Fars Province

Infobox Iran Province
province_name = Fars
ostan_name = فارس
loc_



capital = Shiraz
latd = 29.609
longd = 52.532
area = 122,608
population = 4,385,869
pop_year = 2005
pop_density = 35.8
sub_provinces = 23
languages= Persian Qashqai Luri (Mamasani dialect)

Fars (pronounced/fɑː(ɹ)s) (Persian: فارس, "Fârs") is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. It is in the south of the country and its center is Shiraz. It has an area of 122,400 km². In 1996, this province had a population of 3.8 million people, of which 56.7% were registered as urban dwellers, 41.0% villagers, and 1.4% nomad tribes. [ [http://www.irantour.org/Iran/city/FARS.html Iran fars-shiraz ] ]

Fars is the original homeland of the Persian people. The native name of the Persian language is "Fârsi" or "Pârsi". "Persia" and "Persian" both derive from the Hellenized form "polytonic|Πέρσις" "Persis" of the root word "Pârs". The Old Persian word was "Pârsâ".

Etymology

The name of the Fars is derived from "Pârsa", the Old Persian name for Persia and its capital, Persepolis.

History

Pre-Islamic era

The ancient Persians were present in the region from about the 9th century BC, and became the rulers of a large empire under the Achaemenid dynasty in the 6th century BC. The ruins of Persepolis and Pasargadae, two of the four capitals of the Achaemenid Empire, are located in Fars.

The Achaemenid Empire was defeated by Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC. Shortly after this the Seleucid Empire was established. However it never extended its power beyond the main trade routes in Fars, and by reign of Antiochus I or possibly later Persis emerged as an independent state that minted its own coins. ["The Cambridge History of Iran", Vol. 3 (1), p. 299]

The Seleucid Empire was defeated by the Parthians in 238 BC. By 205 BC Antiochus III had extended his authority into Persis and it ceased to be an independent state. ["The Cambridge History of Iran", Vol. 3 (1), p. 302]

Babak was the ruler of a small town called Kheir. Babak's efforts in gaining local power at the time escaped the attention of Artabanus IV, the Arsacid Emperor of the time. Babak and his eldest son Shapur managed to expand their power over all of Persis.

The subsequent events are unclear, due to the sketchy nature of the sources. It is however certain that following the death of Babak around 220, Ardashir who at the time was the governor of Darabgird, got involved in a power struggle of his own with his elder brother Shapur. The sources tell us that in 222, Shapur was killed when the roof of a building collapsed on him.

At this point, Ardashir moved his capital further to the south of Persis and founded a capital at Ardashir-Khwarrah (formerly Gur, modern day Firouzabad).

After establishing his rule over Persis, Ardashir I rapidly extended his territory, demanding fealty from the local princes of Fars, and gaining control over the neighboring provinces of Kerman, Isfahan, Susiana, and Mesene.

Artabanus marched a second time against Ardashir I in 224. Their armies clashed at Hormizdeghan, where Artabanus IV was killed. He was crowned in 226 at Ctesiphon as the sole ruler of Persia; bringing the 400-year-old Parthian Empire to an end.

The Sassanids ruled for 425 years, until the Arab armies conquered the empire.

Islamic era

The cities of Fars province put up a firm resistance to the Arabs during the Islamic Conquest of Iran, particularly in areas around Istakhr. The province however, as well as most of Persia ultimately fell to the conquest.

Fars then passed hand to hand through numerous dynasties, leaving behind numerous historical and ancient monuments; each of which has its own values as a world heritage, reflecting the history of the province, Iran, and western Asia. The ruins of Bishapur, Persepolis, and Firouzabad are all reminders of this.

Administrative Divisions

Fars is located in the south of Iran. It neighbours Bushehr Province to the west, Hormozgān Province to the south, Kerman and Yazd provinces to the east, Isfahan province to the north and
# Estahban
# Abadeh
# Eqlīd
# Bovanat
# Jahrum
# Darab
# Sepidan
# Shiraz
# Fasa
# Firouzabad
# Saadat Shahr
# Sarvestan
# Safashahr
# Mohr
# Kazeroon
# Lar
# Lamerd
# Marvdasht
# Mamasani
# Khonj
# Neyriz
# SahedShahr

Climate and Wildlife

There are three distinct climatic regions in the Fars Province. First, the mountainous area of the north and northwest with moderate cold winters and mild summers. Secondly, the central regions, with relatively rainy mild winters, and hot dry summers. The third region located in the south and southeast, has moderate winters with very hot summers. The average temperature of Shiraz is 16.8 °C, ranging between 4.7° and 29.2 °C.The geographical and climatic variation of the province causes varieties of plants, consequently, variation of wild life has been formed in the province. Additional to the native animals of the province, many kinds of birds migrate to the province every year. [ [http://www.irantour.org/Iran/city/FARS.html Iran fars-shiraz ] ] Many kinds of ducks, storks and swallows migrate to this province in annual peride. [ [http://www.irantour.org/Iran/city/FARS.html Iran fars-shiraz ] ] The main native animals of the province are Gazelle, deer, mountain wild goat, ram, ewe and many kinds of birds. [ [http://www.irantour.org/Iran/city/FARS.html Iran fars-shiraz ] ] The province of Fars includes many protected wild life zones. The most important protected zones are as following:

Toot Siah (Black Berry) Hunt Forbidden Zone, which is located at the end of Boanat region.

Basiran Hunt Forbidden Zone which is located 4 kilometers south to Abadeh.

Bambo National Park which is located on the north of Shiraz.

Estahban Forest Park ( Parke Jangaly) which is located on the outskirts of Touraj mountain.

Hermoodlar Protected Zone which is located east to larestan. [ [http://www.irantour.org/Iran/city/FARS.html Iran fars-shiraz ] ]

Economy

Agriculture is of great importance in Fars. The major products include cereal (wheat and barley), citrus fruits, dates, sugar beets and cotton.

Fars has major petrochemical facilities, along with an oil refinery, a factory for producing tires, a large electronics industry, and a sugar mill.

Tourism is also a large industry in the province. UNESCO has designated an area in the province, called Arjan (known as "Dasht e Arjan") as a biosphere reserve.

Demographics

Due to the geographical characteristics of Fars and its proximity to the Persian Gulf, Fars has long been a residing area for different natives and tribes from other parts of the world such as the Turks, Semites, and Aryans who were under the influence of Iranian culture. However, the original tribes of Fars including Qashqai, Mamasani Lurs, Khamseh and Kohkiluyeh have kept their native and unique cultures and lifestyles which constitute part of the cultural heritage of Iran attracting many tourists.Shiraz' ( provincial capital of Fars) wine is one of the most famous kind of wine in the world. There used to be a lot of wine factories in this city. After the Islamic revolution in 1979 due to an Islamic law all wine factories were shut down. The province has a population of 4.4 million approximately.

Transportation

Shiraz Airport is the main international airport of the province and the second in the country. The cities of Lar and Lamerd also have airports linking them with Shiraz and Tehran and nearby Persian Gulf countries such as the UAE and Bahrain. Shiraz is along the main route from Tehran to southern Iran.

Colleges and universities

The following major universities are located in Fars:
*# Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
*# Shiraz University
*# Shiraz University of Technology
*# [http://www.iauabadeh.ac.ir/ Islamic Azad University of Abadeh]
*# [http://www.iaua.ac.ir/ Islamic Azad University of Arsanjan]
*# [http://www.iauestahban.ac.ir/ Islamic Azad University of Estahban]
*# [http://www.iaueghlid.ac.ir/ Islamic Azad University of Eghlid]
*# [http://www.iaujahrom.ac.ir/ Islamic Azad University of Jahrom]
*# [http://www.iausepidon.ac.ir/ Islamic Azad University of Sepidan]
*# [http://www.iaushiraz.ac.ir/ Islamic Azad University of Shiraz]
*# [http://www.iaufasa.ac.ir/ Islamic Azad University of Fasa]
*# [http://www.iauf.ac.ir/ Islamic Azad University of Firouzabad]
*# [http://www.iaukazeroon.ac.ir/ Islamic Azad University of Kazerun]
*# [http://www.iaularestan.ac.ir/ Islamic Azad University of Larestan]
*# [http://www.miau.ac.ir/ Islamic Azad University of Marvdasht]
*# [http://www.fums.ac.ir/ Fasa University of Medical Sciences]
*# [http://www.jums.ac.ir Jahrom University of Medical Sciences]
*# [http://www.shirazjju.ac.ir Shiraz University of Applied Science and Technology]
*# [http://reg.pnu.ac.ir/ Fasa University of Payam Noor]
*# [http://www.fasaihe.ac.ir/ Fasa Institution (Centre) of High Education]

Notables from Fars

*Christiane Amanpour's father is originally from Sarvestan, Fars.
* Sibawayh, one of the founders of Arabic grammar, died in Shiraz.
* Karim Khan, founder of the Zand dynasty.
* Lotf Ali Khan, the last ruler of the Zand dynasty.
* Saadi, writer, poet, born and died in Shiraz.
* Hafez, poet, born and died in Shiraz.
* Ibn Muqaffa,or Ruzbeh Dadwayh, Persian writter,and translator in 8th century AC.
* Zahra Kazemi, photographer, born in Shiraz.
* Ladan and Laleh Bijani, famous conjoined twins, born in Shiraz.
* Shāh Shuja', buried in Shiraz.
* Khwaju Kermani, buried in Shiraz.
* Mulla Sadra was born in Shiraz.
* Asghar Shekari was born in Shiraz.
* Seyyed Zia'eddin Tabatabaee was born in Shiraz.
* Ibn Khafif, a 9th century sage, is buried in Shiraz.
* Molla Sadra ,philosopher.
* Sheikh Ruzbehan
* Afshin Ghotbi
* Meulana Shahin Shirazi,Persian Jewish poet and wiseman.
* Junayd Shirazi
* Mansur Hallaj Persian Mystician,killed in 8th century AC.
* Mohsen Kadivar
* Ata'ollah Mohajerani was a representative of Shiraz in the Majlis.
* Saeed Emami
* Gholam Reza Azhari
* Siyyid Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, the Báb

Fars Province in poetry



photo gallery



References

External links

* [http://www.farsprovince.com/ Official website of Fars Governorship]
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khabare_Jonub]
* [http://www.farsmiras.ir/ Cultural Heritage Foundation of Fars Province]
* [http://www.persepolis.ir Official website of Persepolis]
* [http://www.farscommerce.com/ Fars Chamber of Commerce]
* [http://www.khabaronline.ir/jonoob/]
* [http://www.srlst.com/ Fars Regional Library of Science and Technology]
* [http://www.farsibto.ir/ Fars Blood Transfusion Organization] (in Persian)
* [http://www.mpo-fr.gov.ir Fars Province Department of Planing and Management]
* [http://www.farseduinf.net/ Fars Province Department of Education] (in Persian)
* [http://www.farslabour.org/ Fars Province Department of Labour] (in Persian)
* [http://www.larestaniha.com/ Larestan Mayor's Office]
* [http://www.sccim.com/ Shiraz Chamber of Commerce]
* [http://www2.unesco.org/mab/br/brdir/directory/biores.asp?mode=gen&code=IRA+02 UNESCO Biosphere Reserve of Arjan]
* [http://www.farsawqaf.ir/ Endowments & chairity affairs organization]
* [http://www.khodmooniforum.com Khodmooni Forum] Connecting Khodmoonis All Over the World
* Some folk-songs from the Fars Province sung by Shusha Guppy in the 1970s:
[http://www.iranian.com/ram/Shusha/1.ram "Silver Gun"] , [http://www.iranian.com/ram/Shusha/2.ram "Wheat Flower"] , [http://www.iranian.com/ram/Shusha/4.ram "The Stars in Heaven"] , [http://www.iranian.com/ram/Shusha/5.ram "On Top of The Hill"] , [http://www.iranian.com/ram/Shusha/6.ram "The Silken Handkerchief"] , [http://www.iranian.com/ram/Shusha/12.ram "My Beloved is Short"] , [http://www.iranian.com/ram/Shusha/13.ram "The Water Pipe"] , [http://www.iranian.com/ram/Shusha/14.ram "You Must Come to Me"] (ascribed to the Mamasani Tribe).



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