World (philosophy)

World (philosophy)

In philosophy, the World is everything that makes up reality. While clarifying the concept of world has arguably always been among the basic tasks of Western philosophy, this theme appears to have been raised explicitly only at the start of the twentieth century [Heidegger, Martin. Basic Problems of Phenomenology. Indiana University Press. 1982. P. 165] and has been the subject of continuous debate. The question of what the world "is" has by no means been settled.

Two definitions that were both put forward in the 1920s, however, suggest the range of available opinion. "The world is everything that is the case," wrote Ludwig Wittgenstein in his influential Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, first published in 1922. This definition would serve as the basis of logical positivism, with its assumption that there is exactly one world, consisting of the totality of facts, regardless of the interpretations that individual people may make of them.

Martin Heidegger, meanwhile, argued that "the surrounding world is different for each of us, and notwithstanding that we move about in a common world" [Heidegger, Martin. Basic Problems of Phenomenology. Indiana University Press. 1982. P. 164] . The world, for Heidegger, was that into which we are "thrown" willy-nilly and with which we, as beings-in-the-world, must come to terms. His conception of "the world-hood of the world" was most notably elaborated in his 1927 work "Being and Time".

Some philosophers, often inspired by David Lewis, argue that metaphysical concepts such as possibility, probability and necessity are best analyzed by comparing "the" world to a range of possible worlds; a view commonly known as modal realism.

See also

*Weltanschauung
*Metaphysics
*Dasein
*Existence
*Idealism

References


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