- Allen Ginsberg
name = Allen Ginsberg
caption = Allen Ginsberg in 1978
birthname = Irwin Allen Ginsberg
birthdate = birth date|1926|6|3|mf=y
Newark, New Jersey, United States
deathdate = death date and age|1997|4|5|1926|6|3|mf=y
New York City, New York, United States
occupation = poet, activist, essayist
movement = Beat, New American Poets, Hippies,
Neal Cassady, Jack Kerouac, Wavy Gravy, Gregory Corso, William S. Burroughs, William Blake, Walt Whitman, William Carlos Williams, Percy Shelley, John Keats, Ezra Pound, Christopher Smart, Arthur Rimbaud, Antonin Artaud, James Joyce, Jean Genet, Franz Kafka, Herman Melville, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Hart Crane, William Shakespeare, Louis-Ferdinand Céline, Lynd Ward, Fritz Lang
Bob Dylan, Wavy Gravy, LeRoi Jones, Robert Lowell, John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Andrei Codrescu, Saul Williams, Rage Against the Machine, Beau Sia, Jim Morrison, Patti Smith, Michael Savage, John S. Hall
Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPAEng|ˈgɪnzbɝg) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American
poet. Ginsberg is best known for the poem " Howl" (1956), celebrating his friends of the Beat Generationand attacking what he saw as the destructive forces of materialism and conformity in the United States at the time.
Early life and family
Ginsberg was born into a
Jewish [Pacernick, Gary. " [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3692/is_199707/ai_n8771729/pg_6 Allen Ginsberg: An interview by Gary Pacernick] " (February 10, 1996), The American Poetry Review, Jul/Aug 1997. "Yeah, I am a Jewish poet. I'm Jewish."] [http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0320091/bio] family in Newark, New Jersey, and grew up in nearby Paterson. His father Louis Ginsberg was a poet and a high school teacher.cite news |first=Wilborn |last=Hampton |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Allen Ginsberg, Master Poet Of Beat Generation, Dies at 70 |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0CE6D7143CF935A35757C0A961958260 |quote=Allen Ginsberg was born on June 3, 1926, in Newark and grew up in Paterson, New Jersey, the second son of Louis Ginsberg, a schoolteacher and sometime poet, and the former Naomi Levy, a Russian emigree and fervent Marxist. |publisher= New York Times|date=April 6, 1997 |accessdate=2008-04-14 ] Ginsberg's mother, Naomi Livergant Ginsberg (who was affected by epileptic seizuresand mental illnesses such as paranoiacite web| url=http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/poets/g_l/ginsberg/life.htm| title=Allen Ginsberg's Life| first=Ann| last=Charters| publisher=Modern American Poetry website| accessdate=2005-10-20] ) was an active member of the Communist Party and often took Ginsberg and his brother Eugene to party meetings. Ginsberg later said that his mother "made up bedtime stories that all went something like: 'The good king rode forth from his castle, saw the suffering workers and healed them.'"cite web| url=http://www.popsubculture.com/pop/bio_project/allen_ginsberg.html| title= Biographical Notes on Allen Ginsberg| first=Bonesy| last=Jones| publisher=Biography Project| accessdate=2005-10-20]
As a young teenager, Ginsberg began to write letters to "The New York Times" about political issues such as
World War IIand workers' rights. When he was in junior high school, he accompanied his mother by bus to her therapist. The trip disturbed Ginsberg — he mentioned it and other moments from his childhood in his long autobiographical poem "Kaddish for Naomi Ginsberg (1894-1956)." While in high school, Ginsberg began reading Walt Whitman; he said he was inspired by his teacher's passion in reading.
In 1943, Ginsberg graduated from Eastside High School and briefly attended
Montclair State Universitybefore entering Columbia Universityon a scholarship from the Young Men's Hebrew Associationof Paterson in 1949. While at Columbia, Ginsberg contributed to the " Columbia Review" literary journal, the "Jester" humor magazine, won the Woodberry Poetry Prize and served as president of the Philolexian Society, the campus literary and debate group.
New York Beats
In Ginsberg's freshman year at Columbia he met fellow undergraduate
Lucien Carr, who introduced him to a number of future Beat writers including Jack Kerouac, William S. Burroughs, and John Clellon Holmes. They bonded because they saw in one another excitement about the potential of the youth of America, a potential which existed outside the strict conformist confines of post-World War II McCarthy-era AmericaFact|date=May 2008. Ginsberg and Carr talked excitedly about a "New Vision" (a phrase adapted from Arthur Rimbaud) for literature and America. Carr also introduced Ginsberg to Neal Cassady, for whom Ginsberg had a long infatuation. [Barry Gifford, ed., "As Ever: The Collected Correspondence of Allen Ginsberg & Neal Cassady".] Kerouac later described the meeting between Ginsberg and Cassady in the first chapter of his 1957 novel " On the Road". Kerouac saw them then as the dark (Ginsberg) and light (Cassady) side of their "New Vision." Kerouac's perception had to do partly with Ginsberg's association with Communism (though Ginsberg himself was never a Communist); Kerouac called Ginsberg "Carlo Marx" in "On the Road". This was a source of strain in their relationship since Kerouac grew increasingly distrustful of Communism.
In 1948 in an apartment in
Harlem, Ginsberg had an auditory hallucination of William Blakereading his poems " Ah, Sunflower", " The Sick Rose", and "Little Girl Lost" (later referred to as his "Blake vision"). Ginsberg was reading these poems at the time, and he said he was very familiar with them; at one point he claimed he heard them being read by what sounded like the voice of God but what he interpreted as the voice of Blake. He had at that moment pivotal revelations that defined his understanding of the universe. He believed that he witnessed then the interconnectedness of the universe. He looked at lattice work on the fire escape and realized some hand had crafted that; he then looked at the sky and intuited that some hand had crafted that also, or rather that the sky was the hand that crafted itself. He explained that this hallucination was not inspired by drug use, but said he sought to recapture that feeling later with various drugs. [Miles, Barry. "Ginsberg: A Biography." London: Virgin Publishing Ltd. (2001), paperback, 628 pages, ISBN 0-7535-0486-3]
Also in New York, Ginsberg met
Gregory Corsoin the Pony Stable Bar, one of New York's first openly lesbian bars. Corso, recently released from prison, was supported by the Pony Stable patrons and was writing poetry there the night of their meeting. Ginsberg claims he was immediately attracted to Corso, who was straight but understanding of homosexuality after three years in prison. Ginsberg was even more struck by reading Corso's poems, realizing Corso was "spiritually gifted." Ginsberg introduced Corso to the rest of his inner circle. In their first meeting at the Pony Stable, Corso showed Ginsberg a poem about a woman who lived across the street from him, and sunbathed naked in the window. Amazingly, the woman just happened to be Ginsberg's girlfriend during one of his forays into heterosexuality. Ginsberg and Corso remained life-long friends and collaborators.
It was also during this period that Ginsberg was romantically involved with
an Francisco Renaissance
In 1954 in
San Francisco, Ginsberg met Peter Orlovsky, with whom he fell in love and who remained his life-long lover, and with whom he eventually shared his interest in Tibetan Buddhism.
Also in San Francisco Ginsberg met members of the San Francisco Renaissance and other poets who would later be associated with the Beat Generation in a broader sense. Ginsberg's mentor
William Carlos Williamswrote an introductory letter to San Francisco Renaissance figurehead Kenneth Rexroth, who then introduced Ginsberg into the San Francisco poetry scene. There, Ginsberg also met three budding poets and Zenenthusiasts who were friends at Reed College: Gary Snyder, Philip Whalen, and Lew Welch. Wally Hedrick— a painter and co-founder of the Six Gallery — approached Ginsberg in the summer of 1955 and asked him to organize a poetry reading at the Six Gallery. At first, Ginsberg refused, but once he’d written a rough draft of "Howl," he changed his "fucking mind," as he put it. [Jonah Raskin, American Scream: Allen Ginsberg's "Howl" and the Making of the Beat Generation. ] Ginsberg advertised the event as "Six Poets at the Six Gallery." One of the most important events in Beat mythos, known simply as "The Six Gallery reading" took place on October 7, 1955.cite web| url=http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4950578| title= Birth of the Beat Generation: 50 Years of 'Howl'| first=Robert | last=Siegel| accessdate=2006-10-02] The event, in essence, brought together the East and West Coast factions of the Beat Generation. Of more personal significance to Ginsberg: that night was the first public reading of "Howl", a poem that brought worldwide fame to Ginsberg and to many of the poets associated with him. An account of that night can be found in Kerouac's novel " The Dharma Bums," describing how change was collected from audience members to buy jugs of wine, and Ginsberg reading passionately, drunken, with arms outstretched. A taped recording of the reading of 'Howl' that Ginsberg gave at Reed Collegehas recently been rediscovered and appeared on their [http://web.reed.edu/news_center/multimedia/index.html multimedia website] from 9am PST 15 February 2008.
Ginsberg's principal work, "Howl", is well-known for its opening line: "I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness, starving hysterical naked...." "Howl" was considered scandalous at the time of its publication, because of the rawness of its language, which is frequently explicit. Shortly after its 1956 publication by San Francisco's
City Lights Bookstore, it was banned for obscenity. The ban became a cause célèbreamong defenders of the First Amendment, and was later lifted after Judge Clayton W. Horn declared the poem to possess redeeming social importance.
Biographical references in "Howl"
Ginsberg claimed at one point that all of his work was an extended biography (like Kerouac's "Duluoz Legend"). "Howl" is not only a biography of Ginsberg's experiences before 1955, but a history of the
Beat Generation. Ginsberg also later claimed that at the core of "Howl" were his unresolved emotions about his schizophrenic mother. Though "Kaddish" deals more explicitly with his mother (so explicitly that a line-by-line analysis would be simultaneously overly-exhaustive and relatively unrevealing), "Howl" in many ways is driven by the same emotions. Though references in most of his poetry reveal much about his biography, his relationship to other members of the Beat Generation, and his own political views, " Howl", his most famous poem, is still perhaps the best place to start. "See Howl."
To Paris and the "Beat Hotel"
In 1957, Ginsberg surprised the literary world by abandoning San Francisco. After a spell in
Morocco, he and Peter Orlovsky joined Gregory Corso in Paris. Corso introduced them to a shabby lodging house above a bar at 9 rue Gît-le-Coeur that was to become known as the Beat Hotel. They were soon joined by William Burroughsand others. It was a productive, creative time for all of them. There, Ginsberg finished his epic poem "Kaddish", Corso composed "Bomb" and "Marriage", and Burroughs (with help from Ginsberg and Corso) put together "Naked Lunch," from previous writings. This period was documented by the photographer Harold Chapman, who moved in at about the same time, and took pictures constantly of the residents of the "hotel" until it closed in 1963.
Continuing literary activity
Though "Beat" is most accurately applied to Ginsberg and his closest friends (Corso, Orlovsky, Kerouac, Burroughs, etc.), the term "Beat Generation" has become associated with many of the other poets Ginsberg met and became friends with in the late 1950s and early 1960s. A key feature of this term seems to be a friendship with Ginsberg. Friendship with Kerouac or Burroughs might also apply, but both writers later strove to disassociate themselves from the name "Beat Generation." Part of their dissatisfaction with the term came from the mistaken identification of Ginsberg as the leader. Ginsberg never claimed to be the leader of a movement. He did, however, claim that many of the writers with whom he had become friends in this period shared many of the same intentions and themes. Some of these friends include:
Bob Kaufman; LeRoi Jones before he became Amiri Baraka, who, after reading "Howl", wrote a letter to Ginsberg on a sheet of toilet paper; Diane DiPrima; poets associated with the Black Mountain Collegesuch as Robert Creeleyand Denise Levertov; poets associated with the New York Schoolsuch as Frank O'Haraand Kenneth Koch. Later in his life, Ginsberg formed a bridge between the beat movement of the 1950s and the hippiesof the 1960s, befriending, among others, Timothy Leary, Ken Kesey, Rod McKuen, and Bob Dylan.
Buddhism and Krishnaism
Ginsberg's spiritual journey began early on with his spontaneous visions, and continued with an early trip to
Indiaand a chance encounter on a New York City street with Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche(they both tried to catch the same cab), a Tibetan Buddhistmeditation master of the Vajrayanaschool, who became his friend and life-long teacher. Ginsberg helped Trungpa (and New York poet Anne Waldman) in founding the Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poeticsat Naropa Universityin Boulder, Colorado.Ginsberg was also involved with Krishnaism. He befriended A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, the founder of the Hare Krishnamovement in the Western world, a relationship that is documented by Satsvarupa dasa Goswamiin his biographical account 'Srila Prabhupada Lilamrta'. [Harvard reference
first = Satsvarupa dasa
year = 2002
authorlink = Satsvarupa dasa Goswami
title =Srila Prabhupada Lilamrta Vol 1-2
Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
pages = vol.1 1133 pages vol.2 1191 pages
isbn = 0892133570] Ginsberg donated money, materials, and his reputation to help the Swami establish the first temple, and toured with him to promote his cause. Ginsberg also claimed to be the first person on the North American continent to chant the Hare Krishna mantra. Music and chanting were both important parts of Ginsberg's live delivery during poetry readings. [Chowka, Peter Barry, " [http://members.aol.com/pbchowka/ginsberg76a.html This is Allen Ginsberg?] " (Interview), New Age Journal, April 1976. "I had known Swami Bhaktivedanta and was somewhat guided by him... spiritual friend. I practiced the
Hare Krishnachant, practiced it with him, sometimes in mass auditoriums and parks in the Lower East Side of New York. Actually, I'd been chanting it since '63, after coming back from India. I began chanting it, in Vancouver at a great poetry conference, for the first time in '63, with Duncan and Olson and everybody around, and then continued. When Bhaktivedanta arrived on the Lower East Side in '66 it was reinforcement for me, like 'the reinforcements had arrived' from India."] He often accompanied himself on a harmonium, and was often accompanied by a guitarist. When Ginsberg asked if he could sing a song in praise of Lord Krishnaon William F. Buckley, Jr.'s TV show " Firing Line" on September 3, 1968, Buckley acceded and the poet chanted slowly as he played dolefully on a harmonium. According to Richard Brookhiser, an associate of Buckley's, the host commented that it was "the most unharried Krishna I've ever heard." [Konigsberg, Eric, "Buckley's Urbane Debating Club: 'Firing Line' Set a Standard For Political Discourse on TV", " The New York Times", Metro Section, p B1, February 29, 2008.] Attendance to his poetry readings was generally standing room onlyfor most of his career, no matter where in the world he appeared. Allen Ginsberg came in touch with the Hungryalist poets of Bengal, especially Malay Roy Choudhury, who introduced Ginsberg to the three fishes with one head of Indian emperor Jalaluddin Mohammad Akbar. The three fishes symbolised coexistence of all thought, philosophy and religion. [ [http://www.thewastepaper.blogspot.com the wastepaper ] ]
Ginsberg won the National Book Award for his book . In 1993, the French Minister of Culture awarded him the medal of "Chevalier des Arts et des Lettres" (the Order of Arts and Letters).
Allen Ginsberg gave what is thought to be his last reading at The
Booksmithin San Francisco on December 16, 1996. He died on April 5, 1997, surrounded by family and friends in his East Village loft in New York City, succumbing to liver cancervia complications of hepatitis. He was 70 years old. Ginsberg continued to write through his final illness, with his last poem, "Things I'll Not Do (Nostalgias)", written on March 30. [Allen Ginsberg, "Collected Poems 1947-1997", p.1160-1]
Ginsberg is buried in his family plot in
Gomel Chesed Cemetery, one of a cluster of Jewish cemeteries at the corner of McClellan Street and Mt. Olivet Avenue near the city lines of Elizabeth and Newark, New Jersey.cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title= Sometimes the Grave Is a Fine and Public Place. |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DEFD71230F93BA15750C0A9629C8B63 |quote=New Jersey is, indeed, a home of poets. Walt Whitman's tomb is nestled in a wooded grove in the Harleigh Cemetery in Camden. Joyce Kilmer is buried in Elmwood Cemetery in New Brunswick, not far from the New Jersey Turnpike rest stop named in his honor. Allen Ginsberg may not yet have a rest stop, but the Beat Generation author of "Howl" is resting at B'Nai Israel Cemetery in Newark. |publisher= New York Times|date=March 28, 2004 |accessdate=2007-08-21 ] The family plot, located toward the western edge of the cemetery at the far end of the walk from the third gate along Mt. Olivet Avenue, is marked by a large Ginsberg and Litzky stone, and Ginsberg himself and each family member have smaller markers. Though the grave itself and the cemetery are neither picturesque nor otherwise notable (Ginsberg's grave is located near the rear fence of the flat cemetery, which is in the midst of an industrial area). Although it has not become a major place of pilgrimage, there is a steady trickle of visitors as indicated by a handful of stones always on his marker and the occasional book or other item left by other poets and admirersFact|date=June 2008.
Controversial political activism
Ginsberg's willingness to talk about taboo subjects made him a controversial figure during the conservative 1950s and a significant figure in the 1960s. But Ginsberg continued to broach controversial subjects throughout the 1970s, '80s, and '90s. When explaining how he approached controversial topics, he often pointed to
Herbert Huncke: he said that when he first got to know Huncke in the 1940s, Ginsberg saw that he was sick from his heroin addiction, but at the time heroin was a taboo subject and Huncke was left nowhere to go for help.
Likewise, he continuously attempted to force the world into a dialogue about controversial subjects because he thought that no change could be made in a polite silence.
Role in Vietnam War protests
Ginsberg also played a key role in ensuring that a 1965 protest of the
Vietnam war, which took place at the Oakland-Berkeley city line and drew several thousand marchers, was not violently interrupted by the California chapter of the notorious motorcycle gang, the Hells Angels, and their leader, Sonny Barger.Fact|date=July 2008
The day prior to the scheduled march, the
Hell's Angelsattacked the front line of a smaller scale protest where a confrontation between police and demonstrators was brewing. The Hell's Angels came in on motorcycles and slashed banners while yelling "Go back to Russia, you fucking communists!" at the protesters. The Hell's Angelsthen vowed to disrupt the larger protest the next day.Fact|date=July 2008
Ginsberg traveled to Barger's home in Oakland to talk the situation through. It is rumored that he offered Barger and other members of the Hell's Angels
LSDas a gesture of friendship and goodwill.Fact|date=July 2008. In the end, Barger and the other Hell's Angels that were present came away deeply impressed by the courage of Ginsberg and his companion Ken Kesey. They vowed not to attack the next day's protest march and furthermore deemed Ginsberg a man who was worth helping out.Fact|date=July 2008 It was shortly after the Tompkins Square Park riots that he was involved in a fracas with the Mentofreeistgroup and was assaulted by its leader, Vargus Pike, who was arrested. He was later released when Ginsberg, sporting a black eye, refused to press charges.
Relationship to Communism
He talked openly about his connections with
Communismand his admiration for past heroes of Communism and the labor movement at a time in America when the Red Scare and McCarthyismwere recent memories. Later he travelled to several Communist countries to promote free speech. He claimed Communist countries, China for example, welcomed him in because they thought he was an enemy of Capitalismbut often turned against him when they saw him as a trouble maker. In his poem "America", written on 17 January 1956 in Berkeley, a line reads "America I used to be a communist when I was a kid I'm not sorry..." followed directly by "I smoke marijuana every chance I get...."
In 1965 Ginsberg was deported from
Cubafor publicly protesting against Cuba's anti-marijuana stance; ironically Ginsberg admired Castro along with many other quasi-Marxist figures from the 20th centuryFact|date=December 2007. Ginsberg's expulsion was also said to have come after he had described Che Guevaraas "cute".
The Cubans sent him to
Czechoslovakia, where one week after being named the King of a May Day parade, Ginsberg was labeled an "immoral menace" by the Czech government because of his free expression of radical ideas, and was then deported. Many important figures from Communist Bloc countries such as Vaclav Havelpoint to Ginsberg as an important inspiration to strive for freedom. According to biographer Jonah Raskin, despite his often stark opposition to communist orthodoxy Ginsberg held "his own idiosyncratic version of communism". [ Raskin, 170]
In addition, the character of Ginsberg in Jack Kerouac's "
On the Road" is named Carlo Marx, a possible reference to his early beliefs.
Gay rights and free speech
One contribution that is often considered his most significant and most controversial was his openness about
homosexuality. Ginsberg was an early proponent of freedom for men who loved other men, having already in 1943 discovered within himself "mountains of homosexuality." He expressed this desire openly and graphically in his poetry. He also struck a note for gay marriage by listing Peter Orlovsky, his lifelong companion, as his spouse in his Who's Who entry. Later homosexual writers saw his frank talk about homosexuality as an opening to speak more openly and honestly about something often before only hinted at or spoken of in metaphor.
Also, in writing about sexuality in graphic detail and in his frequent use of language seen as indecent he challenged—and ultimately changed—obscenity laws. He was a staunch supporter of others whose expression challenged obscenity laws (William S. Burroughs and
Lenny Bruce, for example).
Association with NAMBLA
Ginsberg also spoke out in defense of the freedom of expression of NAMBLA.cite web| url=http://web.archive.org/web/20061018211729/http://www.ijn.com/archive/2002+arch/062102.htm#story8| title=Allen Ginsberg's advocacy of pedophilia debated in community.| first=Andrea | last=Jacobs| year=2002| publisher=Intermountain Jewish News|accessdate=2008-06-21] . Ginsberg stated "I joined NAMBLA in defense of free speech..." In "Thoughts on NAMBLA", published in
Deliberate Prose, Ginsberg elaborated on these thoughts, stating "NAMBLA's a forum for reform of those laws on youthful sexuality which members deem oppressive, (it is) a discussion society not a sex club." Ginsberg expressed the opinion that the appreciation of youthful bodies and "the human form divine" has been a common theme throughout the history of culture, "from Rome's Vatican, to Florence's Uffizi galleries, to New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art", and that laws regarding the issue needed to be more openly discussed. When his point about free speech had been made, Allen quit the organization.Fact|date=October 2008
Demystification of drugs
Ginsberg also talked often about drug use. Throughout the 1960s he took an active role in the demystification of LSD and with
Timothy Learyworked to promote its common use. He was also for many decades an advocate of marijuanalegalization, and at the same time warned his audiences against the hazards of tobacco in his "Put Down Your Cigarette Rag (Don't Smoke):" "Don't Smoke Don't Smoke Nicotine Nicotine No / No don't smoke the official Dope Smoke Dope Dope."
Though early on he had intentions to be a labor lawyer, Ginsberg wrote poetry for most of his life. Most of his very early poetry was written in formal rhyme and meter like his father or like his idol William Blake. His admiration for the writing of
Jack Kerouacinspired him to take poetry more seriously. Though he took odd jobs to support himself, in 1955, upon the advice of a psychiatrist, Ginsberg dropped out of the working world to devote his entire life to poetry. Soon after, he wrote " Howl", the poem that brought him and his friends much fame and allowed him to live as a professional poet for the rest of his life.
Inspiration from friends
Since Ginsberg's poetry is intensely personal, and since much of the vitality of those associated with the
beat generationcomes from mutual inspiration, much credit for style, inspiration, and content can be given to Ginsberg's friends.
Ginsberg claimed throughout his life that his biggest inspiration was Kerouac's concept of "
spontaneous prose". He believed literature should come from the soul without conscious restrictions. However, Ginsberg was much more prone to revise than Kerouac. For example, when Kerouac saw the first draft of "Howl" he disliked the fact that Ginsberg had made editorial changes in pencil (transposing "negro" and "angry" in the first line, for example). Kerouac only wrote out his concepts of Spontaneous Prose at Ginsberg's insistence because Ginsberg wanted to learn how to apply the technique to his poetry.
An important figure when considering inspiration for "Howl" is Carl Solomon. The full title is "Howl for
Carl Solomon." Solomon was a Dadaand Surrealismenthusiast (he introduced Ginsberg to Artaud) who suffered bouts of depression. Solomon wanted to commit suicide, but he thought a form of suicide appropriate to dadaism would be to go to a mental institution and demand a lobotomy. The institution refused, giving him many forms of therapy, including electroshock therapy. Much of the final section of the first part of "Howl" is a description of this.
Ginsberg used Solomon as an example of all those ground down by the machine of "
Moloch." Moloch, to whom the second section is addressed, is a Levantine god to whom children were sacrificed. Ginsberg may have gotten the name from the Kenneth Rexroth poem "Thou Shalt Not Kill", a poem about the death of one of Ginsberg's heroes, Dylan Thomas. But Moloch is mentioned a few times in the Torahand references to Ginsberg's Jewish background are not infrequent in his work. Ginsberg said the image of Moloch was inspired by peyotevisions he had of the Francis Drake Hotel in San Francisco which appeared to him as a skull; he took it as a symbol of the city (not specifically San Francisco, but all cities). Ginsberg later acknowledged in various publications and interviews that behind the visions of the Francis Drake Hotel were memories of the Moloch of Fritz Lang's film "Metropolis" (1927) and of the woodcut novels of Lynd Ward. [See, for example, Allen Ginsberg, "Howl: Original Draft Facsimile, Transcript & Variant Versions," ed., Barry Miles (New York: Harper, 1986), 139-140. Ward also illustrated a later broadside version of "Howl", which can be seen in the cited pages.] Moloch has subsequently been interpreted as any system of control, including the conformist society of post-World War II America focused on material gain, which Ginsberg frequently blamed for the destruction of all those outside of societal norms.
He also made sure to emphasize that Moloch is a part of all of us: the decision to "defy" socially created systems of control—and therefore go against Moloch—is a form of self-destruction. Many of the characters Ginsberg references in "Howl", such as Neal Cassady and Herbert Huncke, destroyed themselves through excessive substance abuse or a generally wild lifestyle. The personal aspects of "Howl" are perhaps as important as the political aspects. Carl Solomon, the prime example of a "best mind" destroyed by defying society, is associated with Ginsberg's schizophrenic mother: the line "with mother finally ******" comes after a long section about Carl Solomon, and in Part III, Ginsberg says "I'm with you in Rockland where you imitate the shade of my mother." Ginsberg later admitted that the drive to write "Howl" was fueled by sympathy for his ailing mother, an issue which he was not yet ready to deal with directly. He dealt with it directly with 1959's "Kaddish".
Inspiration from mentors and idols
poetrywas strongly influenced by Modernism(specifically Ezra Pound, T. S. Eliot, Hart Crane, and most importantly William Carlos Williams), Romanticism(specifically Percy Shelleyand John Keats), the beat and cadence of jazz(specifically that of bopmusicians such as Charlie Parker), and his KagyuBuddhist practice and Jewishbackground. He considered himself to have inherited the visionary poetic mantle handed down from the English poet and artist William Blake, and the American poet Walt Whitman. The power of Ginsberg's verse, its searching, probing focus, its long and lilting lines, as well as its New Worldexuberance, all echo the continuity of inspiration that he claimed.
He studied poetry under
William Carlos Williams, who was then in the middle of writing his epic poem Paterson about the industrial city near his home. Ginsberg, after attending a reading by Williams, sent the older poet several of his poems and wrote an introductory letter. Most of these early poems were rhymed and metered and included archaic pronouns like "thee." Williams hated the poems. He told Ginsberg later, "In this mode perfection is basic, and these poems are not perfect."
Though he hated the early poems, Williams loved the exuberance in Ginsberg's letter. He included the letter in a later part of "Paterson." He taught Ginsberg not to emulate the old masters but to speak with his own voice and the voice of the common American. Williams taught him to focus on strong visual images, in line with Williams' own motto "No ideas but in things." His time studying under Williams led to a tremendous shift from the early formalist work to the brilliance of his later work. Early breakthrough poems include "Bricklayer's Lunch Hour" and "Dream Record."
Carl Solomon introduced him to Antonin Artaud ("To Have Done with the Judgement of God" and "Van Gogh: The Man Suicided by Society"), and Jean Genet ("Our Lady of the Flowers").
Philip Lamantiaintroduced him to other Surrealistsand Surrealism continued to be an influence (for example, sections of "Kaddish" were inspired by André Breton's "Free Union"). Ginsberg claimed that the anaphoric repetition of "Howl" and other poems was inspired by Christopher Smart in such poems as "Jubilate Agno." Ginsberg claims other more traditional influences, such as: Franz Kafka, Herman Melville, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Edgar Allan Poe, and even Emily Dickinson.
Ginsberg also made an intense study of
haikuand the paintings of Paul Cézanne, from which he adapted a concept important to his work, which he called the "Eyeball Kick". He noticed in viewing Cézanne's paintings that when the eye moved from one color to a contrasting color, the eye would spasm, or "kick." Likewise, he discovered that the contrast of two seeming opposites was a common feature in haiku. Ginsberg used this technique in his poetry, putting together two starkly dissimilar Philip Glass). Another example is Ginsberg's observation on Bob Dylanduring his hectic and intense 1966 electric tour, fuelled by a cocktail of amphetamines, opiates, alcohol, and psychedelics, as a " DexedrineClown." The phrases "eyeball kick" and "hydrogen jukebox" both show up in "Howl", as well as a direct quote from Cézanne: "Pater Omnipotens Aeterna Deus."
tyle and technique
From the study of his idols and mentors and the inspiration of his friends—not to mention his own experiments—Ginsberg developed an individualistic style that's easily identified as Ginsbergian. "Howl" came out during a potentially hostile literary environment less welcoming to poetry outside of tradition; there was a renewed focus on form and structure among academic poets and critics partly inspired by
New Criticism(see "Open Form vs. Closed Form" in the Beat Generation section). Consequently, Ginsberg often had to defend his choice to break away from traditional poetic structure, often citing Williams, Pound, and Whitman as precursors. Ginsberg's style may have seemed to critics chaotic or unpoetic, but to Ginsberg it was an open, ecstatic expression of thoughts and feelings that were naturally poetic. He believed strongly that traditional formalist considerations were archaic and didn't apply to reality. Though some, Diana Trilling for example, have pointed to Ginsberg's occasional use of meter (for example the anapest of "who came back to Denver and waited in vain"), Ginsberg denied any intention toward meter and claimed instead that meter follows the natural poetic voice, not the other way around; he said, as he learned from Williams, that natural speech is occasionally dactylic, so poetry that imitates natural speech will sometimes fall into a dactylic structure but only ever accidentally. Like Williams, Ginsberg's line breaks were often determined by breath: one line in "Howl", for example, should be read in one breath. Ginsberg claimed he developed such a long line because he had long breaths (saying perhaps it was because he talked fast, or he did yoga, or he was Jewish). The long line could also be traced back to his study of Walt Whitman; Ginsberg claimed Whitman's long line was a dynamic technique few other poets had ventured to develop further. Whitman is often compared to Ginsberg because their poetry sexualized aspects of the male form — though there is no direct evidence Whitman was homosexual. They had very different politics, Whitman being a nationalist and Ginsberg demonstratively anti-nationalist.
Many of his early long line experiments contain some sort of
anaphoricrepetition, or repetition of a "fixed base" (for example "who" in "Howl", "America" in "America"), and this has become a recognizable feature of Ginsberg's style. However, he said later this was a crutch because he lacked confidence in his style; he didn't yet trust "free flight." In the 60s, after employing it in some sections of "Kaddish" ("caw" for example) he, for the most part, abandoned the anaphoric repetition.
Several of his earlier experiments with methods for formatting poems as a whole become regular aspects of his style in later poems. In the original draft of "Howl", each line is in a "stepped triadic" format reminiscent of Williams (see "Ivy Leaves", for example). He abandoned the "stepped triadic" when he developed his long line, but the stepped lines showed up later, most significantly in the travelogues of "The Fall of America." "Howl" and "Kaddish", arguably his two most important poems, are both organized as an inverted pyramid, with larger sections leading to smaller sections. In "America", he experimented with a mix of longer and shorter lines.
"Lightning's blue glare fills Oklahoma plains,"the train rolls east"casting yellow shadow on grass"Twenty years ago"approaching Texas,"I saw"sheet lightning"cover Heaven's corners..."An old man catching fireflies on the porch at night"watched the Herd Boy cross the Milky Way"to meet the Weaving Girl..."How can we war against that?"(From Iron Horse, 1972)
James Francois to portray a young Allen Ginsberg in the forthcoming 2009 documentary, "Howl".
* Ginsberg was portrayed by
David Crossin the 2007 Bob Dylan biopic" I'm Not There".
The Life and Times of Allen Ginsbergon DVD features the 84 minute documentary plus 6 hours of extra interviews and features.
Give Peace A Chanceby John Lennon makes a reference to Allen Ginsberg
* In 1981, Ginsberg recorded his poem "Birdbrain" with the Denver punk band, The Gluons.
* In 1982, he was featured on "Ghetto Defendant", a song by
The Clash, on their album " Combat Rock".
* In a June 1981 concert by The Clash at Bond's Casino in New York City, Ginsberg sang his poem "Capital Air" set to music.
Rage Against the Machineperformed " Hadda be Playin' on a Jukebox", a poem of Ginsberg's, at a live concert. The song is available on their " Live & Rare" album, released in 1998 and as a ' B side' on both their Bulls on Parade CD singlereleased in 1996, and People of the Sun(EP) released in 1997.
* The 1994 song "I should be allowed to think" by
They Might Be Giantsuses the opening line of "Howl".
* Ginsberg recites "When the Light Appears Boy", on the 1997
Cornershopalbum " When I Was Born for the 7th Time".
* In 1996, Ginsberg played a leading role as an actor in the
John Moranopera, "Mathew in the School of Life", and went on to record a song on Moran's 2nd album, "Meet the Locusts"
* Ginsberg himself appeared in the background in the short film made by Bob Dylan for his song
Subterranean Homesick Blues.
* He released an album entitled "" on which he sings and plays harmonium. He also released a single called "Ballad of the Skeletons" with music by Philip Glass and Paul McCartney playing guitar.
* On the album "
Death of a Ladies' Man" by Leonard Cohen, Ginsberg and Bob Dylan sing back-up on the song " Don't Go Home with Your Hard-on".
* Ginsberg taught creative writing at several universities. One of his former students,
Mark Vecchio, is currently an adjunct professor at Bard College at Simon's Rock. A former apprentice at Naropa University, Steve Silberman, became a long-time writer for Wired (magazine).Fact|date=May 2008
* The book "
Illuminated Poems" is a collaboration between Ginsberg and painter Eric Drooker.
* Folk-rock group
The Mammalsperformed his poem "Lay Down Yr Mountain" on their CD titled "Rock That Babe". [One of the Postbeat Poets, Jim Cohn, also recorded a version of "Lay Down Yr Mountain" on his 1998 CD "Unspoken Words" (see http://www.poetspath.com/homepage/unspoken_words_index.html). This version, recorded in Boulder, CO in June, 1996, featured Allen Ginsberg on vocals (verses 1 and 7) and harmonium and the following guest bards: Jim Cohn (2), Thomas R. Peters, Jr. (3), Andy Clausen (4), Jack Collom (5) and Anne Waldman (6). The recording was a follow up to Ginsberg's "Ballad of the Skeletons" and it is believed to be his last recording.]
* Appeared as an interviewee in
No Direction Home, the 2005 documentary on Bob Dylan by Martin Scorsese.
* Ginsberg thrilled hundreds of young Czechs and ex-pats during his reading and question period at the Cafe Nouveau in the Obecni dum in 1994 shortly after the break-up of Czechoslovakia
* Ginsberg inspired the opening of The Beat Book Shop in Boulder, Colorado, in 1990. Owned by poet Thomas R. Peters, Jr., he frequented it whenever he was in Boulder.
* Ginsberg played Harmonium and sang on "Hare Khrishna", on the Fugs' album "Tenderness Junction", which has a picture of him nude among other pictures of the band.
Central Park Be-In
The Life and Times of Allen Ginsberg"
Allen Ginsberg Live in London"
Notes and references
Davi Napoleon. Includes discussion of Robert Kalfin's off-Broadway multi-media production of "Kaddish".Iowa State University Press. ISBN-0-8138-1713-7, 1991.
Howl and Other Poems" (1956)
Kaddish and Other Poems" (1961)Empty Mirror: Early Poems (1961)
Reality Sandwiches" (1963)
The Yage Letters" (1963) – with William S. Burroughs
Planet News" (1968)
* "" (1975), ISBN 0-916190-05-6
* " 1948 – 1951" (1972)
* "" (1973)
Iron Horse" (1972)
Mind Breaths" (1978)
* " 1977 – 1980" (1982)
Collected Poems 1947 – 1980" (1984) Republished with later material added as " Collected Poems 1947-1997", New York, Harper Collins, 2006
White Shroud Poems: 1980 – 1985" (1986)
Cosmopolitan Greetings Poems: 1986 – 1993" (1994)
Howl Annotated" (1995)
Illuminated Poems" (1996)
* "" (1996)
* " 1993 – 1997" (1999)
Deliberate Prose1952 – 1995" (2000)
* Bullough, Vern L. "Before Stonewall: Activists for Gay and Lesbian Rights in Historical Context." Harrington Park Press, 2002. pp 304-311.
* Charters, Ann (ed.). "The Portable Beat Reader". Penguin Books. New York. 1992. ISBN 0-670-83885-3 (hc); ISBN 0140151028 (pbk)
* Clark, Thomas. "Allen Ginsberg." "Writers at Work—The Paris Review Interviews." 3.1 (1968) pp.279-320.
* Gifford, Barry (ed.). "As Ever: The Collected Letters of Allen Ginsberg & Neal Cassady". Berkeley: Creative Arts Books (1977).
* Podhoretz, Norman. "At War with Allen Ginsberg", in "Ex-Friends" (Free Press, 1999), 22-56. ISBN0-684-85594-1.
* Miles, Barry. "Ginsberg: A Biography." London: Virgin Publishing Ltd. (2001), paperback, 628 pages, ISBN 0-7535-0486-3
* Hrebeniak, Michael. "Action Writing: Jack Kerouac's Wild Form", Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois UP, 2006.
* Raskin, Jonah. "American Scream: Allen Ginsberg's Howl and the Making of the Beat Generation". Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. ISBN 0-520-24015-4
* Harvard reference
first = Satsvarupa dasa
year = 2002
authorlink = Satsvarupa dasa Goswami
title =Srila Prabhupada Lilamrta Vol 1-2
Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
pages = vol.1 1133 pages vol.2 1191 pages
isbn = 0892133570
* Schumacher, Michael (ed.). "Family Business: Selected Letters Between a Father and Son." Bloomsbury (2002), paperback, 448 pages, ISBN 1-58234-216-4
* Schumacher, Michael. "." New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.
* Trigilio, Tony. "Allen Ginsberg's Buddhist Poetics." Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2007. ISBN 0809327554
* Trigilio, Tony. "Strange Prophecies Anew": Rereading Apocalypse in Blake, H.D., and Ginsberg." Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2000. ISBN 0838638546.
* Tytell, John. "Naked Angels: Kerouac, Ginsberg, Burroughs". Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1976. ISBN 1-56663-683-3
* Warner, Simon (ed.). "Howl for Now: A 50th anniversary celebration of Allen Ginsberg's epic protest poem". West Yorkshire, UK: Route (2005), paperback, 144 pages, ISBN 1-901927-25-3
* Warner, Simon. "Raising the Consciousness? Re-visiting Allen Ginsberg's 1965 trip to Liverpool", chapter in "Centre of the Creative Universe: Liverpool and the Avant Garde", edited by Christoph Grunenberg and Robert Knifton. Liverpool & Chicago: Liverpool University Press & Chicago University Press, 2007
* [http://www.allenginsberg.org The Allen Ginsberg Trust]
* [http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=1011318964326139723 BBC Interview with Allen Ginsberg]
* [http://www.poets.org/agins Allen Ginsberg on Poets.org] With audio clips, poems, and related essays, from the Academy of American Poets
* [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=6393328 After 50 Years, Ginsberg's 'Howl' Still Resonates]
* [http://www.sondralondon.com/attract/ginsberg/index.htm George Petros interview with Ginsberg]
* [http://research.hrc.utexas.edu:8080/hrcxtf/view?docId=ead/00044.xml&query=ginsberg&query-join=and Allen Ginsberg Collection] , [http://www.hrc.utexas.edu/research/fa/lfginsberg.html Photographs] at the
Harry Ransom Centerat the University of Texas at Austin
* [http://www.kerouacalley.com/ginsberg.html Allen Ginsberg @ Kerouac Alley]
* [http://www.shambhalasun.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=3003&Itemid=0 Autobiographical Article in "Shambhala Sun" Magazine]
* [http://meaning.com/wiki/How_Allen_Died How Allen Died]
* [http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/tf5c6004hb The Allen Ginsberg Papers, 1937-1994] (1,330 linear ft.) are housed in the [http://library.stanford.edu/depts/spc/spc.html Department of Special Collections and University Archives] at [http://library.stanford.edu/ Stanford University Libraries]
NAME= Ginsberg, Allen
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Ginsberg, Irwin Allen
SHORT DESCRIPTION= poet, activist, essayist
DATE OF BIRTH= June 3, 1926
PLACE OF BIRTH= Newark, New Jersey
DATE OF DEATH= April 5, 1997
PLACE OF DEATH=New York City
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