Cartridge (electronics)

Cartridge (electronics)

In various types of electronic equipment, a cartridge can refer one method of adding different functionality or content (e.g. a video game cartridge), or a method by which consumables may be replenished (e.g. an ink cartridge for a printer). The term cartridge tends to be applied loosely to a large range of techniques which conform to this general description.

In general the term tends to mean any detachable sub-unit that is held within its own container. The term cassette has a similar meaning. A video game cartridge may also be referred to as a cart or game pak.

Music

The 4-track cartridge and 8-track cartridge are analogue music storage formats popular from the late 1960s to the early 1980s. Here, a cartridge contains audio tape, thus providing different content using the same player. The cartridge containing the tape permits ease of handling of the fragile tape, making it far more convenient and robust than having loose tape.

The pickup on modern turntables for playing records is called a cartridge. For more information on this, see magnetic cartridge.

Software

A cartridge may be one method of running different software programs within a general purpose computer. This system was popularised by early home computers such as the Atari 400/800 and Commodore 64, where a special bus port was provided for the insertion of cartridges containing software in ROM. In most cases the designs were fairly crude, with the entire address and data buses exposed by the port; the cartridge was memory mapped directly into the system's address space. This type of system was pioneered on earlier home TV game systems, and until recently remained a popular approach with modern games consoles. The advantage of cartridges over other approaches such as loading software from other media is that the software is instantly available, with no loading time, and it is held in a very robust and hence damage-resistant form. However this damage resistance depended on design. While being easier to protect than a CD, which is easily scratched, or a Tape, which is easily pulled apart, the chips inside the cartridge could be easily damaged with enough shock. If the case did not keep the chips stable, they were easily damaged.

Also of note, the connections being exposed could be broken or worn down. Also, if a foreign substance accumulated on the contacts then the cartridge may not interface with the system.

Notable computers using cartridges in addition to magnetic media were the Commodore VIC-20 and 64, the Atari 8-bit family (400/800/XL/XE), the Texas Instruments TI-99/4A (where they were called "Solid State Command Modules" and weren't directly mapped to the system bus) and the IBM PCjr (where the cartridge was mapped into BIOS space).

From the late 1970s to mid-1990s, the majority of home video game systems were cartridge-based. When CD technology came to be used widely for data storage, most hardware companies moved from cartridges to CD-based game systems, since CD-ROMs were much cheaper to produce and could hold more content. Nintendo remained the lone hold-out, and did not create an optical-media based system until several years later, instead opting to make their next generation system, the Nintendo 64, cartridge-based. This move was questioned by many industry insiders, who argued that cartridge-based games could never be as long or complex as CD based games, such as those found on competitor systems like the Sony PlayStation and Sega Saturn, and that the relatively high manufacturing costs of cartridges compared to optical media would make cartridge based systems uncompetitive on price. The economic consequences Nintendo suffered as a result of this gamble are often regarded as marking the end of cartridge-based home gaming systems. However, despite the smaller storage capacity, Nintendo 64 cartridges enabled faster load times and stronger copy-protection features compared to it's competitors.

By 2001, improved loading times for disc-based games led Nintendo to release its next gaming system, the GameCube, with a proprietary mini DVD-based format that had greater copy-protection than the standard DVD.Fact|date=July 2007Games cartridge capacities are often misquoted. Although the '90s practice of citing memory capacity in 'megs'—deliberately not drawing the distinction between megabits and megabytes—has now disappeared, games software cartridges are still often described as '512 megabit' instead of the more meaningful '64 megabyte', for example.

Washing

One early form of automatic washing machine manufactured by Hoover used cartridges to programme different wash cycles. This system, called the "Keymatic", used plastic cartridges with key-like slots and ridges around the edges. The cartridge was inserted into a slot on the machine and a mechanical reader operated the machine accordingly. The system did not really take off, since it offered no real advantage over the more conventional programme dial, and the cartridges were prone to getting lost. In hindsight it can be seen as a marketing gimmick rather than offering any really useful functionality.

Blowing

One of the common issues with cartridge based systems was when foreign objects would get between the cartridge and the slot. This was usually something small such as dust or a piece of material.

As a result, the easiest solution was often to simply blow as hard as humanly possible in the slot/cartridge.This often solved simple blockage issues.

Ink

Replacement of consumables is an important use for cartridges. They are typically used in printers to hold the ink in the case of inkjet printers (see: ink cartridge), or toner for laser printers.

See also

* ROM cartridge

Footnotes


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cartridge — can refer to: *Cartridge (electronics), a module to be inserted into a larger piece of equipment *4 track cartridge, an analogue music storage format popular from the late 1950s to the early 1970s *8 track cartridge, an analogue music storage… …   Wikipedia

  • cartridge — Pickup Pick up, or Pick up Pick up , n. [Colloq., Cant, or Slang] 1. Act of picking up, as, in various games, the fielding or hitting of a ball just after it strikes the ground. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] 2. That which picks up; specif.: (Elec.) same… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Ink cartridge — An ink cartridge is a replaceable component of an ink jet printer that contains the ink (and sometimes the print head itself) that is spread on paper during printing.Each ink cartridge contains one or more partitioned ink reservoirs; certain… …   Wikipedia

  • Disk cartridge — has several meanings related to computer storage. Contents 1 1960s storage medium 2 Modern storage medium 3 Protective casing 4 See also …   Wikipedia

  • ROM cartridge — A ROM cartridge is a removable cartridge that contains ROM devices and commonly, flash memory devices to allow some read write capability.Uses of ROM cartridges*Video games (Atari systems, NES, SNES, Nintendo 64, Game Boy series, Sega… …   Wikipedia

  • Tiger Electronics — is not to be confused with the appliance maker Tiger Corporation, the electronics retailer Tiger Direct or the producer of Gizmondo, Tiger Telematics. Tiger Electronics is an American toy manufacturer, best known for its handheld LCD games, the… …   Wikipedia

  • T89 Cartridge Converter — The T89 cartridge converter was a 60 to 72 pin adaptor that allowed people to plug a 60 pin Famicom game into a 72 pin based NES.HistoryThe original Nintendo console released in Japan (The Famicom) used a 60 pin cartridge for games. When Nintendo …   Wikipedia

  • Broadcast Electronics — (BE) is a manufacturer of electronic equipment for the broadcast industry. Founded in 1959 in Silver Spring, Maryland, BE initially manufactured only endless loop cartridge cart machines for audio. The company now manufactures broadcast… …   Wikipedia

  • CART (disambiguation) — Cart may refer to: * Cart, a vehicle used for transport * Fidelipac, a type of audio tape cartridge * Cartridge (electronics), a method of adding functionality or contentCART may stand for: * Championship Auto Racing Teams, the former name of… …   Wikipedia

  • Cars (video game) — Infobox VG title = Cars caption = Nintendo DS version cover art developer = THQ#Rainbow Studios Pacific Coast Power Light (PSP) Capybara Games (Mobile) publisher = THQ designer = engine = version = released =PS2, PSP, GameCube, Nintendo DS GBA… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.