Biosphere

The biosphere is the broadest level of ecological study, the global sum of all ecosystems. From the broadest biophysiological point of view, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. This biosphere is postulated to have evolved, beginning through a process of biogenesis or biopoesis, at least some 3.5 billion years ago. [cite book | last = Campbell | first = Neil A. | authorlink = | coauthors = Brad Williamson; Robin J. Heyden | title = Biology: Exploring Life | publisher = Pearson Prentice Hall | date = 2006 | location = Boston, Massachusetts | pages = | url = http://www.phschool.com/el_marketing.html | doi = | id = | isbn = 0-13-250882-6 ]

Origin and use of the term

The term "biosphere" was coined by geologist Eduard Suess in 1875, which he defined as: [Seuss, E. (1875) "Die Entstehung Der Alpen" ["The Origin of the Alps"] . Vienna: W. Braunmuller.]

quote|"the place on earth's surface where life dwells."

While this concept has a geological origin, it is an indication of the impact of both Darwin and Maury on the earth sciences. The biosphere's ecological context comes from the 1920s ("see" Vladimir I. Vernadsky), preceding the 1935 introduction of the term "ecosystem" by Sir Arthur Tansley (see ecology history). Vernadsky defined ecology as the science of the biosphere. It is an interdisciplinary concept for integrating astronomy, geophysics, meteorology, biogeography, evolution, geology, geochemistry, hydrology and, generally speaking, all life and earth sciences.

Narrow definition

Some life scientists and earth scientists use "biosphere" in a more limited sense. For example, geochemists define the biosphere as being the total sum of living organisms (the "biomass" or "biota" as referred to by biologists and ecologists). In this sense, the biosphere is but one of four separate components of the geochemical model, the other three being "lithosphere", "hydrosphere", and "atmosphere". The narrow meaning used by geochemists is one of the consequences of specialization in modern science. Some might prefer the word "ecosphere", coined in the 1960s, as all encompassing of both biological and physical components of the planet.

The Second International Conference on Closed Life Systems defined biospherics as the science and technology of analogs and models of Earth's biosphere; i.e., artificial Earth-like biospheres. Others may include the creation of artificial non-Earth biospheres — for example, human-centered biospheres or a native Martian biosphere — in the field of biospherics.

Gaia hypothesis

The concept that the biosphere is itself a living organism, either actually or metaphorically, is known as the Gaia hypothesis.

James Lovelock, an atmospheric scientist from the United Kingdom, proposed the Gaia hypothesis to explain how biotic and abiotic factors interact in the biosphere. This hypothesis considers Earth itself a kind of living organism. Its atmosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere are cooperating systems that yield a biosphere full of life. in the early 1970s, Lynn Margulis, a microbiologist from the United States, added to the hypothesis specifically noting the ties between the biosphere and other Earth systems. For example, when carbon dioxide levels increase in the atmosphere, plants grow more quickly. As their growth continue, they remove more and more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Many scientists are now devoting their careers to organizing new fields of study, such as geobiology and geomicrobiology, to examine these intriguing relationships .

Extent of Earth's biosphere

Nearly every part of the planet, from the polar ice caps to the Equator, supports life of some kind. Recent advances in microbiology have demonstrated that microbes live deep beneath the Earth's terrestrial surface, and that the total mass of microbial life in so-called "uninhabitable zones" may, in biomass, exceed all animal and plant life on the surface. The actual thickness of the biosphere on earth is difficult to measure. Birds typically fly at altitudes of 650 to 2000 meters, and fish that live deep underwater can be found down to -8,372 meters in the Puerto Rico Trench. [cite book | last = Campbell | first = Neil A. | authorlink = | coauthors = Brad Williamson; Robin J. Heyden | title = Biology: Exploring Life | publisher = Pearson Prentice Hall | date = 2006 | location = Boston, Massachusetts | pages = | url = http://www.phschool.com/el_marketing.html | doi = | id = | isbn = 0-13-250882-6 ]

There are more extreme examples for life on the planet: Rüppell's Vulture has been found at altitudes of 11,300 meters; Bar-headed Geese migrate at altitudes of at least 8,300 meters (over Mount Everest); Yaks live at elevations between 3,200 to 5,400 meters above sea level; mountain goats live up to 3,050 meters. Herbivorous animals at these elevations depend on lichens, grasses, and herbs but the biggest tree is the Tine palm or mountain coconut found 3,400 meters above sea level.

Microscopic organisms live at such extremes that, taking them into consideration puts the thickness of the biosphere much greater. Culturable microbes have been found in the Earth's upper atmosphere as high as 41km (Wainwright et al, 2003, in FEMS Microbiology Letters). It is unlikely, however, that microbes are active at such altitudes, where temperatures and air pressure are extremely low and ultraviolet radiation very high. More likely these microbes were brought into the upper atmosphere by winds or possibly volcanic eruptions. Barophilic marine microbes have been found at more than 10km depth in the Marianas Trench (Takamia et al, 1997, in FEMS Microbiology Letters). Microbes are not limited to the air, water or the Earth's surface. Culturable thermophilic microbes have been extracted from cores drilled more than 5km into the Earth's crust in Sweden (Gold, 1992, and Szewzyk, 1994, both in PNAS), from rocks between 65-75C. Temperature increases rapidly with increasing depth into the Earth's crust. The speed at which the temperature increases depends on many factors, including type of crust (continental vs. oceanic), rock type, geographic location, etc. The upper known limit of microbial is 122C ("Methanopyrus kandleri" Strain 116), and it is likely that the limit of life in the "deep biosphere" is defined by temperature rather than absolute depth.

Our biosphere is divided into a number of biomes, inhabited by broadly similar flora and fauna. On land, biomes are separated primarily by latitude. Terrestrial biomes lying within the Arctic and Antarctic Circles are relatively barren of plant and animal life, while most of the more populous biomes lie near the equator. Terrestrial organisms in temperate and Arctic biomes have relatively small amounts of total biomass, smaller energy budgets, and display prominent adaptations to cold, including world-spanning migrations, social adaptations, homeothermy, estivation and multiple layers of insulation.

pecific biospheres

When the word "Biosphere" is followed by a number, it is usually referring to a specific system. Thus:
* Biosphere 1 - The planet Earth
* Biosphere 2 - A laboratory in Arizona which contains 3.15 acres (13,000 m²) of closed ecosystem.
* BIOS-3 was a closed ecosystem at the Institute of Biophysics in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, in what was then the Soviet Union.
* Biosphere J (CEEF, Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities) - An experiment in Japan. [Nakano "et al."(1998)" [http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110002396764/ Dynamic Simulation of Pressure Control System for the Closed Ecology Experiment Facility] ", "Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers." 64:107-114.] [ [http://www.ies.or.jp/index_e.html Institute for Environmental Sciences] ]

ee also

* Back-contamination
* Biome
* Biosphere reserve
* Cryosphere
* Earth's atmosphere
* Geosphere
* Homeostasis
* Hydrosphere
* Life support system
* Lithosphere
* Noosphere
* Shadow biosphere
* Thomas Gold
* Montreal Biosphère

References

External links

* [http://www.eoearth.org/article/Biosphere Article on the Biosphere at Encyclopedia of Earth]
* [http://www.globio.info/ GLOBIO.info] , an ongoing programme to map the past, current and future impacts of human activities on the biosphere
* [http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/111 Paul Crutzen Interview] Freeview video of Paul Crutzen Nobel Laureate for his work on decomposition of ozone talking to Harry Kroto Nobel Laureate by the Vega Science Trust.


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