April 12


April 12

Events

* 467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire.
*1557 - Cuenca is founded in Ecuador.
*1606 - The Union Flag is adopted as the flag of Great Britain.
*1633 - The formal inquest of Galileo Galilei by the Inquisition begins.
*1776 - American Revolution: With the Halifax Resolves, the North Carolina Provincial Congress authorizes its Congressional delegation to vote for independence from Britain.
*1820 - Alexander Ypsilantis is declared leader of Filiki Eteria, a secret organization to overthrow Ottoman rule over Greece.
*1861 - American Civil War: The war begins with Confederate forces firing on Fort Sumter, in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina.
*1864 - American Civil War: The Fort Pillow massacre: Confederate forces kill most African American soldiers that surrendered at Fort Pillow, Tennessee.
*1865 - American Civil War: Mobile, Alabama, falls to the Union Army.
*1877 - The United Kingdom annexes the Transvaal.
*1917 - World War I: Canadian forces successfully complete the taking of Vimy Ridge from the Germans.
*1927 - April 12 Incident: Chiang Kai-shek orders the CPC members executed in Shanghai, ending the First United Front.
*1934 - The strongest surface wind gust in the world at 231 mph, is measured on the summit of Mount Washington, US.
*1934 - The US Auto-Lite Strike begins, culminating in a five-day melee between Ohio National Guard troops and 6,000 strikers and picketers.
*1935 - First flight of the Bristol Blenheim.
*1937 - Sir Frank Whittle ground-tests the first jet engine designed to power an aircraft at Rugby, England.
*1945 - US President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies while in office; vice-president Harry Truman is sworn in as the 33rd President.
*1955 - The polio vaccine, developed by Dr. Jonas Salk, is declared safe and effective.
*1961 - Yuri Gagarin becomes the first human to travel into outer space in Vostok 3KA-2 (Vostok 1).
*1963 - The Soviet nuclear powered submarine K-33 collides with the Finnish merchant vessel M/S "Finnclipper" in the Danish straits.
*1968 - Nerve gas accident at Skull Valley, Utah.
*1980 - Samuel Doe takes control of Liberia in a "coup d'etat", ending over 130 years of national democratic presidential succession.
* 1980 - Terry Fox begins his "Marathon of Hope" at St. John's, Newfoundland.
*1981 - The first launch of a Space Shuttle: "Columbia" launches on the STS-1 mission.
*1990 - Jim Gary's Twentieth Century Dinosaurs exhibition opens at the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C.
*1992 - Disneyland Resort Paris opens in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France.
*1994 - Canter & Siegel post the first commercial mass Usenet spam.
*1998 - An earthquake in Slovenia, measuring 5.6 on the Richter scale occurs near the town of Bovec.
*1999 - US President Bill Clinton is cited for contempt of court for giving "intentionally false statements" in a sexual harassment civil lawsuit.
*2002 - Pedro Carmona becomes interim President of Venezuela during the military coup against Hugo Chávez.
*2002 - Palestinian suicide bomber (female) kills 7 and injures 104 (among them 9 Arabs) at the Mahane Yehuda Market in Jerusalem.

Births

*599 BC - Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism (d. 527 BC)
* 812 - Muhammad at-Taqi, Muslim Shia Imam (d. 835)
*1484 - Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, Italian architect (d. 1546)
*1500 - Joachim Camerarius, German classical scholar (d. 1574)
*1526 - Muretus, French humanist (d. 1585)
*1550 - Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, English politician (d. 1604)
*1577 - Christian IV of Denmark (d. 1648)
*1705 - William Cookworthy, English chemist (d. 1780)
*1713 - Guillaume Thomas François Raynal, French writer (d. 1796)
*1722 - Pietro Nardini, Italian composer (d. 1793)
*1724 - Lyman Hall, American signer of the Declaration of Independence (d. 1790)
*1726 - Charles Burney, English music historian (d. 1814)
*1748 - Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, French botanist (d. 1836)
*1777 - Henry Clay, American statesman (d. 1852)
*1794 - Germinal Pierre Dandelin, Belgian mathematician (d. 1847)
*1796 - George N. Briggs, 19th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1861)
*1799 - Henri Druey, Swiss Federal Councilor (d. 1855)
*1823 - Alexandr Ostrovsky, Russian dramatist (d. 1886)
*1839 - Nikolai Przhevalsky, Russian explorer (d. 1888)
*1848 - José Gautier Benítez, Puerto Rican poet (d. 1880)
*1852 - Ferdinand von Lindemann, German mathematician (d. 1939)
*1856 - William Martin Conway, English art critic and mountaineer (d. 1937)
*1868 - Akiyama Saneyuki, Japanese naval commander (d. 1918)
*1869 - Henri Désiré Landru, French serial killer (d. 1922)
*1871 - Ioannis Metaxas, Greek general and dictator (d. 1941)
*1883 - Dally Messenger, Australian rugby league footballer (d. 1959)
*1884 - Otto Meyerhof, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate (d. 1951)
* 1884 - Tenby Davies, Welsh world champion runner (d. 1932)
*1887 - Harold Lockwood, American actor (d. 1918)
*1888 - Heinrich Neuhaus, Soviet musician (d. 1964)
*1892 - Johnny Dodds, American musician (d. 1940)
*1893 - Robert Harron, American actor (d. 1920)
*1894 - Francisco Craveiro Lopes, 13th President of Portugal (d. 1964)
*1898 - Lily Pons, American soprano (d. 1976)
*1901 - Lowell Stockman, American representative (d. 1962)
*1902 - Louis Beel, Prime Minister of the Netherlands (d. 1977)
*1903 - Jan Tinbergen, Dutch economist, Nobel laureate (d. 1994)
*1907 - Felix de Weldon, Austrian-born sculptor (d. 2003)
* 1907 - Hardie Gramatky, American author and animator (d. 1979)
*1908 - Robert Lee Scott, Jr., American Air Force pilot (d. 2006)
*1911 - Mahmoud Younis, Suez Canal nationalization Engineer (d. 1976)
*1912 - Walt Gorney, American actor (d. 2004)
* 1912 - Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX, Second Vice President of Indonesia (d. 1988)
*1914 - Armen Alchian, American economist
*1916 - Beverly Cleary, American writer
* 1916 - Benjamin Libet, American scientist (d. 2007)
*1917 - Helen Forrest, American singer (d. 1999)
*1919 - Billy Vaughn, American musician and bandleader (d. 1991)
*1921 - Robert Cliche, Quebec politician and magistrate (d. 1978)
*1923 - Ann Miller, American actor and dancer (d. 2004)
*1924 - Raymond Barre, French politician and Prime Minister (d. 2007)
* 1924 - Peter Safar, Austrian physician (d. 2003)
*1928 - Hardy Krüger, German actor
* 1928 - Jean-François Paillard, French conductor
*1930 - Manuel Neri, American artist
* 1930 - Michał Życzkowski, Polish technician (d. 2006)
*1931 - Leonid Derbenyov, Russian poet-songwriter (d. 1995)
*1932 - Dennis Banks, American activist
* 1932 - Lakshman Kadirgamar, Sri Lankan politician (d. 2005)
* 1932 - Tiny Tim, American musician (d. 1996)
*1933 - Montserrat Caballé, Spanish soprano
*1934 - Heinz Schneiter, Swiss footballer
*1939 - Alan Ayckbourn, English writer
* 1939 - Johnny Raper, Australian rugby league footballer
*1940 - Herbie Hancock, American musician and composer
* 1940 - John Hagee, American pastor and televangelist
*1941 - Bobby Moore, English footballer (d. 1993)
*1942 - Carlos Reutemann, Argentine racing driver and politician
*1944 - John Kay, German-born musician
*1945 - Lee Jong-wook, Korean Director-General of the WHO (d. 2006)
*1946 - Ed O'Neill, American actor
*1947 - Tom Clancy, American author
* 1947 - Woody Johnson, sports team owner
* 1947 - Antonin Kratochvil photographer
* 1947 - David Letterman, American talk show host
*1948 - Jeremy Beadle, English television presenter (d. 2008)
* 1948 - Joschka Fischer, Foreign Minister of Germany
* 1948 - Sandra "Lois" Reeves, American singer
*1949 - Scott Turow, American writer
*1950 - Flavio Briatore, Italian businessman and F1 team principal (Renault F1)
* 1950 - David Cassidy, American singer and actor
* 1950 - Kari Palaste, Finnish architect
*1952 - Ralph Wiley, American sports journalist (d. 2004)
* 1952 - Reuben Gant, American professional football player
*1954 - Pat Travers, Canadian musician
*1956 - Andy Garcia, Cuban-born actor
* 1956 - Herbert Grönemeyer, German singer
*1957 - Vince Gill, American musician
*1958 - Will Sergeant, English musician
*1958 - Howard Stableford, English actor and host
*1960 - Ron MacLean, Canadian sportscaster
*1961 - Lisa Gerrard, Australian musician
* 1961 - Magda Szubanski, Australian actress
*1962 - Art Alexakis, American musician
* 1962 - Takada Nobuhiko, Japanese wrestler
*1964 - Amy Ray, American musician
*1965 - Tom O'Brien, American actor-producer
*1967 - Sarah Cracknell, English singer
* 1967 - Mellow Man Ace, Afro-Cuban rapper
*1969 - Lucas Radebe, South African footballer
*1970 - Nick Hexum, American musician
*1971 - Nicholas Brendon, American actor
* 1971 - Shannen Doherty, American actor
*1972 - Sebnem Ferah, Turkish singer
*1972 - Paul Lo Duca, American baseball player
* 1972 - Dimitrios Kokotis, Greek high jumper
*1973 - J. Scott Campbell, American comic book artist
* 1973 - Antonio Osuna, Mexican baseball player
* 1973 - Claudia Jordan, American model
*1974 - Belinda Emmett, Australian actor(d. 2006)
* 1974 - Roman Hamrlik, Czech ice hockey player
* 1974 - Marley Shelton, American actor
* 1974 - Sylvinho, Brazilian footballer
*1976 - Brad Miller, American basketball player
*1977 - Giovanny Espinoza, Ecuadorian footballer
* 1977 - Glenn Rogers, Scottish Cricket Player
* 1977 - Sarah Jane Morris, American actor
* 1977 - Jordana Spiro, American actor
*1978 - Guy Berryman, British musician
* 1978 - Riley Smith, American actor
*1979 - Claire Danes, American actor
* 1979 - Elena Grosheva, Olympic gymnast
* 1979 - Mateja Kežman, Serbian footballer
* 1979 - Jennifer Morrison, American actress and model
* 1979 - Paul Nicholls, English actor
* 1979 - Jordan De Jong, American baseball player
*1980 - Brian McFadden, Irish Singer
* 1980 - Erik Mongrain, Canadian musician
*1981 - Nicolás Burdisso, Argentine footballer
* 1981 - Jaspreet Singh, businessman
* 1981 - Brian Vandborg, Danish cyclist
*1982 - Deen, Bosnian singer
*1983 - Jelena Dokić, Yugoslav/Australian tennis player
*1985 - Hitomi Yoshizawa, Japanese singer
* 1985 - Jeisa Chiminazzo, Brazilian supermodel
* 1985 - Ted Ginn, American football player
* 1985 - Paul Murphy, Irish footballer
* 1985 - Olga Seryabkina, Russian singer

*1986 - Blerim Džemaili, Swiss footballer
*1987 - Brendon Urie, American musician (Panic at the Disco)
* 1994 - Saoirse Ronan, Irish actress
* 1994 - Airi Suzuki, Japanese singer

Deaths

* 45 BC - Gnaeus Pompeius, the Younger, Roman general
* 65 - Seneca the Younger, Roman philosopher, statesman and dramatist
* 238 - Gordian I, Roman Emperor (suicide)
* 238 - Gordian II, heir to the Roman Empire (killed in battle)
* 352 - St. Julius I, 35th Pope
* 434 - Archbishop Maximianus of Constantinople
*1125 - Vladislaus I of Bohemia
*1443 - Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury
*1550 - Claude, Duke of Guise, French soldier (b. 1496)
*1555 - Juana of Castile, wife of Philip I of Castile (b. 1479)
*1675 - Richard Bennett, British Colonial Governor of Virginia (b. 1609)
*1687 - Ambrose Dixon, Virginia Colony pioneer
*1704 - Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, French bishop and writer (b. 1627)
*1748 - William Kent, English architect
*1782 - Metastasio, Italian poet and librettist (b. 1698)
*1788 - Carlo Antonio Campioni, French-born composer (b. 1719)
*1795 - Johann Kaspar Basselet von La Rosée, Bavarian general (b. 1710)
*1814 - Charles Burney, English music historian (b. 1726)
*1850 - Adoniram Judson, American Baptist missionary (b. 1788)
*1872 - Nikolaos Mantzaros, Greek composer (b. 1795)
*1878 - William Marcy Tweed, aka Boss Tweed, American politician (b. 1823)
*1898 - Elzéar-Alexandre Taschereau, Roman catholic archbishop of Quebec (b. 1820)
*1902 - Marie Alfred Cornu, French physicist (b. 1842)
*1912 - Clara Barton, American nurse and Red Cross advocate (b. 1821)
*1938 - Feodor Chaliapin, Russian bass (b. 1873)
*1945 - Franklin D. Roosevelt, 32nd President of the United States (b. 1882)
*1962 - Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya, Indian politician and engineer (b. 1861)
* 1962 - Ron Flockhart, Scottish racing driver (b. 1923)
*1968 - Heinrich Nordhoff, German automobile engineer and Volkswagen director (b. 1899)
*1971 - Igor Tamm, Russian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1895)
* 1971 - Ed Lafitte, American baseball player (b. 1871)
* 1971 - Wynton Kelly, American jazz pianist (b. 1931)
*1975 - Josephine Baker, American dancer (b. 1906)
*1977 - Phil Wrigley, American manufacturer and baseball executive (b. 1894)
*1980 - Clark McConachy, New Zealand billiards and snooker player (b. 1895)
* 1980 - William R. Tolbert, Jr., President of Liberia (b. 1913)
*1981 - Joe Louis, American boxer (b. 1914)
*1983 - Carl Morton, American baseball player (b. 1944)
*1986 - Valentin Kataev, Russian writer (b. 1897)
*1987 - Mike Von Erich, American wrestler
*1988 - Alan Paton, South African writer (b. 1903)
*1989 - Gerald Flood, British actor (b. 1927)
* 1989 - Abbie Hoffman, American political leader (b. 1936)
* 1989 - Sugar Ray Robinson, American boxer (b. 1921)
*1999 - Boxcar Willie, American singer (b. 1931)
*2001 - Harvey Ball, American inventor (b. 1921)
*2003 - Cecil H. Green, American manufacturer (b. 1900)
*2006 - Dr. Rajkumar, Kannada language film actor/singer (India)(b. 1929)
* 2006 - Puggy Pearson, American poker player (b. 1929)
*2007 - Kevin Crease, Australian TV anchor (b. 1936)
*2008 - Paddy Hillery, 6th President of Ireland, EEC Commissioner and Irish Minister (b. 1923)
* 2008 - Cecilia Colledge, British ice skater and Olympian (b. 1920)
* 2008 - Jerry Zucker, Israeli-born American businessman (b. 1949)

Holidays and observances

*The Roman holiday of Cerealia begins.
*Yuri's Night, an international celebration of the first human in space, Yuri Gagarin; in Russia (and formerly in USSR), the Cosmonautics Day. The Feast of St. Basil the Confessor in the Greek Orthodox Church.In the Roman Catholic Church:
* Saint Damian
* Saint Erkembode
* Saint Julius I
* Saint Zeno of Verona
* Saint Alferius
* Blessed Angelo Carletti di Chivasso
* Saint Constantine
* Saint Sabas
* Saint Victor
* Saint Wigbert

External links

* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/12 BBC: On This Day]
*
* [http://www1.sympatico.ca/cgi-bin/on_this_day?mth=Apr&day=12 On This Day in Canada] ----


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