- Transcendental Meditation
Transcendental Meditation, or TM, is the trademarked name of a
meditationtechnique introduced in 1958 by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi(1917-2008). The technique, practiced for twenty minutes twice a day while sitting with one's eyes closed, [http://tm.org "The Transcendental Meditation Program"] ] does not involve concentration or contemplation. [Shear, Jonathan (2006). "The Experience of Meditation", 25, 30-32, 43-44]
The technique is taught to new practitioners in a standardized, seven-step procedure, consisting of two introductory lectures, a personal interview, and a two-hour instruction session given on each of four consecutive days. Instruction begins with a short ceremony performed by the teacher, after which the student learns the technique and begins practicing. Subsequent sessions provide further clarification of correct practice, as well as more information about the technique. [ [http://tm.org/learn/course/index.html "The Seven-Step Course"] ] [ [http://www.maharishi.org/tm/learn_tm.html "7 Steps to Learn the TM] ]
In 1955, the Indian ascetic [Coplin, J.R. (1990)"Text and Context in the Communication of a Social Movement's Charisma, Ideology, and Consciousness: TM for India and the West". University of California, San Diego, p. 64] Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (born Mahesh Prasad Varma) began teaching a meditation technique he said was derived from the
Vedictradition; [http://www.mum.edu/tm] he gave this method the name Transcendental Meditation.
Prior to this, Maharishi had studied with
Swami Brahmananda Saraswati, serving as his secretary from 1941 until Brahmananda Saraswati's death in 1953. In 1957, Maharishi began the Spiritual Regeneration Movement in Madras, India, on the concluding day of a festival held in remembrance of his deceased teacher. In 1958 he began the first of a number of worldwide tours promoting and disseminating his technique.
In the early 1970s, Maharishi undertook to establish one Transcendental Meditation teaching center for each million of the world's population, which at that time would have meant 3,600 Transcendental Meditation centers throughout the world. In 1990, Maharishi began the coordination of the teaching of the Transcendental Meditation technique from the town of Vlodrop, the Netherlands, through an organization he called the Global Country of World Peace. This group reports that more than 6 million people worldwide have learned the Transcendental Meditation technique since its introduction. [ [http://tm.org "The Transcendental Meditation Program"] ]
Effect on the physiology
Research studies have described specific physiological effects that occur during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. The first of these studies was published in the early 1970s, in "Science" [Wallace RK. "Physiological effects of Transcendental Meditation". Science 1970;167:1751–1754] , "American Journal of Physiology", [Wallace RK, Benson H, Wilson AF. "A wakeful hypometabolic physiologic state". American Journal of Physiology 1971;221:795-799] and "Scientific American" [Wallace RK. The Physiology of Meditation. Scientific American 1972;226:84-90] . This research found that the Transcendental Meditation technique produced a physiological state that the researchers called a "wakeful hypometabolic state." During the practice of the technique the researchers found significant reductions in respiration, minute ventilation, tidal volume, blood
lactate, and significant increases in basal skin resistance, while EEG measurements showed increased coherence and integration of brain functioning, [Dillbeck, M.C. and E.C. Bronson: 1981, "Short-term longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on EEG power and coherence", International Journal of Neuroscience 14, pp. 147-151] . In 1987 researchers at Maharishi University of Management, Dillbeck, M.C., and D.W. Orme-Johnson, concluded that the physiology was alert rather than asleep during TM practice. [Dillbeck, M.C., and D.W. Orme-Johnson: 1987, "Physiological differences between Transcendental Meditation and rest", "American Psychologist" 42, pp. 879-881]
Range of studies
Studies have suggested a positive correlation between the Transcendental Meditation technique and possible health-related physiological states, including improvement in lung function for patients with asthma, [Wilson, AF., Honsberger, R., Chiu, JT., Novey, HS. "Transcendental meditation and asthma." "Respiration",
1975, 74-80.] reduction of high blood pressure, ["Hypertension 26": 820–827, 1995] an effect the researchers termed "younger biological age", ["International Journal of Neuroscience 16": 53–58, 1982] decreased insomnia, ["Journal of Counseling and Development 64": 212–215, 1985] reduction of high cholesterol, ["Journal of Human Stress 5": 24-27, 1979] reduced illness and medical expenditures, ["The American Journal of Managed Care 3": 135–144, 1997] decreased outpatient visits, ["The American Journal of Managed Care 3": 135–144, 1997] decreased cigarette smoking, ["Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11": 13–87, 1994] decreased alcohol use, ["Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11": 13–87, 1994] . and decreased anxiety. ["Journal of Clinical Psychology 45": 957–974, 1989] .
In a 1975 study published in the journal "Respiration", twenty one patients with
bronchial asthma(who were excluded for significant emphysemaby single breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide) were studied in a six month RCT designed study, (with the researchers but not the patients blind to the treatment modality) using the Transcendental Meditation technique and employing a crossover trialformat using reading as a crossover control. The researchers concluded that based on the marked reduction in asthma symptom-severity duration, a statistically significant improvement of pulmonary function testabnormalities (in raw measured values of cm/H2O/liter/sec determined using spirometryand body plethysmography), and from subject and physician evaluations, that the practice of the TM is a useful adjunct in the treatment of asthma. [Wilson, AF., Honsberger, R., Chiu, JT., Novey, HS. "Transcendental meditation and asthma." "Respiration", 1975, 74-80.]
In 1976 a study published in "
The Lancet", seven hypertensivepatients learned the Transcendental Meditation technique with six patients showing significant reductions in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure(BP) during the first three months of meditation practice. During the second three months of the six month study, three of the patients continued to show reductions of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. [Blackwell, B., Bloomfield, S., Gartside, P., Robinson, A., Hanenson, I., Magenheim, H., Nidich, S., Zigler, R. "Transcendental meditation in hypertension. Individual response patterns." "The Lancet", January 31, 1976, 223-6.]
Another study published in the Lancet in 1977 which involved 20 hypertensive patients, found that the Transcendental Meditation technique was associated with a significant reduction of systolic blood pressure and
pulse ratein the first 3 months of practice, but that this effect did not continue for most of the patients during the second three months of the six month study, which on average showed no significant change of BP from baseline values during that second three month time period. [Pollack, A. A., Weber, M. A., Case, D. B., Laragh, J. H. "Limitations of Transcendental Meditation in the treatment of essential hypertension." "The Lancet", January 8, 1977, 71-73.]
In 2005, the "
American Journal of Cardiology" published a review of two studies that looked at stress reduction with the Transcendental Meditation technique and mortality among patients receiving treatment for high blood pressure. [cite web | title = "Long-Term Effects of Stress Reduction on Mortality in Persons >55 Years of Age With Systemic Hypertension" | url = http://188.8.131.52/TM_and_mortality.pdf | author = Schneider RH et al. | citation = Am J Cardiol 2005;95:1060–1064 | accessdate = 2006-09-12 ] This study was a long-term, randomized trial. It evaluated the death rates of 202 men and women, average age 71, who had mildly elevated blood pressure. The study tracked subjects for up to 18 years and found that the group practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique had death rates that were reduced by 23%. Also in 2005, the " American Journal of Hypertension" published the results of a study that found the Transcendental Meditation technique may be useful as an adjunct in the long-term treatment of hypertensionamong African-Americans. [cite web | title = "A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction in African Americans treated for hypertension for over one year" | url = http://www.ajh-us.org/article/PIIS0895706104010088/abstract | author = Schneider RH et al.|accessdate = 2006-09-12]
In 2006, a study involving 103 subjects published in the
American Medical Association's "Archives of Internal Medicine" found that coronary heart diseasepatients who practiced the Transcendental Meditation technique for 16 weeks showed improvements in blood pressure, insulin resistance, and autonomic nervous system tone, compared with a control group of patients who received health education. [ [http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/short/166/11/1218 "Effects of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Transcendental Meditation on Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects With Coronary Heart Disease"] , "Archives of Internal Medicine", Maura Paul-Labrador et al,, Vol. 166 No. 11, June 12, 2006]
American Heart Associationhas published two studies on the Transcendental Meditation technique. In 2000, the association's journal, "Stroke," published a study involving 127 subjects that found that, on average, the hypertensive, adult subjects who practiced the Transcendental Meditation technique daily experienced reduced thickening of coronary arteries, thereby decreasing the risk of heart attack and stroke. After six to nine months, carotid intima-media thickness decreased in the group that was practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique as compared with matched control subjects. ["Stroke". 2000 Mar;31(3):568-73.] The association's journal "Hypertension" published the results of a randomized, controlled trial in which a group of older African-Americans practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique had reduced blood pressure. [ [http://hyper.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/26/5/820 "A Randomized Controlled Trial of Stress Reduction for Hypertension in Older African Americans"] , Robert H. Schneider et al, "Hypertension", 1995, 26: 820-827]
Also in 2006, a
functional MRIstudy of 24 patients conducted at and published in "NeuroReport" found that the long-term practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique may reduce the affective/motivational dimension of the brain's response to pain.. [cite web | title = "Neuroimaging of meditation's effect on brain reactivity to pain" | url = http://www.neuroreport.com/pt/re/neuroreport/abstract.00001756-200608210-00026.htm;jsessionid=FG1JDGN8fXtCs1LW2Lcv51LdS2Pvz1D88ylnnGy9d5djbymvYPQS!1230047961!-949856144!8091!-1?index=1&database=ppvovft&results=1&count=10&searchid=1&nav=search | author = Orme-Johnson DW et al. | Publisher = NeuroReport | citation = Neuroreport. 17(12):1359-1363, August 21, 2006| accessdate = 2006-09-12 ]
In 2008, researchers at the University of Kentucky conducted a meta-analysis of nine qualifying RCT published studies which used Transcendental Meditation to address patients with hypertension, and found that on average across all nine studies, the practice of TM was associated with approximate reductions of 4.7 mm Hg systolic blood pressure and 3.2 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure. The researchers concluded that "...Sustained blood pressure reductions of this magnitude are likely to significantly reduce risk for cardiovascular disease.". The study was published in the March, 2008, issue of the "American Journal of Hypertension". [cite web| title=My Blood Pressure| article=Transcendental meditation and blood pressure| url=http://www.my-blood-pressure.com/transcendental-meditation.html]
Research on cognitive function
A paper published in the "Journal of Applied Psychology" in 1978 found no effect on school grades. [Carsello, C. J. and Creaser, J. W. "Does Transcendental Meditation Training Affect Grades?" Journal of Applied Psychology, 1978, 63, 644-645.] A 1985 study in the "British Journal of Educational Psychology", and a 1989 study in "Education" showed improved academic performance. [Nidich, S.I. and Nidich, R.J. Increased academic achievement at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment: A replication study. Education 109: 302–304, 1989.] [Kember, P. The Transcendental Meditation technique and postgraduate academic performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology 55: 164–166, 1985.]
A paper published in 2001 in the journal, "Intelligence," reported the effects on 362 Taiwanese students of three randomized, controlled trials that used seven standardized tests. The trials measured the effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique, a contemplative meditative technique from the Chinese tradition, and napping, on a wide range of cognitive, emotional and perceptual functions. The three studies ranged in time from six months to one year. Results indicated that taken together the Transcendental Meditation group had significant improvement on all seven measurements compared to the non-treatment and napping control groups. Contemplative meditation showed a significant result in two categories, and napping had no effect. The results included an increase in IQ, creativity, fluid intelligence, field independence, and practical intelligence. [Intelligence (September/October 2001), Vol. 29/5, pp. 419-440]
In 2003 a study in the journal, "Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift," reviewed ten randomized, controlled trials that looked at the effect of the Transcendental Meditation technique on cognitive function. Four trials showed a significant effect on cognitive function, while the remaining trials showed mixed results. Study authors, Canter and Ernst, noted that the four positive trials used subjects who had already intended to learn the Transcendental Meditation technique, and attributed the significant positive results to an expectation effect."Canter, P., Ernst, E. (2003) "The cumulative effects of Transcendental Meditation on cognitive function—a systematic review of randomised controlled trials" Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2003 November 28;115(21-22):758-766] A 1971 survey by Leon Otis found that a significant percentage of those who practice the Transcendental Meditation technique also report feeling
anxiety, confusion, and depression. [Deane H. Shapiro and Roger N. Walsh, editors, Meditation: Classic and Contemporary Perspectives (New York: Aldine Publishing Co., 1984), p. 207] A study in the "American Journal of Managed Care" indicates that there are no known side effects associated with the Transcendental Meditation technique. [Herron, Robert E., et al: 1996, “Cost-Effective Hypertension Management: Comparison of Drug Therapies with an Alternative Program,” The American Journal of Managed Care Vol. 11, No. 4, p. 433]
Research funding from the NIH
As of 2004, the
National Institutes of Health(NIH) had spent more than $20 million funding research on the effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on heart disease [http://www.jsonline.com/story/index.aspx?id=267105] . In 1999, the NIH awarded a grant of nearly $8 million to Maharishi University of Managementto establish the first research center specializing in natural preventive medicine for minorities in the U.S. [ [http://www.usmedicine.com/article.cfm?articleID=47&issueID=12 "Vedic Medicine, Meditation Receive Federal Funds"] , "U.S. Medicine",Matt Pueschel, July 2000] The research institute, called the Institute for Natural Medicine and Prevention, was inaugurated on October 11, 1999, at the University's Department of Physiology and Health in Fairfield, Iowa. [ [http://www.mum.edu/inmp/nih "NIH Awards $8 Million Grant to Establish Research Center on Natural Medicine"] ]
Relationship to religion and spirituality
Official Transcendental Meditation websites state that the Transcendental Meditation technique is a mental technique for deep rest that is associated with specific effects on mind and body. These sites state that the Transcendental Meditation technique does not require faith, belief, or a change in lifestyle to be effective as a relaxation technique. [http://www.tm.org/discover/glance/what.html] Maharishi called the Transcendental Meditation technique "a path to God," ["Meditations of Maharishi". p. 59] and the TM technique has been described as "spiritual" but not religious, and as a coping strategy for life. [ Zellers, Kelly L., Perrewe, Pamela. “The Role of Spirituality in Occupational Stress and Well-Being”, "Handbook of Workplace Spirituality and Organizational Performance", M.E. Sharp, December 2002.]
Clergy have varying views when assessing the compatibility of the Transcendental Meditation technique with their religions. For example,
Jaime Cardinal Sin, then Catholic Archbishop of Manila, said that some concepts taught by Maharishi conflict with Christianity. [http://www.rcam.org/library/pastoral_statements/1981-1986/0025.htm] Other clergy have found the Transcendental Meditation technique to be compatible with their religious teachings and beliefs. [ Vesely,Carolin, “Its All in Your Mind” "Winnipeg Free Press", March 21, 2006.] [ Smith, Adrian B. "A Key to the Kingdom of Heaven: A Christian Understanding of Transcendental Meditation". Temple House Books, 1993. ] [ Pennington, Basil. “TM and Christian Prayer”, "Daily We Touch Him: Practical Religious Experiences". Doubleday, 1977:73 ]
In 1979 the
Third Circuit Court of Appealsruled that a curriculum in the Science of Creative Intelligence, which included the Transcendental Meditation technique, could not be taught in New Jersey public schools because it violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. [http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/estabinto.htm Introduction to the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment ] ] Malnak v. Yogi, 592 F.2d 197, 203 (3rd Cir., 1979)] [In his concurring opinion, Judge Adams said that the ceremony didn't violate the Establishment Clause because “(a) the Puja was never performed in a school classroom, or even on government property; (b) it was never performed during school hours, but only on a Sunday; (c) it was performed only once in the case of each student; (d) it was entirely in Sanskrit with neither the student nor, apparently, the teacher who chanted it, knowing what the foreign words meant. Moreover, the elements of involuntariness present in Engel and Schempp are wholly absent here.” Malnak v. Yogi, 592 F.2d 197, 203 (3rd Cir., 1979)] The court ruled that although Transcendental Meditation/Science of Creative Intelligence is not a theistic religion it deals with issues of ultimate concern, truth, and other ideas analogous to those in well-recognized religions. Because the ruling centered around a curriculum in the Science of Creative Intelligence, and because the Wallace v. Jaffreedecision in 1986 allows for quiet time/meditation with a secular purpose, instruction in the Transcendental Meditation technique has continued in public charter schools, despite comments like those of sociologist Barry Markovsky, who felt that teaching the Transcendental Meditation technique in the schools is “stealth religion." [ [http://www.gtrnews.com/greater-tulsa-reporter/753/once-grand-camelot-hotel-had-a-quick-demise "Man Fails To Fly, Sues Camlot Owner"] , "GTR News Online", Nancy K. Owens
In 1987, the
Cult Awareness Network(CAN) held a press conference and demonstration in Washington, D.C., saying that the Transcendental Meditation technique “seeks to strip individuals of their ability to think and choose freely.” Steve Hassan, author of several books on cults, and at one time a CAN deprogrammer, said in the same press conference that those who practice the Transcendental Meditation technique display cult-like behaviors. [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/longterm/cult/trans_med/tm2.htm "Group Says Movement a Cult"] , The Washington Post, Phil McCombs, July 2, 1987] These cult-like tendencies were described in Michael A. Persinger's book, "TM and Cult Mania", published in 1980. [ Michael A. Persinger et al, Christopher Pub House, May 1980, ISBN 0815803923]
David Orme-Johnson, former faculty member at
Maharishi University of Management(at which all students and faculty practice the Transcendental Meditation technique daily) who has researched the Transcendental Meditation technique and the paranormalMaharishi Effect, cites studies by Schecter [Shecter, H. The Transcendental Meditation program in the classroom: A psychological evaluation. Doctoral thesis (summary), Graduate Department of Psychology, York University, North York, Ontario, Canada. Dissertation Abstracs International 38 (07) (1977): 3372B] , Alexander [Alexander, C. N. Ego development, personality and behavioral change in inmates practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique or participating in other programs. Doctoral thesis, Department of Psychology and Social Relations, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 1982. Dissertation Abstracts International 43 (1982): 539B] , and Pelletier [Pelletier, K. R. Influence of Transcendental Meditation upon autokinetic perception. Perceptual and Motor Skills 39: 1031–1034, 1974] showing greater autonomy, innovative thought, and increases in creativity, general intelligence and moral reasoning in those who practice the Transcendental Meditation technique. According to Orme–Johnson cult followers are said to allegedly operate on blind faith and adherence to arbitrary rules and authority, while these studies would indicate the ability of those who practice the Transcendental Meditation technique to make mature, independent, principle-based judgments. [http://www.TruthAboutTM.org/truth/IndividualEffects/IsTMaCult/index.cfm www.TruthAboutTM.org/truth/IndividualEffects/IsTMaCult/index.cfm] ]
Kropinski v. WPEC
In a civil suit against the World Plan Executive Council filed in 1985, [United States District Court for the District of Columbia. Civil Suit #85-2848, 1986] Robert Kropinski claimed fraud, psychological, physical, and emotional harm as a result of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs. The district court dismissed Kropinski's claims concerning intentional tort and negligent infliction of emotional distress, and referred the claims of fraud and negligent infliction of physical and psychological injuries to a jury trial. The jury awarded Robert Kropinski $137,890 in the fraud and negligence claims. The appellate court overturned the award and dismissed Kropinski's claim alleging psychological damage. The claim of fraud and the claim of a physical injury related to his practice of the TM-Sidhi program were remanded to the lower court for retrial, and the parties then settled these remaining claims out of court. [Kropinski v. WPEC, 853 F.2d 948]
Butler/Killian vs. MUM
Two lawsuits were filed as a result of a stabbing at Maharishi University of Management in
Fairfield, Iowaon March 1, 2004[ [http://observer.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,1207936,00.html "Trouble in transcendental paradise as murder rocks the Maharishi University"] , "The Observer", May 2, 2004] The families of the murdered student and a student who was assaulted earlier in the day have sued MUM and the Maharishi Vedic Education Development Corporation. Their separate suits, filed on February 24, 2006, allege that the twice-daily practice of Transcendental Meditation, which the university requires of all students, can be dangerous for people with psychiatric problems. They also charge the university with failing to call the police or take action to protect students from a mentally ill student. [Butler v. Maharishi University of Management, US District Court, Southern District of Iowa, Central Div., Case No. 06-cv-00072] [Kilian v. Maharishi University of Management, US District Court, Southern District of Iowa]
Issue of cost
The fee for learning the Transcendental Meditation technique in the USA is $2,000 per person. The fee provides for the introductory course of seven lessons, and lifetime checking of the technique for correct practice.
In response to what they feel is a high course fee to learn the Transcendental Meditation technique, some former teachers offer TM instruction independently. [ [http://www.tm-meditation.co.uk/index1.htm "TM Independent"] ] while other former teachers have published what they claim to be the mantras used in the practice and how these mantras are assigned.
According to the official web site, the Transcendental Meditation technique can only be learned from an authorized teacher. [ [http://www.tm.org/main_pages/learn_tm.html Must be learned from a qualified teacher] ]
*Harvard reference | Given1=Daniel | Surname1=Druckman | Given2=Robert, editors, | Surname2=Bjork | Year=NRC 1991 | Title=In the Mind's Eye: Enhancing Human Performance | Place=Washington, DC | Pages=122 | Publisher=National Academy Press |
*Harvard reference | Given1=Vernon A. | Surname1=Barnes | given2=Lynnette B. | Surname2=Bauza | Given3= Frank A. | Surname3=Treiber | Title= Impact of stress reduction on negative school behavior in adolescents | Journal=Health and Quality of Life Outcomes | Year= 2003 | Volume= 1 | Issue=10 | Year= 2003| URL=http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7525-1-10
*Harvard reference | Surname1=Barnes | Given1=Vernon A. | Surname2=Treiber | Given2=Frank A. | Surname3=Davis | Given3=Harry |Authorlink= | Title=Impact of Transcendental Meditation1 on cardiovascular function at rest and during acute stress in adolescents with high normal blood pressure | Journal=Journal of Psychosomatic Research | Volume= 51 | Issue=4 | Year=2001 | Page=597-605 | URL=http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3999(01)00261-6
*Harvard reference | Given1=John S. | Surname1=Hagelin | Given2=Maxwell V. | Surname2=Rainforth| Given3= David W. | Surname3=Orme-Johnson | Given4=Kenneth L. | Surname4=Cavanaugh | Given5=Charles N. | Surname5=Alexander | Given6=Susan F. | Surname6=Shatkin | Given7=John L. Surname7=Davies | Given8=Anne O. | Surname8=Hughes | Given9=Emanuel| Surname9= Ross | Title= Effects of Group Practice of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Preventing Violent Crime in Washington, D.C.: Results of the National Demonstration Project, June—July 1993 | Journal=Social Indicators Research | Publisher=Springer | Volume=47| Issue=2| Page=153-201| Year=1999| URL= http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/soci/1999/00000047/00000002/00198917?
*Harvard reference | Given1=Christopher R. K.|Surname1= MacLean| Given2=Kenneth G. | Surname2=Walton | Given3=Stig R. | Surname3=Wenneberg | Given4=Debra K. | Surname4=Levitsky| Given5=Joseph P. | Surname5=Mandarino | Given6=Rafiq | Surname6=Waziri | Given7=Stephen L.| Surname7= Hillis | Given8=Robert H. Surname8=Schneider| Title= Effects of the Trancendentale Meditation program on adaptive mechanism: changes in hormone levels and responses to stress after 4 months of practice | Journal=Psychoneuroendocrinology | Volume= 22| Issue=4 | Year= 1997| Page=227-295| URL= http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4530(97)00003-6
*Harvard reference | Given1= Robert A. |Surname1=Rabinoff | Given2=Michael C. | Surname2=Dillbeck | Given3=Robert | Surname3=Deissler | Title=Effect of coherent collective consciousness on the weather | Journal=Scientific Research On Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Programme - Collected Papers | Volume=4, paper 324 | Issue=| Year=1981 | Page=2564-2565 | URL=http://www.mum.edu/tm_research/tm_biblio/socio_c.html
*Harvard reference | First=James| Last=Randi | Year=1982 | Title= Flim-Flam! Psychics, ESP, Unicorns, and Other Delusions; [introduction by Isaac Asimov] | Chapter=Chapter 5, "The Giggling Guru: A Matter of Levity"| Editor= | Others=| Place=Buffalo, New York|Pages= | Publisher=Prometheus Books| ID=ISBN 0-87975-198-3 | URL=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0879751983| Authorlink= James_Randi
*Harvard reference | Given1= Maura | Surname1=Paul-Labrador | Given2=Donna | Surname2=Polk | Given3= James | Surname3=Dwyer | Given4=Ivan | Surname4=Velasquez | Given5= sanford | Surname5=Nidich | Given6=Maxwell | Surname6=Rainforth | Given7= Robert | Surname7=Schneider | Given8=C. Noel Bairey | Surname8=Merz | Title = Effects of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Transcendental Meditation on Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects With Coronary Heart Disease | Journal=Archives of Internal Medicine | Volume=166 | Year=2006 | Page=1218-1224 | URL=http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/short/166/11/1218
*Harvard reference | Given1= Frederick |Surname1=Travis | Given2=Alarik | Surname2=Arenander | Given3=David | Surname3= DuBois | Title = Psychological and physiological characteristics of a proposed object-referral/self-referral continuum of self-awareness | Journal=Consciousness and Cognition | Volume= 13 | Year=2004 | Page=401-420 |URL= http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2004.03.001
Geoff Gilpin, "The Maharishi Effect: A Personal Journey Through the Movement That Transformed American Spirituality", Tarcher-Penguin 2006, ISBN 1-58542-507-9
*Kropinski v. World Plan Executive Council, 853 F, 2d 948, 956 (D.C. Cir, 1988)
* [http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0140192476 Maharishi Mahesh Yogi on the Bhagavad-Gita : A New Translation and Commentary, Chapters 1-6]
* [http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0452282667 Maharishi Mahesh Yogi: Science of Being and Art of Living : Transcendental Meditation]
*Harvard reference | First=Paul| Last=Mason | Year=2005 | Title=Maharishi Mahesh Yogi: The Biography of the Man Who Gave Transcendental Meditation to the World | Chapter= | Editor= | Others=Language: English | Pages=335 pages | Publisher=Evolution Publishing | ID=ISBN 0-9550361-0-0| URL=http://www.maharishibiography.com | Authorlink=
*Harvard reference | First=Michael| Last=Persinger | Year=1980 | Title=TM and Cult Mania | Chapter= | Editor= | Others=Language: English | Pages=198 pages | Publisher=Christopher Pub House | ID=ISBN 0-8158-0392-3 | URL= | Authorlink=
* [http://www.davidlynchfoundation.com/ The David Lynch Foundation For Consciousness-Based Education and World Peace]
* [http://www.theheart.org/article/714763.do Transcendental meditation improves blood pressure, insulin resistance] June 16, 2006
* [http://behind-the-tm-facade.org/ "Behind the TM Facade"] - Criticizes claims made by the TM organization.
* [http://www.tm.org/] - The official TM site.
* [http://www.suggestibility.org "Falling Down the TM Rabbit Hole - How TM Really Works, a Critical Opinion"] - Criticism of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and TM by a former TM teacher.
* [http://www.minet.org/ Meditation Information Network] - Web site supporting critical examination of Transcendental Meditation and associated programs. Includes archived newsletters of TM-EX, the Transcendental Meditation Ex-Members Support Group (1990 - 1994).
* [http://www.freedomofmind.com/resourcecenter/groups/t/tm/ "Transcendental Meditation"] -- Links to
Steven Hassan's "Freedom of Mind Center".
* [http://www.mum.edu/tm_research "Research on the Transcendental Meditation Technique"] .
* [http://www.transcendentalconsciousness.com/transcendental_meditation_technique.htm "Transcendental Meditation and Transcendental Consciousness"] .
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.