Qaumi Tarana

Qaumi Tarana

Infobox Anthem
title = Nastaliq|قومی ترانہ
transcription = Qaumī Tarāna
english_title = National Anthem of Pakistan


image_size =
caption = Hafeez Jullundhri, author of Quami Tarana.
prefix = National
country = PAK
author = Hafeez Jullundhri
lyrics_date =
composer = Ahmed Ghulamali Chagla
music_date = 1950
adopted = 1954
until =
sound = Qaumi Tarana Instrumental.ogg
sound_title = Qaumi Tarana (Instrumental)
The Qaumī Tarāna (Urdu: Nastaliq|قومی ترانہ) is the national anthem of Pakistan. At independence, on August 14, 1947, Pakistan did not have a national anthem. When the flag was hoisted at the independence ceremony it was accompanied by the song, "Pakistan Zindabad, Azadi Paendabad". The flag itself had only been approved by the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan three days earlier.cite web|url=http://www.na.gov.pk/history.htm|title=Parliamentary History|publisher=National Assembly of Pakistan|accessdate=2007-11-29] cite web|url=http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/divisions/parliamentary-division/media/parhistory.pdf|title=Parliamentary History of Pakistan|publisher=Parliamentary Division, Government of Pakistan|accessdate=2007-11-29] cite web|url=http://www.pas.gov.pk/third-las.htm|title=Legislative Assembly of Sind under the Pakistan (Provincial Constitution) Order, 1947|publisher=Provincial Assembly of Sindh|accessdate=2007-11-29] Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, asked Lahore-based Hindu writer, Jagannath Azad on August 9, 1947 to write a national anthem for Pakistan in five days.cite web|url=http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_19-6-2005_pg7_31|title="Jagan Nath Azad wrote Pakistan’s first anthem"|author=Daily Times of Pakistan|accessdate=2006-04-12] Jinnah may have done this to promote a more secular idealism for Pakistan.cite web|url=http://www.thepeninsulaqatar.com/Display_news.asp?section=World_News&subsection=Pakistan+%26+Sub-Continent&month=June2005&file=World_News2005062121615.xml|title="A Hindu wrote Pakistan’s first national anthem"|author=The Peninsula|accessdate=2006-04-20] The anthem written by Azad was quickly approved by Jinnah, and it was played on Radio Pakistan.cite web|url=http://www.dawn.com/2004/06/27/fea.htm#4|title="A word about Jagan Nath Azad"|author=Dawn Newspaper|accessdate=2006-04-28] Azad's work remained as Pakistan’s national anthem for approximately eighteen months, despite competition from a rival attempt by a Mr B T Baghar.

Composition

In early 1948, A. R. Ghani from Transvaal, South Africa, offered two prizes of five thousand rupees each for the poet and composer of a new national anthem. The prizes were announced through a Government press note published in June 1948. In December 1948, a National Anthem Committee (NAC) was formed, initially chaired by the Information Secretary, Sheikh Muhammad Ikram. Committee members included several politicians, poets and musicians such as Abdur Rab Nishtar, Ahmed Chagla and Hafeez Jullundhri. The committee had some difficulty at first in finding suitable music and lyrics.

In 1950, the impending state visit of the Shah of Iran, resulted in the Government asking the NAC to submit an anthem without delay. The committee chairman, Federal Minister for Education, Fazlur Rahman, asked several poets and composers to write lyrics but none of the submitted works were deemed suitable. The NAC also examined several different tunes and eventually selected the one presented by Chagla and submitted it for formal approval. Chagla produced the musical composition in collaboration with another committee member and assisted by the Pakistan Navy band.cite web|url=http://www.national-anthems.org/history.htm#pakistan|title="Forty National Anthems"|author=Michael Jamieson Bristow, National-Anthems.org|accessdate=2006-04-12]

The music of the anthem was composed by Ahmed Ghulamali Chagla, with lyrics written by "Abu-Al-Asar" Hafeez Jullundhri. The three stanza composition was officially adopted in 1954. However, the music for the anthem had been composed in 1950 and had been used on several occasions before official adoption. The lyrics allude to a "Sacred Land" referring to Pakistan and a "Flag of the Crescent and Star" referring to the national flag. Unofficially, the anthem is sometimes referred to by its first line _ur. "Pāk sarzamīn shād bād" (Urdu: "Blessed be the sacred land"). The national anthem is played during any event involving the hoisting of the flag, for example Pakistan Day (March 23) and Independence Day (August 14).

The anthem without lyrics was performed for Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan and later for the National Anthem Committee on August 10, 1950.cite web|url=http://www.infopak.gov.pk/Anthem.aspx|title=National Anthem|publisher=Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of Pakistan|accessdate=2007-11-29] Although it was approved for playing during the visit of the Shah, official recognition was not given until August 1954. The anthem was also played during the Prime Minister's visit to the United States. The NAC distributed records of the composed tune amongst prominent poets, who responded by writing and submitting several hundred songs for evaluation by the NAC. Eventually, the lyrics written by Jullundhri were approved and the new national anthem was first played properly on Radio Pakistan on August 13, 1954.cite web|url=http://mazhar.dk/pakistan/facts.htm#anthem|title="National Anthem of Pakistan"|author=Mazhar Iqbal, Mazhar.dk|accessdate=2006-04-12] Official approval was announced by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting on August 16, 1954. The composer Chagla had however died in 1953, before the new national anthem was officially adopted. In 1955 there was a performance of the national anthem involving eleven major singers of Pakistan including Ahmad Rushdi.cite web|url=http://mazhar.dk/film/singers/ahmadrushdi/|title="Ahmad Rushdi"|author=Mazhar Iqbal, Mazhar.dk|accessdate=2006-04-12]

Initial version

Information on the first anthem by Azad is very sparse. The lines presented below, were originally quoted by the Dawn (newspaper)

Present anthem

The music composed by Chagla reflects his background in both eastern and western music. The lyrics are written in highly Persianised Urdu, even using Persian grammar. Every word in the entire anthem is of Persian or Arabic origin, with the one exception "ka" ( _ur. کا, "of" ) having purely Urdu origins. The anthem lasts for 1 minute and 20 seconds,cite web|url=http://www.infopak.gov.pk/public/govt/basic_facts.html|title="Basic Facts"|author=Information Ministry, Government of Pakistan|accessdate=2006-04-12] and uses twenty one musical instruments and thirty eight different tones.

Timeline

* 1949 - Musical composition by Ahmad G. Chagla (running time, 1 minute 20 seconds)
* 1952 - Verses written by Hafeez Jullundhri, selected from 723 entries
* 1954 - Released on Radio Pakistan on 13 August. Singers of the anthem were: Ahmad Rushdi, Shamim Bano, Kokab Jehan, Rasheeda Begum, Najam Ara, Naseema Shaheen, Zwar Hussain, Akhtar Abbas, Ghulam Dastgir, Anwar Zaheer and Akhtar Wassi.

Media

See also

* Dil Dil Pakistan
* Hum Hain Pakistani

References

External links

*
* [http://www.navyband.navy.mil/anthems/ANTHEMS/Pakistan.mp3 National Anthem of Pakistan]
* [http://mazhar.dk/pakistan/facts.htm#anthem Mazhar Iqbal's Pakistan]


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