- Mod (computer gaming)
Mod or modification is a term generally applied to
computer games, especially first-person shooters, RPGs and real-time strategygames. Mods are made by the general public or a developer, and can be entirely new games in themselves, but mods are not standalone software and require the user to have the original release in order to run. They can include new items, weapons, characters, enemies, models, textures, levels, story lines, music, and game modes. They also usually take place in unique locations. They can be single-playeror multiplayer. Mods that add new content to the underlying game are often called partial conversions, while mods that create an entirely new game are called total conversions.
Games running on a PC are often designed with change in mind, and this consequently allows modern computer games to be modified by gamers without much difficulty. These mods can add extra replay value and interest. The
Internetprovides an inexpensive medium to promote and distribute mods, and they have become an increasingly important factor in the commercial success of some games. Developers such as id Software, Valve Software, Bethesda Softworks, Crytek, Relic Entertainmentand Epic Gamesprovide extensive tools and documentation to assist mod makers, leveraging the potential success brought in by a popular mod like " Counter-Strike".
Mods can significantly outshine and/or continue the success of the original game even when it is dated. Playing a mod might even become more common than playing the unmodified original. In those cases, players might have to clarify that they are referring to the unmodified game when talking about playing a game. In some cases the term "vanilla" is used make this distinction, "vanilla "
Battlefield 1942", for example, refers to the original, unmodified game. For vanilla games, prefix "v" or "V" is commonly used together with acronymed game title, eg. VQ3 stands for "vanilla "Quake 3".
As early as the 1980s, computer game mods have also been used for the sole purpose of creating art, as opposed to an actual game. This can include recording in-game footage into a movie, as well as attempting to reproduce real-life areas inside a game with no regard for gameplay value. See
artistic computer game modification, machinimaand demoscene.
A "total conversion" is a mod of an existing game that (usually) replaces almost all of the artistic assets in the original game, and sometimes core aspects of gameplay, in some cases creating a game in a completely different genre from the original.
In some cases, the goal of a group that sets out to create a total conversion is to sell their end product, which necessitates the need to replace the original content to avoid
A few total conversions have managed to become stand-alone games. Since most total conversions only share the engine in common with the original game, if the engine becomes
Free Software, the total conversion can be playable without having to own the original game. A few examples of these include the " Tremulous" mod for " Quake III Arena", a trio of mods for Command & Conquer Renegade, Red Alert: Apocalypse Rising, Red Alert: A Path Beyond, and C&C Reborn, Battle For Dune; the "" mod for " Quake II", and " Counter-Strike" for "Half-Life". " Counter-Strike" is notable as it has far exceeded the popularity of the original game. " Team Fortress", one of the most popular mods ever, was originally a " Quake" total conversion. It has been so popular that a sequel, " Team Fortress 2", has been developed.
A great many mods do not progress very far and are abandoned without ever having a public release. One of the most famous
vaporwaremods was "Star Wars Quake", which was never released despite six years of development. Some are very limited and just include some gameplay changes or even a different loading screen, while others are total conversions and can modify content and gameplayextensively. A few mods become very popular and convert themselves into distinct games, with the rights getting bought and turning into an official modification.
A group of mod developers may join together to form a
mod team. An example is Team Reaction, one of the most prolific mod teams to date, most notably known for " QPong" and "Jailbreak".
Mods are made for many
first person shooters, most notably the series based on " Quake", "Doom", "Tribes", " Unreal Tournament", and "Half-Life". Real time strategygames such as "", " Total Annihilation", " Rise of Nations" and the Command & Conquer seriesalso have many mods.
Among popular mods, none is more well known than the "Half-Life" multiplayer mod "
Counter-Strike", which was released shortly after the original game, and upwards of 1 million games per day are hosted on dedicated servers. "Counter-Strike" is probably the best example of a modification that turns into a retail game.
Mods in general are required to be non-commercial (free) when they include any parts from another mod, or the main game, which by their nature they always do. Some mods become
open sourceas well.
Mod making tools are a variety of construction sets for creating mods for a game. An early mod making tool was the "
Bard's TaleConstruction Set", released in 1991, which allowed users to create game designs in that series. Much more successful among early mod making tools was the 1992" Forgotten Realms Unlimited Adventures" from Strategic Simulations, Inc., which allowed users to construct games based on the game world that was launched with the " Pool of Radiance" game.
Later mod making tools include "The Elder Scrolls Construction Set" which shipped with "", the
Aurora toolsetwhich was included with " Neverwinter Nights", FRED and FRED2 the Freespace and Freespace 2mission editors, and the Obsidian tool set for Neverwinter Nights 2, and the Valve Hammer Editorwhich is used to create maps for "Half-Life" and its sequel, " Half-Life 2".
There are also free content delivery tools available that make playing mods easier. They help manage downloads, updates and setting up the mods so that non-technical people can play. Examples include
Steam (content delivery)for Half life 2 modsand [http://www.isotx.com/index.php?view=3477 CrosuS] which works for the Half Life series, Unreal Tournament, Doom, Quake, Zero Hour, and Battlefield 2 mods.
Mod-Friendliness of Games
The potential for end-user change in game varies greatly, though it can have little correlation on the number and quality of mods made for a game. For instance the "
Creatures 2" computer game executable was essentially an interpreter for the in-game scripting language, and could potentially have allowed almost any 2D game to be built upon its basis. Other games, such as " The Sims", will allow modification to certain aspects, such as adding new items and clothes, but not others, such as altering a character's skills or occupation (although it's possible with a third-party program).
In general the most modification-friendly games will define gameplay variables in text or other non proprietary format files (for instance in the "Civilization" series one could alter the movement rate along roads and many other factors), and have graphics of a standard format such as
bitmaps. " Civilization 4" is the most open of all, letting the user make entire scenarios and whole new sets of rules through Python.Fact|Jan 2008|date=January 2008 Publishers can also determine mod-friendliness in the way important source files are available (some programs collect their source material into large proprietary archives, while others make the files available in folders).
Games have varying support from their publishers for modifications, but often require expensive professional software to make. One such example is "
Homeworld 2", which requires the industrial-strength program Maya to build new in-game objects. However, there is a free version available of Maya and other advanced modeling software. There are also free and even open source modeling programs that can be used as well.
For advanced mods such as "
Desert Combat", that are total conversions, complicated modeling and texturing software is required to make original content. Advanced mods can rival the complexity and work of making the original game content (short of the engine itself), rendering the differences in ease of modding small in comparison to the total amount of work required. Having an engine that is for example easy to import models to, is of little help when doing research, modeling, and making a photo-realistic texture for a game item. As a result, other game characteristics such as its popularity and capabilities have a dominating effect on if mods are created for the game by users.
A game that allows 'modding' can also be called 'moddable'. ' as well as its predecessor ' are highly moddable, because the editor is available to download off the internet. "
Daggerfall" was much less moddable, but some people released their own modifications nevertheless.
Supreme Commander" set out to be the 'most customisable game ever' and as such included a mod manager which allowed for 'modular modding' - having several mods on at once.Fact|date=August 2008
For cross-platform games, mods written for the Windows version have not always been compatible with the Mac OS X and/or
Linuxports of the game. In large part, this is due to the publisher's concern with prioritizing the porting of the primary game itself, when allocating resources for fixing the porting of mod-specific functions may not be cost-effective for the relatively smaller market share of alternate platforms. For example " Battlefield 1942", ported by Aspyrfor Mac OS X had file access issues specific to mods until the 1.61D patch. " Unreal Tournament 2004" does not have a working community mods menu for the Mac OS X version, and until the 3369 patch had graphics incompatibilities with several mods such as "Red Orchestra" and "Metaball". In addition, mods which are compiled into platform-specific libraries, such as those of " Doom 3", are often only built for the Windows platform, leading to a lack of cross-platform compatibility even when the underlying game is highly portable. In the same line of reasoning, mod development tools are often available only on the Windows platform - id Software's Doom 3 Radiant tool and Epic Games' UnrealEdbeing the most notable examples.
Mod teams which lack either the resources or know-how to develop their mods for alternate platforms sometimes outsource their code and art assets to individuals or groups who are able to port the mod. Some mod teams such as the ones for "Forgotten Hope" and "Red Orchestra" have hired Mac-specific coders and have even purchased Mac hardware for testing purposes. The mod team which developed "
Last Man Standing Coop" performed an in-house port of their mod, but encouraged someone else to create a Mac installation/launching utility.
The mod specialist site for Macs,
Macologist, has created GUI launchers and installers for many UT2004 mods, as well as solving cross-platform conversion issues for mods for other games.
Unexpected consequences of modding
In January 2005, it was reported that in "
The Sims 2" modifications that changed item and game behaviour were unexpectedly being transferred to other players through the official website's "exchange" feature, leading to changed game behaviour without advance warning. [ [http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn6857 Supernatural powers become contagious in PC game] by Will Knight, NewScientist, 2005-01-07]
One of the common mods is a nude patch, also known as a nude skin. This is a software patch designed to modify software, usually a game to allow the user or gamer to see the character in the nude. The first such patch was designed for "
Duke Nukem 3D". Lara Croft, the voluptuous heroine of the " Tomb Raider" series, was the one to popularize, or promote, the nude patch.
Such patches are almost never authorized by the software's maker and are usually created as mods by players and distributed over the internet. There is at least one website that specializes in this area, as well as the sites created specifically for the mod.
Generally, the nude patch serves only as a visual purpose in the game, such as the Tomb Raider mod. A hack generally thought of as a mod would be the Hot Coffee patch, but is not classified as such. The Hot Coffee mod, for Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, was actually a hack which unlocked material already inside the game itself, and is generally placed on the shoulders of legit 'modders'.
Some total conversions and mods based on copyrighted franchises, like "
Star Wars" or "Alien", caused their owners to take a harsh stance towards modders. Some strictly non-commercial mods appear to be tolerated, for example the Star Warsmods "Galactic Conquest" for "Battlefield 1942", "Warlords" for "Homeworld 2", and "Troopers" for "Unreal Tournament 2004" ("Troopers" was later given the rights to continue production of their mod). It appears to be dependent both on the direction of the modification (does it use official characters in a story or cause conflicts with canon information, rather than merely taking place in a pre-established universe) and on the company that owns the title. Fox's notoriety for a zero-tolerance policy against modifications and other possibly questionable infringements are the sources of the term foxed. [ [http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,,sid9_gci212145,00.html foxed - definition on whatis.com] ]
Modders and Hackers
ModdersThe term 'modder' is sometimes used to refer to a person who creates a mod. The term modder is usually used poorly in its context, as it defines an entire group, both legit and cheating, as one entity. This is especially true in cases where someone in a multi-player game is using a mod to give them an unfair advantage. Examples might include an auto-targeting modification in a shooting game or a mod which allows the player to move faster than others. Colloquially, within the gaming community, such modders are often called "hackers". Such mods are generally considered cheating, especially if the match is ranked or will affect the statistics of the players disadvantaged.
However some mods can have an effect on all of the players in a multiplayer game. Such mods give every player the same increase ability and/or extra item(s) and therefore is sometimes not considered cheating, although it is possible that only the modder would use the changes especially if the changes are subtle. Though in many, many cases, the changes are not that subtle at all. Take example for Battlefield 2. Mods such as
Project Realityor Forgotten Hope 2 try to change gameplay as far as the game engine will allow them. Racing games also have an inumerous amount of mods, shown in Papyrus's Nascar Racing 2003 Season and ISI's rFactor.
Most modders do not consider themselves to be "hackers". A modder makes mods in order to increase the entertainment value of a game through making new maps, levels, power-ups, and weapons that can be used by all players.
Fork (software development)
Adventure Construction Set, one of the earliest games for which user-created content was widely made and distributed.
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