Ottoman-German Alliance

The Ottoman-German Alliance was established between the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on August 2nd, 1914. It was this binding alliance that ultimately led the Ottoman Empire to enter the First World War on the side of the Central Powers.

There was a movement in the Ottoman Empire in favour of an alliance with France and Great Britain. Figures such as Talat Pasha favored an alliance with the Allied powers. It was impossible to reconcile an alliance with the French however, as France's main ally was Russia, the long-time enemy of the Ottoman Empire since the Wars of 1828.

The Ottoman Sultan Mehmed V specifically wanted the Empire to remain a non-belligerent nation; however, pressure from Germany and Mehmed's advisor led the Empire to align with the Central Powers.

Germany needed the Ottoman Empire on its side. The Orient Express had run directly to Istanbul since 1889, and prior to the First World War the Sultan had consented to a plan to extend it through Anatolia to Baghdad under German auspices. This would strengthen the Ottoman Empire's link with industrialised Europe while also giving Germany easier access to its African colonies and to trade markets in India. To keep the Ottoman Empire from joining the Triple Entente, Germany encouraged Romania and Bulgaria to enter the Central Powers.

The secret treaty was signed between the Ottoman Empire and Germany on August 2nd, 1914, to enter the war on the side of the Central Powers, one day after Germany declared war on Russia. [ [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/turkgerm.htm The Treaty of Alliance Between Germany and Turkey] 2 August, 1914] The alliance was ratified by many high ranking Turkish officials, including Grand Vizer Said Halim Pasha, the Minister of War Enver Pasha, the Interior Minister Talat Pasha, and Head of Parliament Halil Bey.

However, there was no signature from the House of Osman, and the Sultan himself had not signed it. As the Sultan was the Commander-in-Chief of the Army, as written in the constitution, this made the legitimacy of the Alliance questionable, as this would mean that the army would not be able to fight a Jihad on behalf of the Sultan. As the Sultan had wanted the Empire to remain neutral, he did not wish to command a war himself, and as such, left the Cabinet to do much of his bidding.

ee also

* Middle Eastern theatre of World War I

Further reading

* [http://www.gwpda.org/naval/turkmill.htm First couple days]

Footnotes


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Ottoman–German Alliance — The Ottoman–German Alliance was established between the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on August 2, 1914. It was this binding alliance that ultimately led the Ottoman Empire to enter the First World War on the side of the Central Powers.… …   Wikipedia

  • Ottoman Empire — دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet i Âliyye i Osmâniyye …   Wikipedia

  • OTTOMAN EMPIRE — OTTOMAN EMPIRE, Balkan and Middle Eastern empire started by a Turkish tribe, led by ʿUthmān (1288–1326), at the beginning of the 14th century. This entry is arranged according to the following outline: sources …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Ottoman–Habsburg wars — Part of the Ottoman Wars in Europe From top left clockwise: Austrian coat of arms, Ottoman Mameluke …   Wikipedia

  • Ottoman Empire — a former Turkish empire that was founded about 1300 by Osman and reached its greatest territorial extent under Suleiman in the 16th century; collapsed after World War I. Cap.: Constantinople. Also called Turkish Empire. * * * Former empire… …   Universalium

  • German Empire — This article is about the unified German monarchy existing from 1871 to 1918. For Germany before 1806, see Holy Roman Empire. For Germany between 1918 and 1933, see Weimar Republic. For Germany between 1933 and 1945, see Nazi Germany. For German… …   Wikipedia

  • Ottoman Conquest of the Balkans — The weaknesses of the fragmented Balkan states following the death of Stefan Uroš IV Dušan of Serbia in 1355 opened wide the door to the conquest of the Balkan Peninsula by the Ottoman Turks. The Balkan states proved no match for those militantly …   Wikipedia

  • German Revolution of 1918–1919 — November Revolution redirects here. For the 1974 discovery of charm in physics, see November Revolution (physics). For the revolutions in German Confederacy in 1848, see Revolutions of 1848 in the German states. For the Russian revolution on… …   Wikipedia

  • Ottoman Caliphate — The Ottoman Caliphate, under the Ottoman Dynasty of the Ottoman Empire inherited the responsibility of the Caliphate from the Mamluks of Egypt. During the period of Ottoman growth, Ottoman rulers beginning with Mehmed II claimed the caliphal… …   Wikipedia

  • Ottoman Navy — Military of the Ottoman Empire Army: Sipahi · Akıncı · Timariot  …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”