Terza rima

Terza rima

Terza rima is a rhyming verse stanza form that consists of an interlocking three line rhyme scheme. It was first used by the Italian poet Dante Alighieri.

Form

Terza rima is a three-line stanza using chain rhyme in the pattern a-b-a, b-c-b, c-d-c, d-e-d. There is no limit to the number of lines, but poems or sections of poems written in terza rima end with either a single line or couplet repeating the rhyme of the middle line of the final tercet. The two possible endings for the example above are d-e-d, e or d-e-d, e-e. There is no set rhythm for terza rima, but in English, iambic pentameters are generally preferred.

History

The first known use of terza rima is in Dante's "Divina Commedia". In creating the form, Dante may have been influenced by the sirventes, a lyric form used by the Provencal troubadours. The three-line pattern may have been intended to suggest the Holy Trinity. After Dante, other Italian poets, including Petrarch and Boccaccio, used the form.

The first English poet to write in terza rima was Geoffrey Chaucer, who used it for his "Complaint to His Lady". Although a difficult form to use in English because of the relative paucity of rhyme words available in what is, in comparison with Italian, an overly inflected language, terza rima has been used by Milton, Byron (in his "Prophecy of Dante") and Shelley (in his "Ode to the West Wind" and "The Triumph of Life"). A number of 20th century poets also employed the form. These include Archibald MacLeish, W. H. Auden, Andrew Cannon, William Carlos Williams, T. S. Eliot, Derek Walcott, Clark Ashton Smith, and James Merrill.

Not surprisingly, the form has also been used in translations of the "Divina Commedia". Perhaps the most notable examples are Robert Pinsky's version of the "Inferno" and Laurence Binyon's version of the entire work.

ome Examples

Acquainted With the Nightby Robert Frost::I have been one acquainted with the night. (a):I have walked out in rain—and back in rain. (b):I have outwalked the furthest city light. (a):::I have looked down the saddest city lane. (b):I have passed by the watchman on his beat (c):And dropped my eyes, unwilling to explain. (b)::I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet (c):When far away an interrupted cry (d):Came over houses from another street, (c)::But not to call me back or say good-by; (d):And further still at an unearthly height (a):One luminary clock against the sky (d):

:Proclaimed the time was neither wrong nor right. (a):I have been one acquainted with the night. (a)::The opening lines of the "Divina Commedia":

:Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita:mi ritrovai per una selva oscura:ché la diritta via era smarrita.

:Ahi quanto a dir qual era è cosa dura:esta selva selvaggia e aspra e forte:che nel pensier rinova la paura!

:Tant'è amara che poco è più morte;:ma per trattar del ben ch'i' vi trovai,:dirò de l'altre cose ch'i' v'ho scorte.

:Io non so ben ridir com'i' v'intrai,:tant'era pien di sonno a quel punto:che la verace via abbandonai.

Two tercets from Chaucer's "Complaint to his Lady":

:Hir name is Bountee set in womanhede :Sadness in youthe and Beautee prydelees :And Plesaunce under governaunce and drede;:Hir surname is eek Faire Rewthelees :The Wyse, yknit unto Good Aventure, :That, for I love hir, she sleeth me giltelees.

A section from Shelley's "Ode to the West Wind" with a couplet ending:

:O wild West Wind, thou breath of Autumn's being,:Thou, from whose unseen presence the leaves dead:Are driven, like ghosts from an enchanter fleeing,:Yellow, and black, and pale, and hectic red,:Pestilence-stricken multitudes: O thou,:Who chariotest to their dark wintery bed:The winged seeds, where they lie cold and low,:Each like a corpse within its grave, until:Thine azure sister of the Spring shall blow:Her clarion o'er the dreaming earth, and fill:(Driving sweet buds like flocks to feed in air):With living hues and odours plain and hill::Wild Spirit, which art moving everywhere;:Destroyer and preserver; hear, oh, hear!

External links

* [http://www.greatdante.net/texts.html Dante's "Divina Commedia"]
* [http://www.bartleby.com/106/275.html Shelley's "Ode to the West Wind"]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • terza rima — ● terza rima nom féminin (italien terza rima, rime tiercée) Dans la versification italienne, rimes ordonnées par groupes de trois vers, de telle sorte que chaque groupe comprenne deux vers rimant ensemble, qui embrassent un troisième du groupe… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • terza rima —    Terza rima is a verse form invented by DANTE for use in his DIVINE COMEDY in the early 14th century. The form consists of a series of tercets (three line stanzas) rhyming aba bcb cdc ded etc., all in hendecasyllabic, or 11 syllable, lines.… …   Encyclopedia of medieval literature

  • Terza rima — Ter za ri ma [It., a third or triple rhyme.] A peculiar and complicated system of versification, borrowed by the early Italian poets from the Troubadours. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • terza\ rima — [ tɛrtsarima; tɛrdza ] n. f. • 1837; mots it., proprt « troisième rime » ♦ Hist. littér. Type de poème composé de tercets dont le premier et le troisième vers riment ensemble, tandis que le second fournit les rimes extrêmes du tercet suivant (a,… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • terza rima — 1819, from It., lit. third rhyme, Dante s measure, a b a b c b c d c , etc …   Etymology dictionary

  • terza rima — [tert΄sə rē′mə] n. [It, lit., third rhyme < L tertia,THIRD + Fr rime: see RHYME] a verse form of Italian origin, made up of tercets, the second line of each tercet rhyming with the first and third lines of the next one (aba, bcb, cdc, etc.) …   English World dictionary

  • terza rima — /tert seuh ree meuh/; It. /terdd tsah rddee mah/, Pros. an Italian form of iambic verse consisting of eleven syllable lines arranged in tercets, the middle line of each tercet rhyming with the first and last lines of the following tercet. [1810… …   Universalium

  • Terza rima — D’origine italienne, Martin Saint René pensait que la terza rima était la forme la plus vibrante de la poésie. Son œuvre maîtresse (la traduction de la Divine Comédie de Dante) est entièrement écrite en terza rima et suit l’œuvre de l’auteur au… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Terza Rima — Die Terzine (italienisch terza rima) ist eine aus Italien stammende Gedichtform. Sie wurde von Dante Alighieri erfunden und bildet das Versschema der Göttlichen Komödie . Terzinen bestehen aus drei Verszeilen, die im Kettenreimschema aba bcb cdc… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • terza rima — (tèr tsa ri ma) s. f. Système de versification employé par les premiers poëtes italiens, par Dante et Pétrarque, dans leurs grands poëmes. Ce système consistait à couper le chant en tercets ou stances de trois vers. Mais, bien que le sens fût… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré


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