Aarhus (Audio|Århus.ogg|Danish pronunciation: IPA| [ˈɒːhus, ˈɒːhuːˀs] ) also commonly known by its contemporary Danish spelling Århus, is the second largest city and the principal
portof Denmark, situated on the peninsula of Jutland. Aarhus is the seat of the council of Aarhus municipalityand claims the unofficial title "Capital of Jutland".Bridgwater, W. & Beatrice Aldrich. (1966) "The Columbia-Viking Desk Encyclopedia". Columbia University. p. 11.]
The city lies roughly at the geographical centre of Denmark on the peninsula of
Jutland. Forests reach from the south into the city to within a kilometre (.6 mi) of the city centre, because the city has grown around the forest, and some areas are completely surrounded by the city, such as Risskov. The city is built mostly around the harbour, which is predominantly industrial, although a large recreational marina is situated south of it as an extension.
While some of the highest points in Denmark are close to the city, the general landscape is typically hilly, interspersed with forests and meadows; the city itself is very hilly north of the centre. The coastline consists mainly of sandy beaches, but stony areas are not uncommon. Fact|date=April 2008 The immediate coastal regions are not heavily populated due to a national policy of keeping residences inland rather than crowding the coast. Fact|date=April 2008
The city lies at the junction of
railwaylines from all parts of the country. To the south west (about 21 km, 13 miles, by rail) lies a picturesque region that contains the Gudenå. Several larger lakes extend West from the Skanderborgrailway junction and rise to heights exceeding 152 metres (499 ft) in the Himmelbjerget. The railway traverses this district of moorland and woodland to Silkeborg.
Aarhus Airport, a local airport of Aarhus, is located 40 km (25 mi) north-east of Aarhus, in Tirstrup. There have been plans for constructing a new, bigger airport for a long time, but so far, the plans have not been realized.
Aarhus is served by commuter rail that connects the city it self with nearby neighbouring cities. The main station in Aarhus is
Århus Central Station, which is located in the city centre. There is also more than 20 stations in the inner city and in the suburbs.
The bishopric of Aarhus dates back to at least 951, and archaeological findings date back some 1300 years to
Vikingtimes. The city itself is presumably older than 770 AD, making Aarhus the oldest big city in Scandinavia. The favorable central position of the city within Denmark afforded it trade from Germany, the Baltic countries, the greater peninsula of Jutlandand the communities on the many smaller islands in its vicinity, which meant that trade always had a great significance to the town - a significance which is still true today.
The city did not expand outwards until the late 19th century, and
Aalborgremained the largest city on the peninsula until the 1920s. The relatively fast, albeit late, growth of the city can be ascribed to the general tendencies of a population moving from rural to urban areas during the industrial revolution. Industrialisation meant that proximity to trade routes became more important, giving the harbour city some advantages over other nearby cities as new industries came into existence.
Middle Agesthe city was called "Arus", and in Icelandic chronicles, it was known as "Áróss". It is a compound of the two words "ār", genitive of "ā" ("river", Modern Danish "å") and "ōss" ("mouth", obsolete in Modern Danish; in Modern Icelandic this word is still used for "river delta"). The city is located on the mouth of the small river, Århus Å (Å being the Danish word for a small river).
Through regular sound development, Medieval Danish "Arus" became "Aars" or "Oes", a form which persisted in the dialects of the surrounding parishes until the 20th century. In 1406 "Aarhus" became prevalent in the written sources, and gradually became the norm in the 17th century. "Aarhus" is probably a remodelling after the numerous Low German place names in "-husen", possibly as a result of the influence of German merchants.
The city is mentioned for the first time by
Adam of Bremenwho states that "Reginbrand, bishop of the church of Aarhus (Harusa)" participates in a church meeting in the city of Ingelhamin Germany. ["Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae" 2.4.]
Viking Age and before
The oldest archaeological findings in Aarhus are glass pearls which date to the end of the 7th century. Half buried
Long houses, used both as homes and workshops for the Vikings have also been found. [Hans Skov, "Aros 700-1000", in: "Vikingernes Aros" Århus 2005, 15-39.] In the houses and the adjoining archaeological layers, combs, jewelry and basic multi-purpose tools have been found that indicate the settlement is from approximately year 900. Digs in the spring of 2005 revealed a so-called city-ditch from the year 850 which might have marked the trade centre upon which the city is built.Fact|date=February 2007
The finding of six
runestones in and around Aarhus indicates the city had some significance around year 1000 as only wealthy nobles traditionally used them. [Gundhild Øeby Nissen, "Runesten", in: "Vikingernes Aros" Århus 2005, 46-51.] The center of Aarhus was once a pagan burial site until Aarhus' first church, Holy Trinity Church, a timber structure, was built upon it during the reign of Frode, King of Jutland, around 900.Damm, Annette. "Viking Aros" (2005) ISBN 87-87334-63-1]
During the wars of the 17th century, it is probable that the city suffered in a significant way. Fortifications still exist south of the city as a reminder of the German imperial campaigns between 1627 and 1629. In 1644,
Swedentaxed the city harshly and between 1657 and 1659, it was occupied by Swedish troops on several occasions. Fact|date=February 2007
In spite of these and other misfortunes, such as plague and city-wide fires, Aarhus was still quite a significant city in
Denmarkdue to its favourable geographical position which was of significant importance for trading. Trade came mainly from the inland of Jutlandbut also from Norway, Lübeck, Amsterdam, England, Franceand Spain. In the middle of the 18th century the trade fleet consisted of approximately 100 ships.Fact|date=February 2007
In the 19th century, the city gained more independence from the dominance of
Copenhagenand Hamburg. While it had been the third largest city in Jutland during the early 19th century, its population surpassed Randersin 1840 and in 1850, Ålborg, thus becoming the largest city in Jutland and the second largest in Denmark.Fact|date=February 2007
The city's material prosperity continued to increase as the harbour expanded and the railway network grew. Culturally, it marketed itself as the "Capital of Jutland" and expanded many of its cultural institutions like the national library, universities, the
Aarhus Theatreand hospitals.
Århus Domkirke, the tallest and longest cathedral in Denmark.
* Church of Our Lady, a large church .
Århus City Hall(City Hall of Århus).
Aarhus Universitet(University of Århus).
* Den Gamle By, an open air museum.
Det Jyske Musikkonservatorium(The Juttish music conservatory).
Botanisk Have(Botanical garden).
Tivoli Friheden, amusement park.
ARoS Aarhus Kunstmuseum, the main Århus arts museum.
Aarhus Kunstbygning, an arts museum.
Marselisborg Palace, the royal castle of Århus.
Aarhus Theatre, the official theater of the city.
Aarhus Dyrehave, an open air park with deers and wild boar enclosures.
Telecommunication Tower Aarhus, a 325 meter tall concrete tower with guyed mast on its top
Skejby Sygehus, the second largest hospital in Denmark
Atletion, a combinated sport venue
Kvindemuseet i Danmark. Women's Museum
Light House(under construction). Expected to be completed in 2012, it will be Denmark's tallest building.
Den Permanentea popular closed beach area, also providing views of Helgenæsand Samsøacross Århus Bay.
* Viking Museum
More than 300,000 people live within the city limits of Aarhus, [ [http://www2.aarhuskommune.dk/m0/struktur05/Befolkning/indexlevel1/indexAldersinddelinger.html Aarhus Kommunes Statistiske Årbog, 2005] ] while an additional 500,000 live in the surrounding local area of the East Jutland region. Aarhus is also a major part of the larger
East Jutland metropolitan areawith 1,200,000 inhabitants that makes East Jutland the second most-populated area in Denmark, after the Copenhagenarea. [ [http://www.dst.dk/TilSalg/Boghandel/Befolkning.aspx] DanmarksStatistik, 2006a da icon] cite web |url=http://www.trafikdage.dk/doks/endeligtpaper/tdpaper107.pdf|format=pdf|title=Fremtidens Byudvikling i Østjylland|year=2007|author=Peter Bro, Ph.D.-studerende, M.Sc., Aalborg Universitet, Henrik Harder, Lektor, Ph.D. HD.O MAA, Aalborg Universitet da icon]
Aarhus is divided into several districts and suburbs with its own postal code (Postdistrikter).
Districts (boroughs) inside the 2nd city beltway:
*Viby65,000 of the population of Aarhus are under 18 years of age. Aarhus has been growing at a steady rate of about 1% per year since 1950, when the city had about 150,000 inhabitants. The
University of Aarhusestimates an increase of around 20,000 more students in the next six years, with attendant concerns over a lack of housing. Fact|date=April 2008 In response, the city council has already initiated a large range of building projects in order to house some 100,000 new citizens before 2030 so the city population will rise to almost 400,000 inhabitants. Fact|date=April 2008
Nearly 12% of the population are immigrants, which is high for Denmark, but modest when compared to some other European cities. The largest immigrant groups in 2005 were Lebanese (4,368), Turks (3,936), Somalis (3,113), Iraqis (2,728), and Iranians (2,188). Fact|date=May 2008 These groups live mainly in the western parts of Aarhus, where the
Gelleruparea is famous for its high concentration of immigrants (88%, 2006). The vast majority of the immigrants in Gellerup are Arabs, Turks and Somali. Other large groups include Vietnamese (2,373), Poles (1,368), Germans (1,490), Afghans (1,134), Norwegians (1,111), and Britons (745).
Aarhus is a centre for education on the peninsula of
Jutlanddrawing students from a large area, especially from the western and southern parts of the peninsula. The relatively large influx of young people and students creates a natural base for cultural activities and there are many cafes and restaurants as well as discoteques, cinemas, museums, amusement parks and various other venues of entertainment. Each year the town hosts several festivals and concerts including Aarhus International Jazz Festivaland Aarhus Festugethe biggest festival in Scandinavia. The Vesterengpark facility is also a site for large popular music concerts.
One major tourist attraction in Aarhus is The Old Town ( _da. Den Gamle By), which is not actually an old part of the city itself, but a collection of historic Danish buildings gathered from all around the country. The city also hosts the
Tivoli Frihedenamusement park as well as the Deer Parksituated in the large nearby public forest.
Architecturally impressive sights include the 13th century
cathedralin the centre of the city; Århus Domkirkeis the tallest cathedral in Denmark, as well as the second tallest in Northern Europe, being only 45 cm (18 in) shorter than its counterpart in Trondheim. The Aarhus City Hallis a uniquely designed building drawn by renowned architect Arne Jacobsen, located in the city centre. The city hall is included in the national educational canon for culture as an example of important architectural work.
There are many museums scattered around the city with ARoS being the newest and largest featuring daily exhibits of contemporary art. Other museums include
Aarhus Kunstbygningalso featuring mostly contemporary art, Frihedsmuseetfocusing on the occupation and resistance movement during World War IIand Kvindemuseetmainly showcasing feminist history and culture. Being a comparably large Danish city, Aarhus has received a fair share of immigrants from various other cultures and is as such also home to one of the few ghettos in Denmark, Gellerup. The international cultures present in the community are an obvious and visible part of the city's daily life and contribute to many cultural flavours uncommon for the North, such as the Arabicthemed Bazar West, a market with shopkeepers predominantly of foreign descent.
The city has an active and visible gay and lesbian community which the city officially attempts to promote and nurture. [ [http://www.aarhus.dk/aa/portal/temaer/s_homo Homo i Århus] at "Aarhus.dk" da icon] The
Aarhus Festugefestival usually includes several exhibits, concerts or events specifically designed for these communities. There are several clubs, discos and cafes aimed at gays and lesbians: Danish D-lite (sports), Diskotek Blender (disco) or Gaia Vandreklub (hiking club) are a few examples.
It is common for tourist brochures and local politicians to refer to the town with the tongue-in-cheek slogan "The world's smallest city" [ [http://www.sologstrand.com/holiday-denmark/djursland-mols.htm Holiday Djursland and Mols ] ] reflecting the fact that the city has everything a city needs while unquestionably not a metropolis. Another popular, and perhaps better known phrase to describe the city, is "City of Smiles" - a slogan first coined by the city council in the 1930s as an advertising slogan, and which subsequently is used widely in popular culture today.
In the southern-Aarhus Marselisborg Park, the sports center named
Atletionis located comprises athletics, the football NRGi Park and the indoor sports NRGi Arena. Several sport clubs have their home ground in Atletion, including Aarhus Gymnastikforening, the Danish superliga football team, and Aarhus GF handball team, the 1960 European Cup runner-up. Although basketballis a minor sport in Denmark, Aarhus is considered the main Danish hub of the sport Fact|date=June 2007, with the local team Bakken Bearsbeing the most successful team in Denmark for the past decade.
Aarhus (and especially Atletion) has served or will serve as the host of many sport events in recent years including:
2002 European Women's Handball Championship
* 2005 European
* Denmark Open in
* UCI Women's Road Cycling World Cup
* 2006 World
2006 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships
* GF World Cup; the world's largest handball tournament for women
DanceSportIDSF World Standard 2006
The town is home to the
University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus Technical College, The Danish School of Journalismand the Engineering College of Aarhusand several other high-end education centres. It is possible to receive higher education in many areas, from engineeringand dentistryto languageand theology.
University of Aarhushas approximately 40,000 students in the city and 30,000 students at the university with approximately 5,000 new students per year. [ [http://www.au.dk/da/uddan/okau2005.htm BESTAND AF STUDERENDE, OKTOBER 2005] , Aarhus Universitet, November 21, 2005da icon]
The city council consists of 31 members elected for 4-year terms. Anybody eligible to vote and residing in
Aarhus municipalitycan run for a seat on the city council. After elections have determined the members of the city council, the council elects a mayor, 2 deputy mayors and 5 councilmen. [ [http://www.aarhuskommune.dk/portal/politik/byraad Byråd] , Aarhus Municipality, July 15 2003da icon] The current Mayorof Aarhus is Nicolai Wammenof the Social Democrats elected by the city council after the 2005 municipal elections.
The city is divided into 6 minor administrative bodies which together constitute the
magistrateled by the mayor and the 5 elected councilmen as political and administrative directors. The 6 magistrate departments of the city are the “Mayor’s Magistrate”, “Social and Employment Magistrate”, “Technology and Environment Magistrate”, “Health and Social Magistrate”, “Culture and Service Magistrate” and “Children and Youth Magistrate” and handle all the day-to-day operations of the city.
Aarhus is the seat of
Aarhus Municipality. Until the 2007 Danish Municipal Reform, which replaced the Danish counties with five regions, it was also the seat of Aarhus County, which has now been disbanded in favor of the new Region Midtjylland, its seat located in Viborg.
Aarhus has twinning agreements with
Goteborg, Aabo, Bergen, Harbin, Saint Petersburgand Julianehåb; [ [http://www.aarhuskommune.dk/portal/english?_page=international.emne/twinned_towns.htm Århus Kommune: Twinned towns ] ] and has a connection with Swansea.
Industry and business
The harbour is one of the largest industrial harbours in
Northern Europeand the largest in Denmark Fact|date=June 2007. The facilities are very modern and handle app. 12.000.000 tons of cargo (2006) and are therefore among the 100 biggest containerports in the world. [ [http://www.aarhushavn.dk/pages/regnskab/XII.htm XII.Godsomsætning] , Århus Havn, 2000 da icon] Much agricultural produce is exported, while coaland ironare among the chief imports. The harbour itself is maintained by Århus Stevedore Kompagni A/Soriginally based in Aarhus but currently operating several harbours around the world.
The region is a major producer of agricultural products with many large farms in the outlying districts. Cattle, pork and grain are the main products with a sizable related refinement industry present. Computer and technology heavy industries are mainly focused in the urban areas with an abundance of small and medium sized IT and service companies dotting the city centre. Fact|date=June 2007
Ceres Brewery, part of Royal Unibrew, was originally founded in Aarhus. Royal Unibrew has recently announced the closure of Ceres, which will take effect by the end of 2008.
Ole Barndorff-Nielsen, mathematician
Ida Corr, singer
Tina Dickow, singer
Lene Hau, physicist
Thomas Helmig, singer
Gitte Hænning, singer and film star
Camilla Martin, badminton world champion
Michael Learns to Rock, soft rock band
Kaare Norge, guitarist
Flemming Povlsen, footballer
Marc Rieper, footballer
Ole Rømer, astronomer
Jens Christian Skou, Nobel laureate
Bjarne Stroustrup, computer scientist
Stig Tøfting, footballer
Ole Worm, physician, scholar and antiquarian
Marina de Pauli,
* [http://www.aarhus.dk/aa/portal/borger/s_english "Aarhus.dk"] , official city web portal
* [http://www.visitaarhus.com/international/en-gb/menu/turist/turist-maalgruppe-forside.htm "Visit Aarhus"] , official tourism site of Aarhus
* [http://www.aarhuscity-info.dk Aarhus City Info]
* [http://webwalk.dk/locations/dk/aarhus/index.html Virtual Aarhus (newer)]
* [http://www.virtualdenmark.dk/vraarhus/index_en.html Virtual Aarhus (older)]
* [http://www.aarhuskommune.dk The Municipality of Aarhus]
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