- Batman (1989 film)
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Tim Burton Produced by Peter Guber
Screenplay by Sam Hamm
Story by Sam Hamm Based on Characters by
Starring Jack Nicholson
Billy Dee Williams
Music by Danny Elfman
Cinematography Roger Pratt Editing by Ray Lovejoy Studio PolyGram Filmed Entertainment
The Guber-Peters Company
Distributed by Warner Bros. Release date(s) June 23, 1989 Running time 126 minutes Country United States Language English Budget $35 million Box office $411,348,924
Batman is a 1989 superhero film based on the DC Comics character of the same name, directed by Tim Burton. The film stars Michael Keaton in the title role, as well as Jack Nicholson, Kim Basinger, Robert Wuhl and Jack Palance. The film, in which Batman deals with the rise of a costumed criminal known as "The Joker", is the first installment of Warner Bros.' Batman film series.
After Burton was hired as director, Steve Englehart and Julie Hickson wrote film treatments before Sam Hamm wrote the first screenplay. Batman was not greenlit until after the success of Burton's Beetlejuice (1988). Numerous A-list actors were considered for the role of Batman. Nicholson accepted the role of the Joker under strict conditions that dictated a high salary, a portion of the box office profits, and his shooting schedule.
Filming took place at Pinewood Studios from October 1988 to January 1989. The budget escalated from $30 million to $48 million, while the 1988 Writers Guild of America strike forced Hamm to drop out. Uncredited rewrites were performed by Warren Skaaren, Charles McKeown and Jonathan Gems. Batman was a critical and financial success, earning over $400 million in box office totals. The film received several Saturn Award nominations and a Golden Globe nomination, and won an Academy Award. It also inspired the Emmy Award-winning Batman: The Animated Series, paving the way for the DC Animated Universe, and has influenced Hollywood's modern marketing and development techniques of the superhero film genre.
As a child, billionaire Bruce Wayne (Michael Keaton) sees his parents murdered and therefore vows to avenge their deaths in a lifelong battle against crime as the costumed vigilante Batman while concealing his secret identity behind his playboy image. By the time he begins his career as Gotham City's protector, the city is controlled by crime boss Carl Grissom (Jack Palance). Despite the efforts of newly-elected district attorney Harvey Dent (Billy Dee Williams) and police commissioner James Gordon (Pat Hingle), the police department remains corrupt. Reporter Alexander Knox (Robert Wuhl) and photo-journalist Vicki Vale (Kim Basinger) begin investigating the rumors of a shadowy crimefighter (Batman himself) terrorizing the city's criminals by night.
Vicki and Knox attend a benefit at Wayne Manor, where Bruce is taken by Vicki's charms, while Grissom's second in command, Jack Napier (Jack Nicholson), is sent to raid the Axis Chemicals factory. When the police receive a tip-off and arrive to arrest him, Napier realizes he has been tricked by his boss for his affair with Grissom's mistress. In the midst of the resulting gunfight, Batman arrives and attacks Napier's henchmen. Napier fires at Batman, who deflects the bullet off his steel gauntlet and strikes it into Napier's face; whereupon Napier topples over a platform rail into a large vat of chemicals. Shortly thereafter, he emerges from an adjacent reservoir, his skin bleached white, his hair dyed green, and his lips dyed red. Following a botched attempt at plastic surgery, Napier is left with a permanent rictus grin, similar to the jester on a joker card; wherefore he renames himself "the Joker", kills Grissom, and takes control of his organization.
Thereafter the Joker terrifies the city by chemically altering everyday hygiene products, causing those using a certain combination thereof to laugh to death and leaving them with a post-mortem grin resembling his own. Batman, attempting to track down the Joker, realizes that his quarry is the man who murdered his parents. Meanwhile, Bruce's butler and confidante Alfred Pennyworth (Michael Gough) allows Vicki into the Batcave, where she and Bruce promise to organize their attachment to each other when the Joker is defeated.
When Batman destroys the factory the Joker used to make the poisons, the Joker retaliates by holding a parade through Gotham, luring its citizens onto the streets and intending to kill them with lethal gas. Batman foils his plan; but the Joker kidnaps Vicki and takes her to the top of a cathedral, where Batman fights the Joker to save Vicki, and both realize that each is responsible for the other's transformations. As the Joker is about to escape, Batman ties his leg to a gargoyle, and the Joker falls to his death when the statue breaks from its position. Later, Commissioner Gordon reveals the Bat-Signal along with a note from Batman read by Harvey Dent, promising to defend Gotham whenever crime strikes again.
After the financial success of Pee-wee's Big Adventure (1985), Warner Bros. hired Tim Burton to direct Batman. Burton had then-girlfriend Julie Hickson write a new 30-page film treatment, feeling the previous script by Tom Mankiewicz was campy. The success of The Dark Knight Returns and The Killing Joke rekindled Warner Bros.' interest in a film adaptation. Burton was initially not a comic book fan, but he was impressed by the dark and serious tone found in both The Dark Knight Returns and The Killing Joke. Warner Bros. enlisted the aid of Steve Englehart to write a new treatment in March 1986. It included the Joker and Rupert Thorne as the main villains, with a cameo appearance by the Penguin. Silver St. Cloud and Dick Grayson were key supporting roles. It followed the similar storyline from Englehart's own Strange Apparitions (ISBN 1-56389-500-5). Warner Bros. was impressed, but Englehart felt there were too many characters. He removed the Penguin and Dick Grayson in his second treatment, finishing in May 1986.
Burton approached Sam Hamm, a comic book fan, to write the screenplay. Hamm decided not to use an origin story, feeling that flashbacks would be more suitable and that "unlocking the mystery" would become part of the storyline. He reasoned, "You totally destroy your credibility if you show the literal process by which Bruce Wayne becomes Batman." Hamm replaced Silver St. Cloud with Vicki Vale and Rupert Thorne with his own creation, Carl Grissom. He completed his script in October 1986, which demoted Dick Grayson to a cameo rather than a supporting character. One scene in Hamm's script had a young James Gordon on duty the night of the murder of Bruce Wayne's parents. When Hamm's script was rewritten, the scene was deleted.
Warner Bros. was less willing to move forward on development, despite their enthusiasm for Hamm's script, which Batman co-creator Bob Kane greeted with positive feedback. Hamm's script was then bootlegged at various comic book stores in the United States. Batman was finally given the greenlight to commence pre-production in April 1988, after the success of Burton's Beetlejuice (1988). When comic book fans found out about Burton directing the film with Michael Keaton starring in the lead role, controversy arose over the tone and direction Batman was going in. Hamm explained, "they hear Tim Burton's name and they think of Pee-wee's Big Adventure. They hear Keaton's name and they think of any number of Michael Keaton comedies. You think of the 1960s version of Batman, and it was the complete opposite of our film. We tried to market it with a typical dark and serious tone, but the fans didn't believe us." To combat negative reports on the film's production, Batman co-creator Bob Kane was hired as creative consultant.
Parallel to the Superman casting, a who's who of Hollywood top stars were considered for the role of Batman, with the likes of Mel Gibson, Kevin Costner, Charlie Sheen, Pierce Brosnan, Tom Selleck and Bill Murray being considered. Tim Burton was pressured to cast an obvious action movie star. Producer Jon Peters favored Keaton, arguing he had the right "edgy, tormented quality." Having directed Keaton in Beetlejuice, Burton agreed.
Keaton's casting caused a controversy among comic book fans, with 50,000 protest letters sent to Warner Bros. offices. Bob Kane, Sam Hamm and Michael Uslan also heavily questioned the casting, while Adam West felt himself to be a better choice. Burton acknowledged, "Obviously there was a negative response from the comic book people. I think they thought we were going to make it like the 1960s TV series, and make it campy, because they thought of Michael Keaton from Mr. Mom and Night Shift and stuff like that." Keaton studied The Dark Knight Returns for inspiration.
Tim Curry, Willem Dafoe, David Bowie and James Woods were considered for the Joker. Robin Williams lobbied hard for the part. Jack Nicholson was producer Michael Uslan's and Bob Kane's choice since 1980. Peters approached Nicholson as far back as 1986, during filming of The Witches of Eastwick. Nicholson had what was known as an "off-the-clock" agreement. His contract specified the number of hours he was entitled to have off each day, from the time he left the set to the time he reported back for filming, as well as being off for Los Angeles Lakers home games. Nicholson demanded to have all of his scenes shot in a three-week block, but the schedule lapsed into 106 days. He received a $6 million salary, as well as a large percentage of the box office gross. The fee is reported to be as high as $50 million.
Sean Young was originally cast as Vicki Vale, but was injured in a horse-riding accident prior to commencement of filming. Burton suggested replacing Young with Michelle Pfeiffer but Keaton, who was in a relationship with Pfeiffer, believed it would be too awkward. She went on to portray Catwoman in Batman Returns. Young's departure necessitated an urgent search for an actress who, besides being right for the part, could commit to the film at very short notice. Peters suggested Kim Basinger: she was able to join the production immediately and was cast. As a fan of Michael Gough's work in various Hammer Film Productions, Burton cast Gough as Bruce Wayne's butler, Alfred Pennyworth. Robert Wuhl was cast as reporter Alexander Knox. His character was originally supposed to die by the Joker's poison gas in the climax, but the filmmakers "liked [my] character so much," Wuhl said "that they decided to let me live." Tim Burton chose Billy Dee Williams as Harvey Dent because he wanted to include the villain Two-Face in a future film using the concept of an African-American Two-Face for the black and white concept, but Tommy Lee Jones was later cast in the role for Batman Forever which disappointed Williams. Nicholson convinced the filmmakers to cast Tracey Walter as the Joker's henchman, Bob; in real life, Nicholson and Walter are close friends. The rest of the cast included Pat Hingle as Commissioner Gordon, Jack Palance as Carl Grissom, Jerry Hall as Alicia Hunt, Lee Wallace as Mayor Borg, and William Hootkins as Lt. Max Eckhardt.
The filmmakers considered filming Batman entirely on the Warner Bros. backlot in Burbank, California, but media interest in the film made them change the location. It was shot at Pinewood Studios in England from October 1988 to January 1989. 18 sound stages were used, almost the entirety of Pinewood's 95-acre backlot. Locations included Knebworth House and Hatfield House doubling for Wayne Manor, plus Acton Lane Power Station and Little Barford Power Station. The original production budget escalated from $30 million to $48 million. Filming was highly secretive. The unit publicist was offered and refused £10,000 for the first pictures of Jack Nicholson as the Joker. The police were later called in when two reels of footage (about 20 minutes' worth) were stolen. With various problems during filming, Burton called it "torture. The worst period of my life!"
Hamm was not allowed to perform rewrites during the 1988 Writers Guild of America strike. Jonathan Gems, Warren Skaaren and Charles McKeown rewrote the script during filming. Hamm criticized the rewrites, but blamed the changes on Warner Bros. Burton explained, "I don't understand why that became such a problem. We started out with a script that everyone liked, although we recognized it needed a little work." Dick Grayson appeared in the shooting script but was deleted, as the filmmakers felt he was irrelevant to the plot. Bob Kane supported this decision.
Originally in the climax, the Joker was to kill Vicki Vale, sending Batman into a vengeful fury. Jon Peters reworked the climax without telling Burton and commissioned production designer Anton Furst to create a 38-foot (12 m) model of the cathedral. This cost $100,000 when the film was already well over budget. Burton disliked the idea, having no clue how the scene would end: "Here were Jack Nicholson and Kim Basinger walking up this cathedral, and halfway up Jack turns around and says, 'Why am I walking up all these stairs? Where am I going?' 'We'll talk about it when you get to the top!' I had to tell him that I didn't know."
Burton was impressed with Anton Furst's designs in The Company of Wolves, and previously failed to hire Furst as production designer for Beetlejuice. Furst had been too committed on High Spirits, a choice he later regretted. Furst enjoyed working with Burton. "I don't think I've ever felt so naturally in tune with a director", said he; "Conceptually, spiritually, visually, or artistically. There was never any problem because we never fought over anything. Texture, attitude and feelings are what [Burton] is a master at" .
Furst and the art department deliberately mixed clashing architectural styles to "make Gotham City the ugliest and bleakest metropolis imaginable." Furst continued, "we imagined what New York City might have become without a planning commission. A city run by crime, with a riot of architectural styles. An essay in ugliness. As if hell erupted through the pavement and kept on going'". The 1985 film Brazil by Terry Gilliam was also a notable influence upon the film's production design, as both Burton and Furst studied it as a reference. Derek Meddings served as the visual effects supervisor, while Keith Short helped construct the newly-created 1989 Batmobile, adding two Browning machine guns. On designing the Batmobile, Furst explained, "We looked at jet aircraft components, we looked at war machines, we looked at all sorts of things. In the end, we went into pure expressionism, taking the Salt Flat Racers of the 30s and the Sting Ray macho machines of the 50s". The car was built upon a Chevrolet Impala when previous development with a Jaguar and Ford Mustang failed.
Costume designer Bob Ringwood turned down the chance to work on Licence to Kill in favor of Batman. Ringwood found it difficult designing the Batsuit because "the image of Batman in the comics is this huge, big six-foot-four hunk with a dimpled chin. Michael Keaton is a guy with average build", he stated. "The problem was to make somebody who was average-sized and ordinary looking into this bigger-than-life creature." Burton commented, "Michael is a bit claustrophobic, which made it worse for him. The costume put him in a dark, Batman-like mood though, so he was able to use it to his advantage". Burton's idea was to use an all-black suit, and was met with positive feedback by Bob Kane. Jon Peters wanted to use a Nike product placement with the Batsuit. Ringwood studied over 200 comic book issues for inspiration. 28 sculpted latex designs were created; 25 different cape looks and 6 different heads were made, accumulating a total cost of $250,000. Comic book fans initially expressed negative feedback against the Batsuit. Burton opted not to use tights, spandex, or underpants as seen in the comic book, feeling it was not intimidating. Prosthetic makeup designer Nick Dudman used acrylic-based makeup paint called PAX for Nicholson's chalk-white face. Part of Nicholson's contract was approval over the makeup designer.
Burton hired Danny Elfman, his collaborator on Pee-wee's Big Adventure and Beetlejuice, to compose the music score. For inspiration Elfman was given The Dark Knight Returns. Elfman was worried, as he never had worked on a production this large in budget and scale. In addition, producer Jon Peters was skeptical of hiring Elfman, but was later convinced when he heard the opening number. Peters and Peter Guber wanted Prince to write music for the Joker and Michael Jackson to do the romance songs. Elfman would then combine the style of Prince and Jackson's songs together for the entire film score.
Burton protested the ideas, citing "my movies aren't commercial like Top Gun." Elfman enlisted the help of Oingo Boingo lead guitarist Steve Bartek and Shirley Walker to arrange the compositions for the orchestra. Elfman later was displeased with the audio mixing of his film score. "Batman was done in England by technicians who didn't care, and the non-caring showed," he stated. "I'm not putting down England because they've done gorgeous dubs there, but this particular crew elected not to." Batman was one of the first films to spawn two soundtracks. One of them featured songs written by Prince while the other showcased Elfman's score. Both were successful, and compilations of Elfman's opening credits were used in the title sequence theme for Batman: The Animated Series, also composed by Shirley Walker.
When discussing the central theme of Batman, director Tim Burton explained, "the whole film and mythology of the character is a complete duel of the freaks. It's a fight between two disturbed people", adding that "The Joker is such a great character because there's a complete freedom to him. Any character who operates on the outside of society and is deemed a freak and an outcast then has the freedom to do what they want... They are the darker sides of freedom. Insanity is in some scary way the most freedom you can have, because you're not bound by the laws of society".
Burton saw Bruce Wayne as the bearer of a double identity, exposing one while hiding the reality from the world. Burton biographer Ken Hanke wrote that Bruce Wayne, struggling with his alter-ego as Batman, is depicted as an antihero. Hanke felt that Batman has to push the boundaries of civil justice to deal with certain criminals, such as the Joker. Kim Newman theorized that "Burton and the writers saw Batman and the Joker as a dramatic antithesis, and the film deals with their intertwined origins and fates to an even greater extent".
A visual motif is present in the scene of Batman's first major act of vigilantism at Axis Chemicals, wherein he is carefully framed so that the single word AXIS, in gigantic red neon letters, looms over him, comparing his acts to those of the totalitarian governments of World War II and thus implying that the dangers of these actions include the transformation of Jack Napier into the Joker. Batman also conveys trademarks found in 1930s pulp magazines, notably the design of Gotham City stylized with Art Deco design. Richard Corliss, writing for Time, observed that Gotham's design was a reference to films such as Metropolis (1927) and The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920). "Gotham City, despite being shot on a studio backlot", he continued, "is literally another character in the script. It has the demeaning presence of German Expressionism and fascist architecture, staring down at the citizens". Hanke further addressed the notions of Batman being a period piece, in that "The citizens, cops, people and the black-and-white television looks like it takes place in 1939"; but later said: "Had the filmmakers made Vicki Vale a femme fatale rather than a damsel in distress, this could have made Batman as a homage and tribute to classic film noir" Portions of the climax pay homage to Vertigo..
Production designer Anton Furst designed the poster, which he called "evocative but ubiquitous. Only featuring the Bat-Symbol. Not too much and not too little." Earlier designs "had the word 'Batman' spelled in RoboCop or Conan the Barbarian-type font." Jon Peters unified all the film's tie-ins, even turning down $6 million from General Motors to build the Batmobile because the car company would not relinquish creative control.
During production, Peters read in The Wall Street Journal that comic book fans were unsatisfied with the casting of Michael Keaton. In response, Peters rushed the first film trailer that played in thousands of theaters during Christmas. It was simply an assemblage of scenes without music, but happened to create enormous anticipation for the film. DC Comics allowed screenwriter Sam Hamm to write his own comic book miniseries. Hamm's stories were collected in the graphic novel Batman: Blind Justice (ISBN 978-1563890475). Denys Cowan and Dick Giordano illustrated the artwork. Blind Justice tells the story of Bruce Wayne trying to solve a series of murders connected to Wayne Enterprises. It also marks the first appearance of Henri Ducard, who was later used in the rebooted Batman Begins, albeit as an alias for the more notable Ra's al Ghul.
In the months pre-dating Batman's release in June 1989, a popular culture phenomenon rose known as "Batmania". Over $750 million worth of merchandise was sold. Cult filmmaker and comic book writer Kevin Smith remembered, "That summer was huge. You couldn't turn around without seeing the Bat-Signal somewhere. People were cutting it into their fucking heads. It was just the summer of Batman and if you were a comic book fan it was pretty hot." Hachette Book Group USA published a novelization, written by Craig Shaw Gardner. It remained on the New York Times Best Seller list throughout June 1989. Burton admitted he was annoyed by the publicity. David Handelman of The New York Observer categorized Batman as a high concept film. He believed "it is less movie than a corporate behemoth."
Batman opened on June 23, 1989, grossing $43.6 million in 2,194 theaters during its opening weekend. This broke the opening weekend record, set by Ghostbusters II one week earlier, with $29.4 million. Batman would eventually gross $251.2 million in North America and $160.15 million internationally, totaling $411.35 million. Batman was the first film to earn $100 million in its first ten days of release, and was the highest grossing film based on a DC comic book, until 2008's The Dark Knight. The film is 58th highest ever in North American ranks. Although Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade made the most money worldwide in 1989, Batman was able to beat The Last Crusade in North America, and made a further $150 million in home video sales.
Batman was criticized in some quarters for being "too dark". Many observed that Burton was more interested in the Joker than Batman in terms of characterization and screentime. Comic book fans reacted negatively over the Joker murdering Thomas and Martha Wayne; in the comic book, Joe Chill is responsible. Writer Sam Hamm, who is a comic book fan, said it was Burton's idea to have the Joker murder Wayne's parents. "The Writer's Strike was going on," Hamm said, "and Tim had the other writers do that. I also hold innocent to Alfred letting Vicki Vale into the Batcave. Fans were ticked off with that, and I agree. That would have been Alfred's last day of employment at Wayne Manor."
The songs written by Prince were criticized for being "too out of place". While Burton has stated he had no problem with the Prince songs, he was less enthusiastic with their use in the film. On the film, Burton remarked, "I liked parts of it, but the whole movie is mainly boring to me. It's OK, but it was more of a cultural phenomenon than a great movie." Nonetheless, the film received generally favorable reviews from critics. Based on 52 reviews collected by Rotten Tomatoes, 71% of reviewers have enjoyed Batman. By comparison, Metacritic has collected an average score of 66, based on 17 reviews.
Burton biographer Alison McMahan wrote, "fans of the Batman franchise complained when they heard of Michael Keaton's casting. However, no one complained when they saw his performance." James Berardinelli called the film entertaining, with the highlight being the production design. However, he concluded, "the best thing that can be said about Batman is that it led to Batman Returns, which was a far superior effort." Variety felt "Jack Nicholson stole every scene" but still greeted the film with positive feedback. Roger Ebert was highly impressed with the production design, but claimed "Batman is a triumph of design over story, style over substance, a great-looking movie with a plot you can't care much about." His reviewing partner, Gene Siskel, disagreed, however, describing the film as having a 'refreshingly adult' approach with performances, direction and set design that 'draws you into a psychological world'. Jonathan Rosenbaum of the Chicago Reader called it "watchable enough".
Anton Furst and Peter Young won the Academy Award for Best Art Direction, while Nicholson was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor (Musical or Comedy). The British Academy of Film and Television Arts nominated Batman in six categories (Production Design, Visual Effects, Costume Design, Makeup, Sound and Actor in a Supporting Role for Nicholson), but it won none of the categories. Nicholson, Basinger, the make-up department and costume designer Bob Ringwood all received nominations at the Saturn Awards. The film was nominated the Saturn Award for Best Fantasy Film and the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation.
The success of Batman prompted Warner Bros. Animation to create the Emmy Award-winning Batman: The Animated Series, as a result beginning the long-running DC Animated Universe. Series co-creator Bruce Timm stated the television show's Art Deco design was inspired from the film. Timm commented, "our show would never have gotten made if it hadn't been for that first Batman movie." Batman initiated the original Batman film series and helped establish the modern day superhero film genre. Burton joked, "ever since I did Batman, it was like the first dark comic book movie. Now everyone wants to do a dark and serious superhero movie. I guess I'm the one responsible for that trend."
Producers Michael Uslan and Benjamin Melniker filed a breach of contract lawsuit in Los Angeles County Superior Court on March 26, 1992. Uslan and Melniker claimed to be "the victims of a sinister campaign of fraud and coercion that has cheated them out of continuing involvement in the production of Batman and its sequels. We were denied proper credits, and deprived of any financial rewards for our indispensable creative contribution to the success of Batman." A superior court judge rejected the lawsuit. Total revenues of Batman have topped $2 billion, with Uslan claiming to have "not seen a penny more than that since our net profit participation has proved worthless." Warner Bros. offered the pair an out-of-court pay-off, a sum described by Uslan and Melniker's attorney as "two popcorns and two Cokes".
Reflecting on the twentieth anniversary of its release in a retrospective article on Salon.com, film commentator Scott Mendelson noted that continuing impact that Batman has had on the motion film industry, including the increasing importance of opening weekend box office receipts; the narrowing window between a film's debut and its video release that caused the demise of second-run movie theaters; the accelerated acquisition of pre-existing, pre-sold properties for film adaptation that can be readily leveraged for merchandizing tie-ins; the primacy of the MPAA PG-13 as the target rating for film producers; and more off-beat, non-traditional casting opportunities for genre films.
The film also received recognition from the American Film Institute. Batman was anointed the 46th greatest movie hero on AFI's 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains. The Joker was anointed the 45th greatest movie villain on the same list. In 2008, Batman was selected by Empire Magazine as number 458 of The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time.
- American Film Institute Lists
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies - Nominated
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills - Nominated
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes and Villains:
- The Joker - #45 Villain
- Batman - #46 Hero
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes:
- "Have you ever danced with the Devil in the pale moonlight?" - Nominated
- AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores - Nominated
- AFI's 10 Top 10 - Nominated Fantasy Film
Many versions of the film have been released. Included are VHS, Laserdisc, single disc DVD, Special Edition DVD and an anthology set. The Batman: The Motion Picture Anthology released in 2005 included 2-Disc Special Edition DVDs of the Tim Burton/Joel Schumacher Batman films. This anthology set was re-released on Blu-ray on March 10, 2009.
On May 19, 2009 a 20th anniversary stand-alone edition was released. This stand-alone version contains exactly the same special features as its anthology set (both DVD and Blu-ray) counterparts. There are two differences: This version includes a 50-page booklet guide to the film, and a slight variation in packaging from normal Blu-ray cases (Warner Bros. *Digibook*) They both include a digital copy of the film.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Mark Salisbury; Tim Burton (2006). "Batman". Burton on Burton. London: Faber and Faber. pp. 70–83. ISBN 0-571-22926-3.
- ^ a b "Batman". Steve Englehart.com. http://www.steveenglehart.com/Film/Batman%20movie.html. Retrieved 2007-11-25.
- ^ a b c d e f g Alan Jones (November 1989). "Batman". Cinefantastique: pp. 55–67.
- ^ a b c d e Taylor L. White (July 1989). "Batman". Cinefantastique: pp. 33–40.
- ^ a b c d e Stephen Rebello (November 1989). "Sam Hamm - Screenwriter". Cinefantastique: pp. 34–41.
- ^ a b c Tim Burton, Sam Hamm, Mark Canton, Michael Keaton, Shadows of the Bat: The Cinematic Saga of the Dark Knight—The Gathering Storm, 2005, Warner Home Video
- ^ a b c Robert Wuhl, Billy Dee Williams, Pat Hingle, Batman: The Heroes, 2005, Warner Home Video
- ^ a b c d Alan Jones (November 1989). "Batman in Production". Cinefantastique: pp. 75–88.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Nancy Griffin; Kim Masters (1997). "Hit Men". Hit & Run: How Jon Peters and Peter Guber Took Sony For A Ride In Hollywood. Simon & Schuster. pp. 158–174. ISBN 0-684-80931-1.
- ^ a b Hilary de Vries (1989-02-05). "Batman Battles for Big Money". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DEFDE1131F936A35751C0A96F948260&scp=2&sq=Batman&st=nyt. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
- ^ Les Daniels (2000). Batman: The Complete History. Chronicle Books. p. 164. ISBN 0-8118-2470-5.
- ^ a b c David Hughes (2003). "Batman". Comic Book Movies. Virgin Books. pp. 33–46. ISBN 0753507676.
- ^ a b c d e f Iain Johnstone (August 1989). "Dark Knight in the City of Dreams". Empire: pp. 46–54.
- ^ "Top 10 Celebrity Lakers Fans". NBA.com. http://www.nba.com/features/lakers_celebs_070309.html. Retrieved September 6, 2007.
- ^ a b Shadows of the Bat: The Cinematic Saga of the Dark Knight, "Part 2: The Gathering Storm", DVD documentary, 2005
- ^ a b Tim Burton, DVD audio commentary, 2005, Warner Home Video
- ^ Batman Special Edition DVD/Blu-Ray, Tim Burton Commentary
- ^ Jack Nicholson, Tracey Walter, Batman: The Villains, 2005, Warner Home Video
- ^ a b c d Joe Morgenstern (1989-04-09). "Tim Burton, Batman and The Joker". The New York Times.
- ^ "Batman (1989) Filming Locations". Ukonscreen.com. http://www.ukonscreen.com/gkjhkbb-Batman-(1989).html. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- ^ a b Hanke, p.87-96
- ^ Salisbury, Burton, p.145
- ^ a b Tom Stone (2004-09-28). "How Hollywood had the last laugh". The Daily Telegraph.
- ^ Anton Furst, Derek Meddings, Visualizing Gotham: The Production Design of Batman, 2005, Warner Home Video
- ^ Richard Corliss; Elaine Dutka (1989-06-19). "The Caped Crusader Flies Again". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,957980,00.html. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
- ^ "Batman". Keith Short.com. http://www.keithshortsculptor.com/batman4.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
- ^ Keith Short, Building the Batmobile, 2005, Warner Home Video
- ^ a b Jody Duncan Shannon (February 1990). "Building the Bat-suit". Cinefex: pp. 16–24.
- ^ Bob Ringwood, Tim Burton, Designing the Batsuit, 2005, Warner Home Video
- ^ "Reinventing the Batsuit for the Modern Era". American Movies Classic. http://blogs.amctv.com/future_of_classic/2007/06/reinventing-the.html. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
- ^ Alan Jones (November 1989). "The Joker's Make-up". Cinefantastique: pp. 69–70.
- ^ Danny Elfman, Tim Burton, Nocturnal Overtures: The Music of Batman, 2005, Warner Home Video
- ^ a b Tim Burton, Sam Hamm, Danny Elfman, Shadows of the Bat: The Cinematic Saga of the Dark Knight—The Legend Reborn, 2005, Warner Home Video
- ^ "The Elfman Cometh". Entertainment Weekly. 1990-02-23. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,316794,00.html. Retrieved 2007-12-18.
- ^ Judy Sloane (August 1995). "Elfman on scoring". Film Review: p. 77.
- ^ Stephen Holden (1989-07-19). "The Pop Life". The New York Times.
- ^ a b c Ken Hanke (1999). "Going Batty in Britain". Tim Burton: An Unauthorized Biography of the Filmmaker. Renaissance Books. pp. 75–85. ISBN 1-58063-162-2.
- ^ Kim Newman (September 1989). "Batman". Monthly Film Bulletin: pp. 61–64.
- ^ Hal Hinson (1989-06-23). "Batman". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/movies/videos/batmanpg13hinson_a07fb8.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-24.
- ^ Richard Corliss (1989-06-19). "Murk in The Myth". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,957972,00.html. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
- ^ a b c Alison McMahan (2005). "Burton's Batman: Myth, Marketing, and Merchandising". The Films of Tim Burton: Animating Live Action in Contemporary Hollywood. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Gale. ISBN 0-8264-1566-0 121-156.
- ^ Kevin Smith, An Evening with Kevin Smith, 2002, Sony Pictures Home Entertainment
- ^ "Batman: The Novelization (Mass Market Paperback)". Amazon.com. http://www.amazon.com/dp/0446363030. Retrieved 2008-08-16.
- ^ "Paperback Best Sellers: June 18, 1989". The New York Times. 1989-06-18.
- ^ Staff (1989-06-27). "Batman Sets Record And So Does Hollywood". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DE3DC1E38F934A15755C0A96F948260&scp=41&sq=Batman&st=nyt. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
- ^ "Batman (1989)". Box Office Mojo. http://boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=batman.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-03.
- ^ "DC Comics Movies". Box Office Mojo. http://boxofficemojo.com/franchises/chart/?id=dccomics.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-03.
- ^ "All Time Domestic Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo. http://boxofficemojo.com/alltime/domestic.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-03.
- ^ "1989 Worldwide Grosses". Box Office Mojo. http://boxofficemojo.com/yearly/chart/?view2=worldwide&yr=1989&p=.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-03.
- ^ "1989 Domestic Grosses". Box Office Mojo. http://boxofficemojo.com/yearly/chart/?yr=1989&p=.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-03.
- ^ a b Jeffrey Resner (August 1992). "Three Go Mad in Gotham", Empire, pp. 44-52. Retrieved on 2008-08-14.
- ^ "Batman". Rotten Tomatoes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/1001781-batman/. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- ^ "Batman (1989): Reviews". Metacritic. http://www.metacritic.com/movie/batman. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- ^ James Berardinelli (2001-06-05). "Batman (1989)". ReelViews. http://www.reelviews.net/movies/b/batman.html. Retrieved 2008-05-05.
- ^ "Batman". Variety. 1989-01-01. http://www.variety.com/review/VE1117788899.html?categoryid=31&cs=1&p=0. Retrieved 2008-05-05.
- ^ "Batman". Roger Ebert. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19890623/REVIEWS/906230301/1023. Retrieved 2008-05-05.
- ^ Jonathan Rosenbaum (1989-06-23). "Batman". Chicago Reader. http://onfilm.chicagoreader.com/movies/capsules/769_BATMAN_AAA_burton. Retrieved 2008-05-05.
- ^ "Batman". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://awardsdatabase.oscars.org/ampas_awards/DisplayMain.jsp?curTime=1223147717805. Retrieved 2008-10-04.
- ^ "Batman". Hollywood Foreign Press Association. http://www.goldenglobes.org/browse/film/23678. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- ^ "Batman". British Academy of Film and Television Arts. http://www.bafta.org/awards-database.html?sq=Batman. Retrieved 2008-10-04.
- ^ "Past Saturn Awards". Saturn Awards.org. http://www.saturnawards.org/past.html. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
- ^ "1990 Hugo Awards". The Hugo Awards. http://www.thehugoawards.org/index.php?s=Batman. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- ^ Paul Dini; Chip Kidd (1998). Batman Animated. Titan Books. p. 2. ISBN 1-84023-016-9.
- ^ Bruce Timm; Erick Nolen-Weathington (2004). Modern Masters Volume 3: Bruce Timm. TwoMorrows Publishing. pp. 38–49. ISBN 1893905306.
- ^ Geoff Boucher (2008-10-15). "Tim Burton talks about Johnny Depp, 'Alice in Wonderland' and 'The Dark Knight'". Los Angeles Times.
- ^ Olly Richards (September 1992). "Trouble in Gotham", Empire, pp. 21-23. Retrieved on 2008-08-14.
- ^ Scott Mendelson (June 24, 2009@ 10:38 AM). "20 years later, how Batman changed the movie business...". Salon.com. http://open.salon.com/blog/scott_mendelson/2009/06/24/20_years_later_how_batman_changed_the_movie_business. Retrieved 2009-07-04.
- ^ http://connect.afi.com/site/DocServer/handv100.pdf?docID=246
- ^ "Empire Features". Empireonline.com. http://www.empireonline.com/500/8.asp. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- ^ http://www.afi.com/Docs/100Years/movies400.pdf
- ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills Nominees" (PDF). http://www.afi.com/Docs/100Years/thrills400.pdf. Retrieved 2011-08-20.
- ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes Nominees" (PDF). http://www.afi.com/Docs/100Years/quotes400.pdf. Retrieved 2011-08-20.
- ^ "HollywoodBowlBallot" (PDF). http://www.afi.com/Docs/100Years/scores250.pdf. Retrieved 2011-08-20.
- ^ "AFI's 10 Top 10 Ballot" (PDF). http://www.afi.com/drop/ballot.pdf. Retrieved 2011-08-20.
- Janet K. Halfyard, (28 October 2004) (Paperback). Danny Elfman's Batman: A Film Score Guide. A careful study of Elfman's scoring technique with a detailed analysis of the film itself. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810851261.
- Craig Shaw Gardner (1 June 1989) (Mass Market Paperback). Batman. Novelization of the film. Hachette Book Group USA. ISBN 0446354872.
- Batman at the Internet Movie Database
- Batman at AllRovi
- Batman at Rotten Tomatoes
- Batman at Metacritic
- Batman at Box Office Mojo
- Script review of The Batman IGN reviews Tom Mankiewicz's unproduced script
- Behind-the-scenes photos
Batman franchise media Live-action television Live-action
serials and films
Animated televisionThe Adventures of Batman • The Batman/Superman Hour • The Batman/Tarzan Adventure Hour • The New Adventures of Batman • Batman: The Animated Series (episodes) • The New Batman Adventures (episodes) • Batman Beyond (episodes) • The Batman (episodes) • Batman: The Brave and the Bold (episodes) • Beware the Batman Animated filmsBatman: Mask of the Phantasm • Batman & Mr. Freeze: SubZero • Batman Beyond: Return of the Joker • Batman: Mystery of the Batwoman • Chase Me • The Batman vs. Dracula • Batman: Gotham Knight • Superman/Batman: Public Enemies • Batman: Under the Red Hood • Superman/Batman: Apocalypse • Batman: Year One Novels Related topics Live-action films based on DC Comics Serials Single films Film franchises Batman 1966 1989 2005 Superman 1951 1978 2013 Swamp Thing Tim Burton 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s ProducerEdward Scissorhands (1990) · Batman Returns (1992) · The Nightmare Before Christmas (1993) · Cabin Boy (1994) · Ed Wood (1994) · Batman Forever (1995) · James and the Giant Peach (1996) · Mars Attacks! (1996) · Corpse Bride (2005) · 9 (2009) · Dark Shadows (2012) · Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter (2012) · Frankenweenie (2012) · Big Eyes (TBA) Short films LiteratureBurton on Burton, edited by Mark Salisbury (1995, revised editions 2000, 2006) · The Melancholy Death of Oyster Boy & Other Stories (1997) · The Art of Tim Burton, written by Leah Gallo (2009)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.