- Alfred North Whitehead
region = Western Philosophy
19th century philosophy 20th century philosophy
color = #B0C4DE
name = Alfred North Whitehead
birth = birth date|1861|2|15
death = death date and age|1947|12|30|1861|2|15
Metaphysics, Mathematics| influences = Kant, Bergson
Gilles Deleuze, Charles Hartshorne, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Bertrand Russell, Wolfgang Smith
Alfred North Whitehead, OM (
February 15 1861, Ramsgate, Kent, England– December 30 1947, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.) was an English mathematicianwho became a philosopher. He wrote on algebra, logic, foundations of mathematics, philosophy of science, physics, metaphysics, and education. He co-authored the epochal " Principia Mathematica" with Bertrand Russell.
Although his grandfather, Thomas Whitehead, was known for having founded
Chatham HouseAcademy, a fairly successful school for boys, Alfred North was educated at Sherborne School, Dorset, then considered one of the best public schools in the country. His childhood was described as over-protected, but when at school he excelled in sports, mathematics and was head prefect of his class.
Between 1880 and 1910, Whitehead studied, taught, and wrote mathematics at Trinity College, Cambridge, spending the 1890s writing his "Treatise on Universal Algebra" (1898) and the 1900s collaborating with his former pupil, Russell, on the first edition of "
Principia Mathematica". [ On Whitehead the mathematician and logician, see Grattan-Guinness (2000, 2002), and Quine's chapter in Schilpp (1941), reprinted in Quine (1995). ]
Without much prospect of ever attaining a professorship in mathematics, Whitehead left Cambridge just as the first volume of the "Principia" appeared. In 1910, he resigned his position at Trinity College to protest the dismissal of a colleague because of an adulterous affair. He also ran afoul of a Cambridge by-law limiting the term of a Senior Lecturer to 25 years.
In 1891, Whitehead married Evelyn Wade, an Irish woman reared in France; they had a daughter and two sons. One son died in action while serving in the
Royal Flying Corpsduring World War I. Meanwhile, Russell spent much of 1918 in prison because of his pacifist activities. Although Whitehead visited his co-author in prison, he did not take his pacifismseriously, while Russell sneered at Whitehead's later speculative Platonismand panpsychism. After the war, Russell and Whitehead seldom interacted, and Whitehead contributed nothing to the 1925 second edition of " Principia Mathematica".
Whitehead was always interested in
theology, especially in the 1890s. This may be explained by the fact that his family was firmly anchored in the Church of England: his father and uncles were vicars, while his brother would become bishop of Madras. Perhaps influenced by his wife and the writings of Cardinal Newman, Whitehead leaned towards Roman Catholicism. Prior to the Great War, he considered himself an agnostic. Later he returned to religion, without formally joining any church. Unitarians claim him as a friend.
Concomitantly, Whitehead developed a keen interest in
physics: his fellowship dissertation examined James Clerk Maxwell's views on electricityand magnetism. His outlook on mathematics and physics were more philosophical than purely scientific; he was more concerned about their scope and nature, rather than about particular tenets and paradigms.
He was president of the
Aristotelian Societyfrom 1922 to 1923.
The period between 1910 and 1924 was mostly spent at
University College Londonand Imperial College London, where he taught and wrote on physics, the philosophy of science, and the theory and practice of education. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society since 1903 and was elected to the British Academy in 1931. In physics, Whitehead articulated a rival doctrine to Einstein's general relativity. His theory of gravitation is now discredited because its predicted variability of the gravitational constant G disagrees with experimental findings. [http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~sn2y-tnk/tanaka_4_4.htm ] . A more lasting work was his "Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Natural Knowledge" (1919), a pioneering attempt to synthetize the philosophical underpinnings of physics. It has little influenced the course of modern physics, however.
Whitehead's address "The Aims of Education" (1916) pointedly criticized the formalistic approach of modern British teachers who do not care about culture and self-education of their disciples: "Culture is activity of thought, and receptiveness to beauty and humane feeling. Scraps of information have nothing to do with it."
Henry Osborn Taylorinvited Whitehead, who was then 63, to implement his ideas and teach philosophyat Harvard University. This was a subject that fascinated Whitehead but that he had also not previously studied or taught. The Whiteheads spent the rest of their lives in the United States. He retired from teaching in 1937. When he died in 1947, there was no funeral, and his body was cremated.
Whitehead had wise and witty opinions about a vast range of human endeavour. These opinions pepper the many essays and speeches he gave on various topics between 1915 and his death (1917, 1925a, 1927, 1929a, 1929b, 1933, 1938). His Harvard lectures (1924-37) are studded with quotations from his favourite poets, Wordsworth and Shelley. Most Sunday afternoons when they were in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the Whiteheads hosted an open house to which all Harvard students were welcome, and during which talk flowed freely. Some of the "obiter dicta" Whitehead spoke on these occasions were recorded by Lucien Price, a Boston journalist, who published them in 1954. That book also includes a remarkable picture of Whitehead as the aged sage holding court. It was at one of these open houses that the young Harvard student
B.F. Skinnercredits a discussion with Whitehead as providing the inspiration for his work " Verbal Behavior" in which language is analyzed from a behaviorist perspective. [Skinner, B.F. 1957. "Verbal Behavior", appendix ]
The standard biography is Lowe (1985) and Lowe and Schneewind (1990); Lowe studied under Whitehead at Harvard. A comprehensive appraisal of Whitehead's work is difficult because Whitehead left no
Nachlass; his family carried out his instructions that all of his papers be destroyed after his death. There is also no critical edition of Whitehead's writings.
The genesis of Whitehead's
process philosophymay be attributed to his having witnessed the shocking collapse of Newtonian physics, due mainly to Einstein's work. His metaphysical views emerged in his 1920 "The Concept of Nature" and expanded in his 1925 "Science and the Modern World", also an important study in the history of ideas, and the role of science and mathematics in the rise of Western civilization. Indebted as he was to Henri Bergson's philosophy of change, Whitehead was also a Platonistwho "saw the definite character of events as due to the "ingression" of timeless entities" [ Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2006] .
In 1927, Whitehead was asked to give the
Gifford Lecturesat the University of Edinburgh. These were published in 1929 as " Process and Reality", the book that founded process philosophy, a major contribution to Western metaphysics. Able exponents of process philosophy include Charles Hartshorneand Nicholas Rescher, and his ideas have been taken up by French philosophers Maurice Merleau-Pontyand Gilles Deleuze.
Process and Reality" is famous for its defense of theism, although Whitehead's God differs essentially from the revealed God of Abrahamic religion. Whitehead's Philosophy of Organismgave rise to process theology, thanks to Hartshorne, John B. Cobb, Jr, and David Ray Griffin. Some Christiansand Jews find process theology a fruitful way of understanding Godand the universe. Just as the entire universe is in constant flow and change, God, as source of the universe, is viewed as growing and changing. Whitehead's rejection of mind-body dualism is similar to elements in faith traditions such as Buddhism.
The main tenets of Whitehead's metaphysics were summarized in his last and most accessible work, "Adventures of Ideas" (1933), where he also defines his conceptions of beauty, truth, art, adventure, and peace. He believed that "there are no whole truths; all truths are half-truths. It is trying to treat them as whole truths that plays the devil." ["Dialogues of Alfred North Whitehead", recorded by Lucien Price, p. 13, 2001] Whitehead's political views sometimes appear to be
libertarianismwithout the label. He wrote: "Now the intercourse between individuals and between social groups takes one of two forms, force or persuasion. Commerceis the great example of intercourse by way of persuasion. War, slavery, and governmental compulsion exemplify the reign of force." ["Adventures of Ideas" p. 105, 1933 edition; p. 83, 1967 ed.] On the other hand, many Whitehead scholars read his work as providing a philosophical foundation for the social liberalism of the New Liberal movement that was prominent throughout Whitehead's adult life. Morris wrote that "...there is good reason for claiming that Whitehead shared the social and political ideals of the new liberals." [Morris, Randall C., "Journal of the History of Ideas" 51: 75-92. P. 92.]
Fallacy of misplaced concreteness
Philosophy of Organism
Whitehead's point-free geometry
Works by Whitehead
* 1898. "A Treatise on Universal Algebra with Applications". Cambridge Uni. Press. 1960 reprint, Hafner.
* 1911. "An Introduction to Mathematics". Oxford Univ. Press. 1990 paperback, ISBN 0-19-500211-3. Vol. 56 of the "Great Books of the Western World" series.
* 1917. "The Organization of Thought Educational and Scientific". Lippincott.
* 1920. "The Concept of Nature". Cambridge Uni. Press. 2004 paperback, Prometheus Books, ISBN 1-59102-214-2. Being the 1919
Tarner Lecturesdelivered at Trinity College.
* 1922. "The Principle of Relativity with Applications to Physical Science". Cambridge Uni. Press.
* 1925 (1910-13), with
Bertrand Russell. " Principia Mathematica", in 3 vols. Cambridge Uni. Press. Vol. 1 to *56 is available as a CUP paperback.
* 1925a. "Science and the Modern World". 1997 paperback, Free Press (Simon & Schuster), ISBN 0-684-83639-4. Vol. 55 of the "Great Books of the Western World" series.
* 1925b (1919). "An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Natural Knowledge". Cambridge Uni. Press.
* 1926. "Religion in the Making". 1974, New American Library. 1996, with introduction by Judith A. Jones, Fordham Univ. Press.
* 1927. "Symbolism, Its Meaning and Effect". The 1927 Barbour-Page Lectures, given at the University of Virginia. 1985 paperback, Fordham University Press.
* 1929. "
Process and Reality: An Essay in Cosmology". 1979 corrected edition, edited by David Ray Griffin and Donald W. Sherburne, Free Press. ( [http://www.forizslaszlo.com/filozofia/folyamat_es_valosag/Whitehead_PR_Part5_Final_Interpratation.pdf Part V. Final Interpretation] )
* 1929a. "The Aims of Education and Other Essays". 1985 paperback, Free Press, ISBN 0-02-935180-4.
* 1929b. "Function of Reason". 1971 paperback, Beacon Press, ISBN 0-8070-1573-3.
* 1933. "Adventures of Ideas". 1967 paperback, Free Press, ISBN 0-02-935170-7.
* 1934. "Nature and Life". University of Chicago Press.
* 1938. "Modes of Thought". 1968 paperback, Free Press, ISBN 0-02-935210-X.
* 1947. "Essays in Science and Philosophy". Runes, Dagobert, ed. Philosophical Library.
* 1947. "The Wit and Wisdom of Whitehead". Beacon Press.
* 1951. "Mathematics and the Good" in Schilpp, P. A., ed., 1951. "The Philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead", 2nd. ed. New York, Tudor Publishing Company: 666-81. Also printed in:
** in "The Philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead", 1941, P. A. Schilpp, Ed.;
** in "Science & Philosophy"; Philosophical Library, 1948.
* 1953. "A. N. Whitehead: An Anthology". Northrop, F.S.C., and Gross, M.W., eds. Cambridge Univ. Press.
* Price, Lucien, 1954. "Dialogues of Alfred North Whitehead", with Introduction by Sir Ross David. Reprinted 1977, Greenwood Press Reprint, ISBN 0-8371-9341-9, and 2001 with Foreword by Caldwell Titcomb, David R. Godine Publisher, ISBN 1-56792-129-9.
Works about Whitehead and his thought
* Browning, Douglas and Myers, William T., eds., 1998. "Philosophers of Process". Fordham Univ Press. ISBN 0-8232-1879-1, contains some primary texts including:
** "Critique of Scientific Materialism"
** "Fact and Form"
** "Objects and Subjects"
** "The Grouping of Occasions"
*Durand G., 2007. "Des événements aux objets. La méthode de l'abstraction extensive chez A. N. Whitehead". Ontos Verlag.
Ivor Grattan-Guinness, 2000. "The Search for Mathematical Roots 1870-1940". Princeton Uni. Press.
*------, 2002, "Algebras, Projective Geometry, Mathematical Logic, and Constructing the World: Intersections in the Philosophy of Mathematics of A. N. Whitehead," "Historia Mathematica 29": 427-62. Many references.
Charles Hartshorne, 1972. "Whitehead's Philosophy: Selected Essays, 1935-1970". University of Nebraska Press
* Kneebone, G., 2001, (1963). "Mathematical Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics". Dover reprint: ISBN 0-486-41712-3. The final chapter is a lucid introduction to some of the ideas in Whitehead (1919, 1925b, 1929).
* LeClerc, Ivor, ed., 1961. "The Relevance of Whitehead". Allen & Unwin.
* Lowe, Victor, 1962. "Understanding Whitehead". Johns Hopkins Uni. Press.
* ------, 1985. "A. N. Whitehead: The Man and His Work", Vol. 1. Johns Hopkins U. Press.
* ------, and Schneewind, J. B., 1990. "A. N. Whitehead: The Man and His Work", Vol. 2. Johns Hopkins U. Press.
Richard Milton Martin, 1974. "Whitehead's Categorial Scheme and Other Essays". Martinus Nijhoff.
* Mays, Wolfgang, 1959. "The Philosophy of Whitehead". Allen & Unwin.
* ------, 1977. "Whitehead's Philosophy of Science and Metaphysics: An Introduction to his Thought". The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
* Mesle, C. Robert, 2008. "Process-Relational Philosophy: An Introduction to Alfred North Whitehead," Templeton foundation Press. ISBN 978-1-59947-132-7
* Nobo, Jorge L., 1986. "Whitehead's Metaphysics of Extension and Solidarity". SUNY Press.
Willard Quine, 1941, "Whitehead and the rise of modern logic" in Schilpp (1941). Reprinted in his 1995 "Selected Logic Papers". Harvard Univ. Press.
Nicholas Rescher, 1995. "Process Metaphysics". SUNY Press.
* ------, 2001. "Process Philosophy: A Survey of Basic Issues". Univ. of Pittsburg Press.
*Schilpp, Paul A., ed., 1941. "The Philosophy of A. N. Whitehead" (The Library of Living Philosophers). New York: Tudor.
*Weber, Michel, 2006. "Whitehead’s Pancreativism–The Basics". Ontos Verlag
*Will, Clifford, 1993. "Theory and Experiment in Gravitational Physics". Cambridge University Press.
* [http://www.alfred.north.whitehead.com/index.htm Whitehead homepage] (under development)
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: [http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/whitehead/ Alfred North Whitehead] " – by A. D. Irvine
* [http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/unitarians/whitehead.html A N Whitehead: New World Philosopher]
* [http://www.ctr4process.org Center for Process Studies] at the
Claremont School of Theology. Primarily concerned with the thought of Whitehead and Charles Hartshorne, and the various modes of thought that have emerged out of their work.
* [http://www.chromatika.org/ Centre de philosophie pratique « Chromatiques whiteheadiennes »]
* [http://whiteheadresearch.org/ Whitehead Research Project] Dedicated to the research of, and scholarship on, the texts, philosophy and life of Alfred North Whitehead; and explores and analyzes the relevance of Whitehead's thought in dialogue with contemporary philosophies.
*gutenberg author| id=Alfred+North+Whitehead | name=Alfred North Whitehead
*Synge, John L., " [http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0505027 Whitehead's Principle of Relativity] " on arXiv.org
*During, Elie, 2007, " [http://ciepfc.rhapsodyk.net/article.php3?id_article=136 "Philosophical twins ? Bergson and Whitehead on Langevin's Paradox and the Meaning of 'Space-Time'] " in Durand, G. & Weber, M., eds., "Alfred North Whitehead's Principles of Natural Knowledge". Frankfurt & Lancaster: Ontos Verlag.
NAME=Whitehead, Alfred North
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Whitehead, A. N.
SHORT DESCRIPTION=British mathematician and American philosopher
DATE OF BIRTH=
February 15 1861
PLACE OF BIRTH=
Ramsgate, Kent, UK
DATE OF DEATH=
December 30 1947
PLACE OF DEATH=
Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.
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