost-college-of-draper-utah/.
- ^ a b Bills, Sarah (2003-04-16). "Warren Dusenberry (1875 - 1876)". BYU NewsNet. http://newsnet.byu.edu/story.cfm/43900.
- ^ 
- ^ See, e.g., Richard and Pamela Price, Joseph Smith Fought Polygamy: How Men Nearest the Prophet Attached Polygamy to His Name in Order to Justify Their Own Polygamous Crimes (Precision Publishing, 2000), vol. 1, ch.3: "Brigham Young: The Father of Mormon Polygamy". The book was written by members the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.
- ^ a b Bush, Jr, Lester E; Armand L. Mauss (1984). Neither White nor Black: Mormon Scholars Confront the Race Issue in a Universal Church. Midvale, Utah: Signature Books. pp. 54–65, 70. ISBN 978-0941214223. http://www.signaturebookslibrary.org/neither/neither3.htm#Chapter3.
- ^ http://patriot.lib.byu.edu/cgi-bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/JournalOfDiscourses3&CISOPTR=4266&filename=100504_171800_ep110_Va_M230_J82_v10.pdf
- ^ http://scriptures.lds.org/od/2
- ^ "Brigham Young", MSN Encarta. Archived 2009-10-31.
- ^ Eakin, Emily (2002-10-12). "Reopening a Mormon Murder Mystery; New Accusations That Brigham Young Himself Ordered an 1857 Massacre of Pioneers". New York Times: p. Section B, Page 9, Column 2. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10E17F6395E0C718DDDA90994DA404482&showabstract=1.
- ^ Brigham Young to Isaac C. Haight, Sept. 10, 1857, Letterpress Copybook 3:827–28, Brigham Young Office Files, LDS Church Archives
- ^ Sally Denton (2003). American Massacre: The Tragedy at Mountain Meadows, September 1857 (New York: Vintage Books, ISBN 0375726365) p. 210.
- ^ "Death of Brigham Young", The New York Times, August 30, 1877.
- ^ "Brigham Young's Health", The New York Times, August 29, 1877.
- ^ a b "Brigham Young Biography". Brigham Young University. http://unicomm.byu.edu/about/brigham.aspx?. Retrieved 2010-10-04.
- ^ "Brigham Young's Funeral", The New York Times, September 3, 1877.
- ^ "Grave of Brigham Young". State of Utah. http://history.utah.gov/apps/markers/detailed_results.php?markerid=2182. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- ^ Salt Lake Tribune, August 30, 1877.
- ^ Brigham Young
- ^ a b c d e f g Jeffrey Odgen Johnson, “Determining and Defining ‘Wife’ — The Brigham Young Households”, Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, vol. 20, no. 3 (Fall 1987), pp. 57-70.
- ^ "Polygamy and the Church: A History". The Mormons: People & Events. WGBH Educational Foundation. 2007-04-30. http://www.pbs.org/mormons/peopleevents/e_polygamy.html. Retrieved 2007-05-29.
- ^ DeHegermann-Lindencrone, Lillie. "The Sunny Side of Diplomatic Life, 1875–1912". Project Gutenberg. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/13955/13955-h/13955-h.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-18.
- ^ a b c Jenson, Andrew. Biographical Encyclopedia of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book and A. Jenson Historical Co., 1901–1936) 1:42, 121, & 518
- ^ a b Gates, Susa Young Gates; Leah D. Widtsoe (1930). Life Story of Brigham Young. New York: Macmillan. pp. 388. ISBN 0836958861.
- ^ a b Cracroft, R. Paul. "Susa Young Gates: Her Life and Literary Work." Master's thesis, University of Utah, 1951.
- ^ Reviews for Mahonri Young: His Life and Art
- ^ "Who Is Orson Scott Card?". Hatrack River. Hatrack River Enterprises Inc. 2009. http://www.hatrack.com/osc/about-more.shtml. Retrieved 25 August 2009. paragraph 9
- ^ "Steve Young Profile". espn.go.com. 1999-09-27. http://static.espn.go.com/nfl/profiles/profile/0128.html. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
- ^ Reeve, W. Paul; Utah History to Go! (February 1995). "Captain Richard W. Young and Spanish-American War". History Blazer. State of Utah. http://historytogo.utah.gov/utah_chapters/statehood_and_the_progressive_era/captainrichardwyoungandspanish-americanwar.html. Retrieved 25 August 2009. paragraph 2
- ^ Tanner, Sandra; Jerald Tanner. "About Us". Utah Lighthouse Ministry. http://www.utlm.org/navaboutus.htm. Retrieved 25 August 2009. paragraph 3
- ^ "The Pulitzer Murder Case", The Virtual Dime Museum, 2008-05-29, accessed 2009-04-30 paragraph 5
- ^ Sherlock Holmes creator Arthur Conan Doyle impressed by Mormons
- Arrington, Leonard J., Brigham Young: American Moses; University of Illinois Press; ISBN 0-252-01296-8, (1985; Paperback, 1986).
- Nibley, Hugh W. (1994). Brother Brigham Challenges the Saints (The Collected Works of Hugh Nibley, vol. 13). Salt Lake City, Utah: Shadow Mountain Pub.. ISBN 0875798187. , republished online at Brother Brigham Challenges the Saints by Hugh W. Nibley. FARMS. http://farms.byu.edu/publications/books/?bookid=49. Retrieved 2009-04-28. .
- Bergera, Gary James, Conflict in the Quorum: Orson Pratt, Brigham Young, Joseph Smith
- Cannon, Frank J.; Knapp, George L. (1913). Brigham Young and His Mormon Empire. New York: Fleming H. Revell Co.. http://www.archive.org/details/brighamyoungandh003273mbp.
- Tullidge, Edward W. (1877). Life of Brigham Young: Or, Utah and Her Founders. New York: Tullidge & Crandall. http://books.google.com/?id=mEcOAAAAIAAJ.
- Waite, C.V. (Catherine Van Valkenburg) (1868). The Mormon prophet and his harem: or, An authentic history of Brigham Young, his numerous wives and children. Chicago: J.S. Goodman & Co.. http://www.archive.org/details/mormonprophetand00waitiala.
- Young, Brigham (April 9, 1852). "Self-Government — Mysteries — Recreation and Amusements, not in Themselves Sinful — Tithing — Adam, Our Father and Our God". In Watt, G.D.. Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, His Two Counsellors, the Twelve Apostles, and Others. 1. Liverpool: F.D. & S.W. Richards. 1854. pp. 46–53. http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cgi-bin/docviewer.exe?CISOROOT=/JournalOfDiscourses3&CISOPTR=9599.
- Young, Brigham (March 2, 1856). "The Necessity of the Saints Living up to the Light Which Has Been Given Them". In Watt, G.D.. Journal of Discourses Delivered by President Brigham Young, His Two Counsellors, and the Twelve Apostles, and Others. 3. Liverpool: Daniel H. Wells. 1856. pp. 221–226. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Journal_of_Discourses/Volume3/The_Necessity_of_the_Saints_Living_up_to_the_Light_which_has_been_Given_Them?oldid=400881.
- Photos of Homes of Brigham Young,
- Jerald and Sarah Tanner, "Brigham Young's Wives and His Divorce From Ann Eliza Webb", Utah Lighthouse Ministry
Political offices Preceded by
Governor of Utah Territory
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints titles Preceded by
Joseph Smith, Jr.
President of the LDS Church
December 27, 1847 – August 29, 1877
Thomas B. Marsh
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
March 17, 1839 – December 27, 1847
David W. Patten
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
February 14, 1835 – December 27, 1847
Heber C. Kimball
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints History Beliefs and practices Sacred texts Worship and culture Organization Leadership Criticism Other related articles Members of the Council of Fifty of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsJos. Smith • Badlam • Bernhisel • Cahoon • Clayton • Cutler • A. Fielding • Haws • H.C. Kimball • Miller • Phelps • O. Pratt • P.P. Pratt, Sr. • L. Richards • W. Richards • G.A. Smith • H. Smith • E. Snow • J. Taylor • Wasson • Whitney • Woodworth • B. Young, Sr. • Emmett • Hyde • Woodruff • Adams • Babbitt • Bonney • Eaton • J. Fielding • Johnson • Lee • Lott • A.M. Lyman • C.C. Rich • E. Smith • John Smith • Thayre • Yearsley • Bent • Brown • James • Marks • Parker • Rigdon • Rockwell • O. Spencer • Greene • Coolidge • Hollister • W. Smith • Wight • J.M. Grant • Dunham • Foster • D. Fullmer • Morley • Pack • Page • Rockwood • Roundy • Turley • Jos. Young • Daniels • D. Spencer • P. Young • Carrington • Farnham • J.S. Fullmer • Shumway • G.D. Grant • Benson • Bullock • Heywood • P. Richards • W. Snow • D.H. Wells • John Young • L. Snow • F.D. Richards • G.Q. Cannon • B. Young, Jr. • J.A. Young • Burton • Clinton • Hunter • C.S. Kimball • D.P. Kimball • P.P. Pratt, Jr. • J.C. Rich • Sharp • J.F. Smith • Smoot • Stout • G.J. Taylor • H.P. Kimball • H.J. Richards • J.W. Young • Hooper • A.M. Cannon • Cluff • Jennings • F.M. Lyman • Nuttall • Preston • F.S. Richards • J.H. Smith • S.S. Smith • W.R. Smith • W.W. Taylor • Thatcher • J.F. Wells • Farr • Van Cott • Caine • Reynolds • Winder • Gibbs • Penrose • Clawson • H.J. Grant • Hardy • Teasdale • Peterson • Shurtliff • Budge • Murdock • Hatch • Layton • A.H. Cannon • J.Q. Cannon • J.W. Taylor • S.B. Young Presidents of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsJ. Smith (1830–1844) • Young (1847–1877) • Taylor (1880–1887) • Woodruff (1889–1898) • Snow (1898–1901) • J. F. Smith, Sr. (1901–1918) • Grant (1918–1945) • G. A. Smith (1945–1951) • McKay (1951–1970) • J. F. Smith, Jr. (1970–1972) • Lee (1972–1973) • Kimball (1973–1985) • Benson (1985–1994) • Hunter (1994–1995) • Hinckley (1995–2008) • Monson (2008– ) Presidents of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsMarsh (1835–1839) • B. Young, Sr. (1839–1847) • Hyde (1847–1875) • Taylor (1875–1880) • Woodruff (1880–1889) • Snow (1889–1898) • F.D. Richards (1898–1899) • B. Young, Jr. (1899–1901) • J.F. Smith, Sr. (1901) • B. Young, Jr. (1901–1903) • Lyman (1903–1916) • Grant (1916–1918) • Lund (1918–1921) • Clawson (1921–1943) • G.A. Smith (1943–1945) • G.F. Richards (1945–1950) • McKay (1950–1951) • J.F. Smith, Jr. (1951–1970) • Lee (1970–1972) • Kimball (1972–1973) • Benson (1973–1985) • Romney (1985–1988) • Hunter (1988–1994) • Hinckley (1994–1995) • Monson (1995–2008) • Packer (2008– ) Governors of Utah Territorial (1850–1896) State (since 1896)
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