Binomial nomenclature

Binomial nomenclature

In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal system of naming specific species. The system is called binominal nomenclature (particularly in zoological circles), binary nomenclature (particularly in botanical circles), or the binomial classification system. The essence of it is that each species name is in (modern scientific) Latin and has two parts, so that it is popularly known as the "Latin name" of the species, although this terminology is frowned upon by biologists and philologists, who prefer the phrase scientific name.

The species is the lowest rank in the system for classifying organisms.

Rules

Although the fine detail will differ, there are certain aspects which are universally adopted:
* As the words "binomial", "binominal" and "binary" all signify, the scientific name of each species is formed by the combination of two words, which are in a modern form of Latin:
*# the genus name (also called the "generic name").
*# a second word identifying the species within that genus, for which the technical term varies, as follows:
*#* a general term for the word identifying the species is the specific descriptor
*#* in zoology, the word identifying the species is called the specific name
*#* in botany, the word identifying the species is called the specific epithet
* Species names are usually typeset in italics; for example, "Homo sapiens". Generally the binomial should be printed in a typeface (font) different from that used in the normal text; for example, "Several more" Homo sapiens "were discovered"." When handwritten, they should be underlined; for example, Homo sapiens. Each name should be underlined individually.
* The genus name is "always" written with an initial capital letter.
* In current usage, the specific name is "never" written with an initial capital. [cite book | url = http://books.google.com/books?id=hVUU7Gq8QskC&pg=PA198&lpg=PA198&dq=species+epithet+capitalize&source=web&ots=ZfKJlIi2wd&sig=Bj1UD_8qwoWdEmjL5IXIQycEeF8&hl=en | pages = 198 | title = Writing for Science and Engineering: Papers, Presentation | author = Heather Silyn-Roberts | year = 2000 | isbn = 0750646365] [cite web | url = http://ibot.sav.sk/icbn/frameset/0065Ch7OaGoNSec1a60.htm#recF | title = Recommendation 60F | work = International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, Vienna Code | year = 2006 | pages = 60F.1] :For example, the entire tiger species is "Panthera tigris"
* Some older works, on the other hand, would sometimes write the specific name with an initial capital. [cite book | url = http://books.google.com/books?id=-NbmHx93s8gC&pg=PA147&lpg=PA147&dq=species+epithet+capitalize&source=web&ots=DqxqYpdRTL&sig=RkDBs-KOTTGUHehyft5IsXU9Tfc&hl=en | author = Charles F. Sturm, Timothy A. Pearce, Ángel Valdés (editors) | title = The Mollusks: A Guide to Their Study, Collection, and Preservation | isbn = 1581129300 | year = 2006 | pages = 147]
* There are several terms for this two-part species name; these include binomen (plural binomina), binomial, binomial name, binominal, binominal name, and species name.
* All taxa at ranks above species have a name composed of one word only, a "uninominal name".
* The first level subdivisions within a species, termed subspecies, are each given a name with three parts: these are the two forming the species name, plus a third part (the subspecific name) which identifies the subspecies within the species. This is called trinomial nomenclature, and is written differently in zoology and botany. [Frank A. Bisby, [http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/plants.html Plant Names in Botanical Databases] , Plant Taxonomic Database Standards No. 3, Version 1.00, December 1994, Published for the International Working Group on Taxonomic Databases for Plant Sciences (TDWG) by the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh] For example:
** Two of the subspecies of Olive-backed Pipit are "Anthus hodgsoni berezowskii" and "Anthus hodgsoni hodgsoni"
** The Bengal Tiger is "Panthera tigris tigris" and the Siberian Tiger "Panthera tigris altaica"
** The tree European Black Elder is "Sambucus nigra" subsp. "nigra" and the American Black Elder is "Sambucus nigra" subsp. "canadensis"
* In scholarly texts, the main entry for the binomial is followed by the abbreviated (in botany) or full (in zoology) surname of the scientist who first published the classification. If the species was assigned in the description to a different genus from that to which it is assigned today, the abbreviation or name of the describer and the description date is set in parentheses.:For example: "Amaranthus retroflexus" L. or "Passer domesticus" (Linnaeus, 1758) — the latter was originally described as member of the genus "Fringilla", hence the parentheses.
* When used with a common name, the scientific name usually follows in parentheses.:For example, "The house sparrow ("Passer domesticus") is decreasing in Europe."
* The scientific name should generally be written in full. The exception to this is when several species from the same genus are being listed or discussed in the same paper or report; in that case the genus is written in full when it is first used, but may then be abbreviated to an initial (and period) for successive species names; for example, in a list of members of the genus "Canis", when not first in the list "Canis lupus" becomes "C. lupus". In rare cases, this abbreviated form has spread to more general use; for example, the bacterium "Escherichia coli" is often referred to as just "E. coli", and "Tyrannosaurus rex" is perhaps even better known simply as "T. rex", these two both often appearing even where they are "not" part of any list of species of the same genus.
* The abbreviation "sp." is used when the actual specific name cannot or need not be specified. The abbreviation "spp." (plural) indicates "several species". These are not italicised (or underlined).:For example: "Canis" sp.", meaning "one species of the genus "Canis".
* Easily confused with the foregoing usage is the abbreviation "ssp." (zoology) or "subsp." (botany) indicating an unspecified subspecies ("see also" trinomen, ternary name); "sspp." or "subspp." indicates "a number of subspecies".
* The abbreviation "cf." is used when the identification is not confirmed.:For example "Corvus" cf. "splendens" indicates "a bird similar to the House Crow but not certainly identified as this species".
* Mycology uses the same system as in botany.

Derivation of names

The genus name and specific descriptor may come from any source. Often they are ordinary New Latin words, but they may also come from Ancient Greek, from a place, from a person (preferably a naturalist), a name from the local language, etc. In fact, taxonomists come up with specific descriptors from a variety of sources, including inside-jokes and puns.

However, names are always treated grammatically as if they were a Latin phrase.

There is a list of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names.

Family names are often derived from a common genus within the family.

The genus name must be unique inside each kingdom. It is normally a noun in its Latin grammar.

The "specific descriptor" is also a Latin word but it can be grammatically any of various forms including these:
* another noun nominative form in apposition with the genus; the words do not necessarily agree in gender. For example, the lion "Panthera leo".
* a noun genitive form made up from a person's surname, as in the Tibetan antelope "Pantholops hodgsonii", the shrub "Magnolia hodgsonii", or the Olive-backed Pipit "Anthus hodgsoni". Here, the person named is not necessarily (if ever) the person who names the species; for example "Anthus hodgsoni" was named by Charles Wallace Richmond, not by Hodgson.
* a noun genitive form made up from a place name, as with Latimeria chalumnae ("of Chalumna").
* the common noun genitive form (singular or plural) as in the bacterium "Escherichia coli". This is common in parasites, as in Xenos vesparum where "vesparum" simply means "of the wasps".
* an ordinary Latin or New Latin adjective, as in the house sparrow "Passer domesticus" where "domesticus" (= "domestic") simply means "associated with the house" (or "... with houses").

Specific descriptors are commonly reused (as is shown by examples of "hodgsonii" above).

History

The adoption of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carolus Linnaeus (1707 – 1778) who attempted to describe the entire known natural world and gave every species (mineral, vegetable or animal) a two-part name. However, binomial nomenclature in various forms existed before Linnaeus, and was used by the Bauhins, who lived nearly two hundred years before Linnaeus. Before Linnaeus, hardly anybody used binomial nomenclature. After Linnaeus, almost everybody did.

Value of binomial nomenclature

The value of the binomial nomenclature system derives primarily from its economy, its widespread use, and the stability of names it generally favors:
* Every species can be unambiguously identified with just two words.
* The same name can be used all over the world, in all languages, avoiding difficulties of translation.
* Although such stability as exists is far from absolute, the procedures associated with establishing binomial nomenclature tend to favor stability. For example, when species are transferred between genera (as not uncommonly happens as a result of new knowledge), if possible the species descriptor is kept the same. Similarly if what were previously thought to be distinct species are demoted from species to a lower rank, former species names may be retained as infraspecific descriptors.

Despite the rules favoring stability and uniqueness, in practice a single species may have several scientific names in circulation, depending largely on taxonomic point of view (see synonymy).

Codes of nomenclature

From the mid nineteenth century onwards it became ever more apparent that a body of rules was necessary to govern scientific names. In the course of time these became Nomenclature Codes governing the naming of animals ("ICZN"), plants (incl. Fungi, cyanobacteria) ("ICBN"), bacteria ("ICNB") and viruses ("ICTV"). These Codes differ.
* For example, the "ICBN", the plant "Code" does not allow tautonyms, whereas the "ICZN", the animal "Code" does.
* The starting points, the time from which these "Codes" are in effect (retroactively), vary from group to group. In botany the starting point will often be in 1753 (the year Carolus Linnaeus first published Species Plantarum), in zoology in 1758. Bacteriology started anew, with a starting point on 1980-01-01. [cite web |url=http://www.the-icsp.org/misc/Code_history.htm |title=A short history of the Bacteriological Code |last=Sneath |first=P. H. A. |accessdate=2007-10-29]

A "BioCode" has been suggested to replace several codes, although implementation is not in sight. There also is debate concerning development of a "PhyloCode" to name clades of phylogenetic trees, rather than taxa. Proponents of the "PhyloCode" use the name "Linnaean Codes" for the joint existing "Codes" and "Linnaean taxonomy" for the scientific classification that uses these existing "Codes".

See also

* List of botanists by author abbreviation
* Trinomial nomenclature
* Hybrid name

References

External links

* [http://home.earthlink.net/~misaak/taxonomy.html Curiosities of Biological Nomenclature]
* [http://www.hcs.ohio-state.edu/hcs/TMI/HORT234/Nomenclature.html The Language of Horticulture]


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