ISO 9

The international standard ISO 9 establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of Cyrillic characters constituting the alphabets of many Slavic and some non-Slavic languages.

The major advantage ISO 9 has over other competing systems is its univocal system of one character for one character equivalents (by the use of diacritics), which faithfully represents the original spelling and allows for reverse transliteration, even if the language is unknown.

Earlier versions of the standard, ISO/R 9:1954, ISO/R 9:1968 and ISO 9:1986, were more closely based on the international scholarly system for linguistics (scientific transliteration), but have diverged in favour of unambiguous transliteration over phonemic representation.The edition of 1995 cancels and replaces the edition of 1986.

ISO 9:1995

The standard features three mapping tables, the first covers contemporary Slavic languages, the second older Slavic orthographies (excluding letters from the first), and the third non-Slavic languages (including most letters from the first). Several Cyrillic characters included in ISO 9 are not available as precomposed characters in Unicode, neither are some of the transliterations; combining diacritical marks have to be used in these cases. Unicode, on the other hand, includes some historic characters that are not dealt with in ISO 9.

The following combined table shows characters for at least Abkhaz, Altay, Belarusian, Bulgarian, Buryat, Chuvash, Karachay-Balkar, Macedonian, Moldavian, Mongolian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, Udmurt, Ukrainian, and all Caucasian languages using páločka.

National adoptions

The verbatim translated text of the ISO 9 is adopted as an inter-state standard in the countries listed below (the national designation is shown in parentheses). However, in reality, these countries use their own transliteration systems, based on the phonetic rules of their languages.

* (GOST 7.79)
* (GOST 7.79)
* (GOST 7.79)
* (GOST 7.79–2000, adopted 2003-03-01) ["Система стандартов по информации, библиотечному и издательскому делу (СИБИД), действующих в Республике Беларусь", item 55 "(Sistema standartov po informacii, bibliotečnomu i izdatel'skomu delu (SIBID), dejstvuûŝih v Respublike Belarus')"]
* (GOST 7.79)
* (GOST 7.79)
* (GOST 7.79)
* (GOST 7.79)
* (GOST 7.79)

ISO/R 9:1968

This is an older version of the standard, with different transliteration for different Slavic languages, reflecting their phonemic differences. It is closer to the original international system of slavist scientific transliteration.

The languages covered are Bulgarian, Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Serbian and Macedonian. ISO 9:1995 is shown for comparison.

; Bulgarian: ъ and ѫ are not transliterated at the end of a word.; Russian and Belarusian: ъ is not transliterated at the end of a word.

ub-standards

ISO/R 9 - 1968 permits some deviations from the main standard. In the table below, they are listed in the columns "sub-standard 1" and "sub-standard 2" .
*The first sub-standard defines some language-dependent transliterations for Russian (ru), Ukrainian (uk), Belarusian (be) and Bulgarian (bg).
*The second sub-standard permits, in countries where tradition favours it, a set of alternative transliterations, but only as a group.

References

*IDS (Informationsverbund Deutschschweiz, 2001) "Katalogisierungsregeln IDS (KIDS), Anhänge, “ [http://www.informationsverbund.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/dokumente/katalogisierung/kids/kids_francais/kapg4.pdf IDS G.4: Transliteration der slavischen kyrillischen Alphabete] ”". Universität Zürich. URL accessed on 2006-02-16 (PDF format, in German)—ISO/R 9 1968 standardization of scientific transliteration.

ee also

* Romanization of Russian
* List of ISO transliterations
* GOST standards

External links

* [http://www.translit.us/ Online Russian Transliterator, which supports ISO 9 Standard] - "ISO 9" transliteration method must be selected.
* [http://transliteration.eki.ee/ Transliteration of Non-Roman Scripts] - A collection of writing systems and transliteration tables, by Thomas T. Pedersen. PDF reference charts include ISO 9.
* [http://www.iso.org/iso/en/CatalogueDetailPage.CatalogueDetail?CSNUMBER=3589 ISO 9:1995 at ISO.org]
* [http://www.unics.uni-hannover.de/ntr/russisch/umschrifttabelle.html Umschrift des russischen Alphabets] —Russian transliteration in several systems, including DIN 1460 (1982) [= ISO/R9:1968] .
* [http://www.russki-mat.net/trans.htm Transliteration of Russian into various European languages]
* [http://www.allmend-ru.de/tools/javascript-transliteration/ Online Transliteration (JavaScript)]


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