- Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly in 1957
Background information Birth name Charles Hardin Holley Born September 7, 1936
Lubbock, Texas, U.S.
Died February 3, 1959(aged 22)
Grant Township, Cerro Gordo County, Iowa, U.S.
Genres Rock and roll, rockabilly Occupations Singer-songwriter, musician Instruments Vocals, guitar, piano, fiddle, violin Years active 1956–1959 Labels Decca, Brunswick, Coral Associated acts The Crickets, The Picks Notable instruments Fender Stratocaster
Charles Hardin Holley (September 7, 1936 – February 3, 1959), known professionally as Buddy Holly, was an American singer-songwriter and a pioneer of rock and roll. Although his success lasted only a year and a half before his death in an airplane crash, Holly is described by critic Bruce Eder as "the single most influential creative force in early rock and roll." His works and innovations inspired and influenced contemporary and later musicians, notably The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Bob Dylan, and Eric Clapton, and exerted a profound influence on popular music. Holly was among the first group of inductees to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1986. In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked Holly #13 among "The Fifty Greatest Artists of All Time".
Charles Hardin Holley was born on September 7, 1936, in Lubbock, Texas, U.S.A., to Lawrence Odell and Ella Pauline (Drake) Holley. In Philip Norman's biography it is stated that his mother's family claimed to be descended from the English navigator Francis Drake.
Holly was always called "Buddy" by his family because he was so nice to everyone. They adored Buddy and it has been said that Buddy was the favorite of the three boys. Older brothers Larry and Travis taught their sibling to play a variety of instruments, including the guitar, four-string banjo and lap steel guitar. At the age of five, his young voice and exuberance won him a talent contest singing a then-popular song, "Have You Ever Gone Sailing (Down the River of Memories)." In 1949, still retaining his soprano, he recorded a bluesy solo rendering of Hank Snow's "My Two Timin' Woman" on a wire recorder borrowed by a friend who worked in a music shop.
In 1952, he met Bob Montgomery at Hutchinson Junior High School. They shared an interest in music, and teamed up as "Buddy and Bob". Initially influenced by bluegrass, they sang harmony duets at local clubs and high school talent shows. The duo performed on a local radio station KDAV Sunday broadcast that made them a top local act. Hutchinson Junior High School now has a mural honoring Holly, and Lubbock High School, where he sang in the school choir, also honors the late musician.
Holly saw Elvis Presley sing in Lubbock in 1955, and began to incorporate a rockabilly style, similar to the Sun Records sound, which had a strong rhythm acoustic and slap bass. On October 15, 1955, Holly, along with Bob Montgomery and Larry Welborn, opened the bill for Presley in Lubbock, catching the eye of a Nashville talent scout. Holly's transition to rock continued when he opened for Bill Haley & His Comets at a local show organized by Eddie Crandall, the manager for Marty Robbins.
Following this performance, Decca Records signed him to a contract in February 1956, misspelling his name as "Holly". He thereafter adopted the misspelled name for his professional career. Holly formed his own band, later to be called The Crickets, consisting of Holly (lead guitar and vocals), Niki Sullivan (guitar), Joe B. Mauldin (bass), and Jerry Allison (drums). They went to Nashville for three recording sessions with producer Owen Bradley. However, Holly chafed under a restrictive atmosphere that allowed him little input. Among the tracks he recorded was an early version of "That'll Be The Day", which took its title from a line that John Wayne's character says repeatedly in the 1956 film The Searchers. (This initial version of the song played more slowly and about half an octave higher than the later hit version.) Decca released two singles, "Blue Days, Black Nights" and "Modern Don Juan", that failed to make an impression. On January 22, 1957, Decca informed Holly his contract would not be renewed, insisting, however, that he could not record the same songs for anyone else for five years.
Holly then hired Norman Petty as manager, and the band began recording at Petty's studios in Clovis, New Mexico. Petty contacted music publishers and labels, and Brunswick Records, a subsidiary of Decca, signed the Crickets on March 19, 1957. Holly signed as a solo artist with another Decca subsidiary, Coral Records. This put him in the unusual position of having two recording contracts at the same time.
On May 27, 1957, "That'll Be The Day" was released as a single, credited to the Crickets to try to bypass Decca's claimed legal rights. When the song became a hit, Decca decided not to press its claim. "That'll Be the Day" topped the Billboard US "Best Sellers in Stores" chart on September 23, and was on the UK Singles Chart for three weeks in November. The Crickets performed "That'll Be the Day" and "Peggy Sue" on The Ed Sullivan Show on December 1. They also sang "Peggy Sue" on The Arthur Murray Party on December 29 and were given a polite introduction by Kathryn Murray. The kinescopes of these programs are the only record of their 1957 television appearances.
Holly helped win over an all-black audience to rock and roll/rockabilly when the Crickets were booked at New York's Apollo Theater for August 16–22, 1957. Unlike the immediate acceptance shown in the 1978 movie The Buddy Holly Story, it actually took several performances for the audience to warm up to him. In August 1957, the Crickets were the only white performers on a national tour including black neighborhood theaters.
As Holly was signed both as a solo artist and a member of the Crickets, two debut albums were released: The "Chirping" Crickets on November 27, 1957 and Buddy Holly on February 20, 1958. His singles "Peggy Sue" and "Oh Boy!", with backing vocals later dubbed on by The Picks, reached the top ten of United States and United Kingdom charts. Buddy Holly and the Crickets toured Australia in January 1958 and the UK in March. Their third and final album, That'll Be the Day, was put together from early recordings and was released in April.
In the liner notes to Buddy Holly: The Definitive Collection, Billy Altman notes that "Peggy Sue" was originally written as "Cindy Lou," but Holly later changed it prior to recording as a tip of the hat to Crickets drummer Jerry Allison's girlfriend (and future wife), Peggy Sue Gerron.
Holly wrote the song "True Love Ways" about his relationship with his wife, Maria Elena. It was recorded in her presence on October 21, 1958, at Decca's Pythian Temple, with Dick Jacob, Coral-Brunswick's new head of Artists and Repertoire, serving as both producer and conductor of the 18-piece orchestra, which included members of the New York Symphony Orchestra, NBC Television's house orchestra and Abraham "Boomie" Richman, formerly of Benny Goodman's band.
Holly in New York
The ambitious Holly became increasingly interested in the New York music/recording/publishing scene, while his band mates wanted to go back home to Lubbock. As a result, the group split up in late 1958. The Hollys settled in Greenwich Village, New York, in the new Brevoort apartment block at Ninth Street and Fifth Avenue. Here he recorded the series of acoustic songs, including "Crying, Waiting, Hoping" and "What to Do," known as the "Apartment Tapes," which were released after his death.
The Hollys frequented many of New York's music venues, including The Village Gate, Blue Note, Village Vanguard, and Johnny Johnson's. Maria Elena reported Buddy was keen to learn finger-style flamenco guitar, and would often visit her aunt's home to play the piano there. He wanted to develop collaborations between soul singers and rock 'n' roll, hoping to make an album with Ray Charles and gospel legend Mahalia Jackson. He also had ambitions to work in film, like Elvis Presley and Eddie Cochran, and registered for acting classes with Lee Strasburg's Actors' Studio, where the likes of Marlon Brando and James Dean had trained.
According to Billy Altman's liner notes to the Geffen/Universal compilation, Buddy Holly: The Definitive Collection, in addition to "True Love Ways", during the October 1958 sessions at Decca's Pythian Temple, Holly also recorded two other songs, "It Doesn't Matter Anymore" and "Raining In My Heart." The songs were firsts for Holly, not only in the use of orchestral backing players, but also the tracks were his first stereo recordings. They were also to be his last formal recording studio sessions.
Holly was still having trouble getting his royalties from Petty, so he hired the noted lawyer Harold Orenstein at the recommendation of his friends the Everly Brothers, who had engaged Orenstein following disputes with their own manager, Wesley Rose. Yet, with the money still being withheld by Petty and with rent due, Buddy was forced to go back on the road.
Holly was offered a spot in the Winter Dance Party, a three-week tour across the Midwest opening on January 23, 1959, by the GAC agency, with other notable performers such as Dion and the Belmonts, Ritchie Valens, and J. P. "The Big Bopper" Richardson. He assembled a backing band consisting of Tommy Allsup (guitar), Waylon Jennings (bass) and Carl Bunch (drums), and billed as The Crickets.
The tour turned out to be a miserable ordeal for the performers, who had to endure long overnight travel in a bus plagued with a faulty heating system in −25 °F (−32 °C) temperatures. The bus also broke down several times between stops.
Following a performance at the Surf Ballroom in Clear Lake, Iowa, on February 2, 1959, Holly chartered a small airplane to take him to the next stop on the tour. He, Valens, Richardson and the pilot were killed en route to Moorhead, Minnesota, when their plane crashed soon after taking off from nearby Mason City in the early morning hours of February 3. Bandmate Waylon Jennings had given up his seat on the plane, causing Holly to jokingly tell Jennings, "I hope your ol' bus freezes up!" Jennings shot back facetiously, "Well, I hope your ol' plane crashes!" It was a statement that would haunt Jennings for decades.
Holly's funeral was held on February 7, 1959, at the Tabernacle Baptist Church in Lubbock. The service was officiated by Ben D. Johnson, who had presided at the Hollys' wedding just months earlier. The pallbearers were Jerry Allison, Joe B. Mauldin, Niki Sullivan, Bob Montgomery, Sonny Curtis and Phil Everly. Waylon Jennings was unable to attend due to his commitment to the still-touring Winter Dance Party. Holly's body was interred in the City of Lubbock Cemetery in the eastern part of the city. His headstone carries the correct spelling of his surname (Holley) and a carving of his Fender Stratocaster guitar.
Holly's pregnant wife, a widow after barely six months of marriage, miscarried soon after, ending that part of the Holly family tree. The miscarriage was reportedly due to “psychological trauma”. Because of this incident, authorities found it necessary, in the months following, to implement a policy against announcing victims’ names until after families had first been informed. María Elena Holly did not attend the funeral, and has never visited the gravesite. She later told the Avalanche-Journal:
In a way, I blame myself. I was not feeling well when he left. I was two weeks pregnant, and I wanted Buddy to stay with me, but he had scheduled that tour. It was the only time I wasn't with him. And I blame myself because I know that, if only I had gone along, Buddy never would have gotten into that airplane.
The first song to commemorate the musicians was “Three Stars” by Eddie Cochran. This song was recorded just a single day after the disaster occurred. Years later, in 1971, Don McLean released his single, "American Pie”, to commemorate Buddy Holly’s death and further accentuate the loss of the United States’ innocence. Don McLean’s song began the reference to the tragedy as "The Day the Music Died".
Holly set the template for the standard rock and roll band: two guitars, bass, and drums. He was also one of the first in the genre to write, produce, and perform his own songs.
Holly managed to bridge the racial divide that marked music in America. Along with Elvis and others, Holly made rock and roll, with its roots in rockabilly country music and blues-inspired rhythm and blues music, more popular among a broad white audience. From listening to their recordings, one had difficulty determining if the Crickets, the name of Buddy's band, were white or black singers. Holly indeed sometimes played with black musicians Little Richard and Chuck Berry. The Crickets were only the second white rock group to tour Great Britain. Holly's essential eyeglasses encouraged other musicians, such as John Lennon, also to wear their glasses during performances.
In his biography of rock legend Elton John, Philip Norman recounted that by his early teens, John (then known as Reg Dwight) was wearing glasses "not because he needed them, but in homage to Buddy Holly." After wearing glasses for a while, his eyes became adjusted to the lenses, and at that point he became nearsighted and really did need glasses, which would years later establish John as one of the most famous "four-eyes" in rock and roll, though Holly is widely considered to be the first.
Contrary to popular belief, teenagers John Lennon and Paul McCartney did not attend a Holly concert, although they watched his television appearance on Sunday Night at the London Palladium; Tony Bramwell, a school friend of McCartney and George Harrison, did. Bramwell met Holly, and freely shared his records with all three. Ian Whitcomb said "Buddy Holly and the Crickets had the most influence on the Beatles." Lennon and McCartney later cited Holly as a primary influence. (Their bug-themed band's name, The Beatles, was chosen partly in homage to Holly's Crickets.) The Beatles did a cover version of "Words of Love" that was a close reproduction of Holly's version, released on late 1964's Beatles for Sale (in the U.S., in June 1965 on Beatles VI). During the January 1969 sessions for the Let It Be album, the Beatles played a slow impromptu version of "Mailman, Bring Me No More Blues" — although not written by Holly, it was popularized by him — with Lennon mimicking Holly's vocal style; the recording was eventually released in the mid-1990s on Anthology 3. In addition, John Lennon recorded a cover version of "Peggy Sue" on his 1975 album Rock 'n' Roll. McCartney owns the publishing rights to Holly's song catalogue.
A 17-year-old Bob Dylan attended the January 31, 1959, show, two nights before Holly's death. Dylan referred to this in his 1998 Grammy acceptance speech for his Time out of Mind being named Album of the Year:"And I just want to say that when I was sixteen or seventeen years old, I went to see Buddy Holly play at Duluth National Guard Armory and I was three feet away from him...and he LOOKED at me. And I just have some sort of feeling that he was — I don't know how or why — but I know he was with us all the time we were making this record in some kind of way."
The launch of Bobby Vee's successful musical career resulted from Holly's death, when he was selected to replace Holly on the tour that continued after the plane crash. Holly's profound influence on Vee's singing style can be heard in such songs as "Rubber Ball" and "Run to Him."
Holly influenced many other singers during and after a career that lasted barely two years. Keith Richards once said Holly had "an influence on everybody." In an August 24, 1978, Rolling Stone interview, Bruce Springsteen told Dave Marsh, "I play Buddy Holly every night before I go on; that keeps me honest."
The Grateful Dead performed "Not Fade Away" 530 times over the course of their career, making it their seventh most-performed song. The song also appears on eight of their official live recording releases.
Various rock and roll histories have asserted the singing group The Hollies were named in homage to Buddy Holly. According to the band's website, although the group admired Holly (and years later produced an album covering some of his songs), their name was inspired primarily by the sprigs of holly in evidence around Christmas of 1962.
Buddy Holly released only three albums in his lifetime. Nonetheless, he recorded so prolifically that Coral Records was able to release brand-new albums and singles for 10 years after his death, although the technical quality was very mixed, some being studio quality and others home recordings.
Buddy Holly continued to be promoted and sold as an "active" artist, and his records had a loyal following, especially in Europe. The demand for unissued Holly material was so great that Norman Petty resorted to overdubbing whatever he could find: alternate takes of studio recordings, originally rejected masters, "Crying, Waiting, Hoping" and the other five 1959 tracks (adding new surf-guitar arrangements), and even Holly's amateur demos from 1954 (where the low-fidelity vocals are often muffled behind the new orchestrations). The last new Buddy Holly album was Giant (featuring the single "Love Is Strange"), issued in 1969. Between the 1959–60 Jack Hansen overdubs, the 1960s Norman Petty overdubs, various alternate takes, and Holly's undubbed originals, collectors can often choose from multiple versions of the same song. There are also many different versions of Holly's "Greatest Hits" as well as covers/compilation albums of Buddy's songs performed by various artists. One such album has been announced recently at an event at P.J. Clarke's in New York. Listen to Me: Buddy Holly is being produced by Peter Asher and includes contributions from Stevie Nicks, The Fray, Cobra Starship, Jeff Lynne, Train's Pat Monahan, Patrick Stump, Jackson Browne, Chris Isaak, Natalie Merchant, Imelda May, Ringo Starr, Lyle Lovett, Zooey Deschanel, Brian Wilson and more.
Film and musical depictions
Holly's life story inspired a Hollywood biographical film, The Buddy Holly Story. Star Gary Busey received a nomination for Academy Award for Best Actor for his portrayal of Holly. The movie was widely criticized by the rock community and Holly's friends and family for its inaccuracies. This led Paul McCartney to produce and host his own documentary about Holly in 1985, titled The Real Buddy Holly Story. This video includes interviews with Keith Richards, Phil and Don Everly, Sonny Curtis, Jerry Allison, Holly's family, and McCartney himself, among others.
In 1987, Marshall Crenshaw portrayed Buddy Holly in the movie La Bamba. He is featured performing at the Surf Ballroom and boarding the doomed airplane with Ritchie Valens and The Big Bopper. Crenshaw's version of "Crying, Waiting, Hoping" is featured on the La Bamba original motion picture soundtrack.
Buddy – The Buddy Holly Story, the Jukebox Musical depicting his life, is credited as being the first of its kind, spawning a breed of jukebox shows, including the likes of 'Mamma Mia and 'We Will Rock You. "Buddy", as it is abbreviated on occasion, is still running in the UK after 22 years, with a UK tour that went out in February 2011.
There are also a number of acts both in the USA (Johnny Rogers, John Mueller) and UK (Marc Robinson, Spencer J etc.) who specialise in bringing the songs of Buddy Holly to life at events across the continents. The best of these present Holly's work with great respect for the man and his life's work.
In June 1958, he met Maria Elena Santiago, who worked as a receptionist for Murray Deutch, an executive for New York publisher Peer-Southern Music. Holly managed to have Santiago invited to a luncheon at Howard Johnson's, thanks to Deutch's secretary, Jo Harper. He asked her to have dinner with him that night at P. J. Clarke's. Holly proposed marriage to her on their very first date. "While we were having dinner, he got up and came back with his hands behind his back. He brought out a red rose and said, 'This is for you. Would you marry me?'Within the beautiful red rose, there was a ring. I melted." Holly went to her guardian's house the next morning and Maria came running at him and jumped into his arms, which was a sign to him that it was a "yes". They married in Lubbock on August 15, 1958, less than two months later. "I'd never had a boyfriend in my life. I'd never been on a date before. But when I saw Buddy, it was like magic. We had something special: love at first sight. It was like we were made for each other. He came into my life when I needed him, and I came into his." she told the Lubbock Avalanche-Journal on what would have been their 50th wedding anniversary. The newlyweds honeymooned in Acapulco.
Maria Elena traveled on tours, doing everything from the laundry to equipment setup to ensuring the group got paid. Although Holly had already begun to become disillusioned with Norman Petty before meeting his bride, it was through Maria Elena and her aunt Provi, who was the head of Latin American music at Peer-Southern, that he began to fully realize what was going on with his manager, who was paying the band's royalties into his own company's account. Many fans became aware of his marriage only after his death.
Holly was based in Lubbock as his career took off between 1956 and 1958. In 1980, Grant Speed sculpted a statue of Holly playing his Fender guitar. This statue is the centerpiece of Lubbock's Walk of Fame, which honors notable people who contributed to Lubbock's musical history. Other memorials to Buddy Holly include a street named in his honor and The Buddy Holly Center, which contains a museum of Holly memorabilia as well as a Fine Arts Gallery. The Center is located on Crickets Ave, one street over from Buddy Holly Ave, in what used to be the Fort Worth and Denver South Plains Railway Depot. 
In 2010, Grant Speed's statue was taken down for refurbishment, and construction began on a new Walk of Fame. On May 9, 2011, the City of Lubbock held a ribbon-cutting ceremony for The Buddy and Maria Elena Holly Plaza, the new home of the statue and the Walk of Fame. The plaza is across the street from the museum.
Due to copyright restrictions, personal and professional photography of memorabilia is not allowed inside of the Holly exhibit. Visitors are, however, welcome to take pictures of objects outside the museum. These include the giant recreation of Buddy's glasses at the entrance and the Grant Speed statue across the street. His actual eyeglass frames recovered from the crash site are on display inside the museum.
Hollywood Walk of Fame
On September 7, 2011 (what would have been Holly's 75th birthday), he received his star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame posthumously. His widow, Maria Elena Santiago, attended, as did Phil Everly, Peter Asher, Priscilla Presley and actor Gary Busey, who played Holly in The Buddy Holly Story.
- ^ Eder, Bruce. "Buddy Holly". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/artist/p4502. Retrieved January 9, 2007.
- ^ NPR article: "Buddy Holly: 50 Years After The Music Died".
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- ^ "The Immortals: The First Fifty". Rolling Stone (Issue 946; April 15, 2004). http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/5939214/the_immortals_the_first_fifty. Retrieved February 4, 2009.
- ^ a b History of Rock & Roll. By Thomas E. Larson. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa. Copyright 2004. Page 43
- ^ a b c d e f g "Buddy Holly Timeline: 1936 to 1956". Buddy Holly Center, City of Lubbock. http://www.buddyhollycenter.org/gallery/1936to56.aspx. Retrieved February 11, 2009.
- ^ "Lubbock High School". Hutchinson Junior High. http://www.lubbockschools.com/data/lmhutchinson.shtml.
- ^ a b "Buddy Holly: Musical Influence ('Timeline: Follow the Story Through the Years', section)". Des Moines Register. http://data.desmoinesregister.com/holly/influence.php. Retrieved February 4, 2009.
- ^ a b "Oh boy: Why Buddy Holly still matters today". London: The Independent. January 23, 2009. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/music/features/oh-boy-why-buddy-holly-still-matters-today-1501271.html. Retrieved February 16, 2009.
- ^ "That'll Be the Day". Rollingstone. http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/6595884/thatll_be_the_day.
- ^ Holly recorded his February 28, 1957 phone call with Decca, and the recording has survived: Buddy Holly On Line One.
- ^ "Buddy Holly Timeline: 1957". Buddy Holly Center, City of Lubbock. http://www.buddyhollycenter.org/gallery/1957.aspx. Retrieved February 16, 2009.
- ^ "Show 12 - Big Rock Candy Mountain: Rock 'n' roll in the late fifties. [Part 2] : UNT Digital Library". Pop Chronicles. Digital.library.unt.edu. 1969-04-27. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc19761/m1/. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
- ^ "Buddy Holly on the Arthur Murray Dance Party 12/29/57". YouTube. 1957-12-29. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WQiIMuOKIzY. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
- ^ All Music Guide to Country, Vladimir Bogdanov, Chris Woodstra, Stephen Thomas Erlewine, Backbeat Books, 2003, ISBN 0879307609 p 353.
- ^ Philip Norman. Buddy: The Definitive Biography of Buddy Holly. Pan Macmillan, 2009. p. 176. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=orQy9uA7_kgC&pg=PA176&dq=The+Picks+Buddy+Holly&hl=en&ei=uW51Tfe4M860hAfmtJhC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CE8Q6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=The%20Picks%20Buddy%20Holly&f=false. Retrieved 2011-03-07.
- ^ "The Buddy Holly Story". Rick Thorne. http://www.buddythemusical.com/true-love-ways.htm.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Norman, Philip (1996) Buddy Holly: The Definitive Biography of Buddy Holly, Macmillan: London
- ^ Bunyan, Patrick. All Around the Town: Amazing Manhattan Facts and Curiosities. New York: Fordham University Press. p. 160. ISBN 0823231747. http://books.google.com/books?id=ytpzn0EfA-YC&lpg=PA160. Retrieved 2010-12-18.
- ^ "Iowa Crash Kills 3 Singers; Rock 'n' Roll Stars and Pilot Die as Chartered Craft Falls After Its Take-Off". New York Times. AP: p. 1. 4 February 1959. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10717F83C5C1A7B93C6A91789D85F4D8585F9. Retrieved 2010-11-13.
- ^ VH1's Behind the Music "The Day the Music Died" interview with Waylon Jennings
- ^ Lubbock Avalanche-Journal, Morning Edition, February 7, 1959, Section 1, Page 3
- ^ Goldrosen, John (1979). The Buddy Holly Story. Quick Fox. p. 197. ISBN 0825639360. http://books.google.com/books?ei=tE_eTMHlE8aqlAe6xMSbAw&ct=result&id=xAbaAAAAMAAJ&dq=buddy+holly+pallbearers&q=pallbearers. Retrieved 2010-11-13.
- ^ a b c d Suddath, Claire (February 3, 2009). "The Day the Music Died". TIME magazine. http://www.time.com/time/arts/article/0,8599,1876542,00.html. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- ^ a b William Kerns (August 15, 2008). "Buddy and Maria Elena Holly married 50 years ago". Lubbock Online. http://www.lubbockonline.com/stories/081508/loc_318846994.shtml.
- ^ a b "Show 27 - The British Are Coming! The British Art Coming!: The U.S.A. is invaded by a wave of long-haired English rockers. [Part 1] : UNT Digital Library". Pop Chronicles. Digital.library.unt.edu. 1969. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc19782/m1/. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
- ^ "John Lennon on Buddy Holly". everything2.com. http://everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=979603.
- ^ "Sir Paul's fortune boosted". BBC. April 25, 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/showbiz/2974853.stm. Retrieved January 2, 2010.
- ^ "Bob Dylan 980225 at the Grammy Awards". The Starlight, Starbright Tour. http://expectingrain.com/dok/set/98/02/980225a.html.
- ^ Dave Riser, "The Music Never Died: How Buddy Holly Changed Music Forever" (paper presented at the 87th annual meeting of the West Texas Historical Association, Fort Worth, Texas, February 27, 2010).
- ^ "Beginnings". The Hollies official site. http://www.hollies.co.uk/goldmineintro.html.
- ^ "The Buddy Holly Connection". Don McLean. http://www.don-mclean.com/buddyholly.asp. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
- ^ Roberts, Sam; Fineberg, Tina (April 29, 2011). "Buddy Holly Whirled In and Left With a Bride". The New York Times. http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/04/29/buddy-holly-whirled-in-and-left-with-a-bride/.
- ^ "True Love Ways Unveiled". Truegreatoriginal.com. http://truegreatoriginal.com/2011/05/true-love-ways-unveiled-buddy-hollys-great-music-great-romance/. Retrieved 2011-11-04.
- ^ "The Buddy Holly Center". The Buddy Holly Center. http://www.buddyhollycenter.org/history.aspx. Retrieved 2011-11-04.
- ^ Fox34 News. "New Buddy Holly Plaza unveiled". Fox 34 News. http://www.myfoxlubbock.com/news/local/story/Buddy-Holly-Maria-Elena-Holly/yB5LYo8yLE2IHTfwR8dJmA.cspx. Retrieved 06/01/2011.
- ^ "Buddy Holly given posthumous star on HWOF". Kwtx.com. 2011-08-31. http://www.kwtx.com/entertainment/headlines/Buddy_Hollys_Walk_Of_Fame_Star_Will_Be_Unveiled_Next_Week_128825033.html. Retrieved 2011-11-04.
- Amburn, Ellis (1996). Buddy Holly: A Biography. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0312145576.
- Bustard, Anne (2005). Buddy: The Story of Buddy Holly. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1422393024.
- Dawson, Jim; Leigh, Spencer (1996). Memories of Buddy Holly. Big Nickel Publications. ISBN 978-0936433202.
- Gerron, Peggy Sue (2008). Whatever Happened to Peggy Sue?. Togi Entertainment. ISBN 978-0980008500.
- Goldrosen, John; Beecher, John (1996). Remembering Buddy: The Definitive Biography. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80715-7.
- Goldrosen, John (1975). Buddy Holly: His Life and Music. Popular Press. ISBN 0859470180
- Gribbin, John (2009). Not Fade Away: The Life and Music of Buddy Holly. London: Icon Books. ISBN 978-1848310346
- Dave Laing, Professor. Buddy Holly (Icons of Pop Music). Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-22168-4.
- Lehmer, Larry (1997). The Day the Music Died: The Last Tour of Buddy Holly, the Big Bopper, and Ritchie Valens. Schirmer Trade Books. ISBN 0028647416 or 978-0028647418.
- Mann, Alan (1996). The A-Z of Buddy Holly. Aurum Press (2nd edition). ISBN 1854104330 or 978-1854104335.
- McFadden, Hugh (2005). Elegy for Charles Hardin Holley, in Elegies & Epiphanies. Belfast: Lagan Press.
- Norman, Philip (1996). "Rave On: The Biography of Buddy Holly" or "Buddy: The Biography of Buddy Holly" (1997), ISBN 0684835606 or ISBN 0330352237.
- Peer, Elizabeth and Ralph II (1972). Buddy Holly: A Biography in Words, Photographs and Music Australia: Peer International. ASIN B000W24DZO.
- Peters, Richard (1990). The Legend That Is Buddy Holly. Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 0285630059 or 978-0285630055.
- Rabin, Stanton (2009). OH BOY! The Life and Music of Rock 'n' Roll Pioneer Buddy Holly. Van Winkle Publishing (Kindle). ASIN B0010QBLLG.
- Tobler, John (1979). The Buddy Holly Story. Beaufort Books.
- VH1's Behind the Music "The Day the Music Died" interview with Waylon Jennings
- Buddy Holly And The Crickets.com
- Buddy Holly Lives.info
- Buddy Holly at the Internet Movie Database
- Buddy Holly discography at MusicBrainz
- Listen to Me: Buddy Holly - Songmasters
- peermusic presents Maria Elena: My Life with Buddy
- Buddy Holly - sessions and cover songs
- Telegraph article on the last songs written by Buddy Holly
- 'The Day the Music Died' at The Death of Rock: The Archive
- Buddy Holly is Alive and Well On Ganymede
Singles"Blue Days, Black Nights" · "Modern Don Juan" · "That'll Be the Day" · "Words of Love" · "Rock Around With Ollie Vee" · "Peggy Sue" · "Oh, Boy!" · "Love Me" · "I'm Gonna Love You Too" · "Maybe Baby" · "Rave On!" · "Think It Over" · "Girl On My Mind" · "Early in the Morning" · "It's So Easy" · "Heartbeat" · "It Doesn't Matter Anymore" · "Peggy Sue Got Married" · "True Love Ways" Posthumous albumsReminiscing · Showcase · Holly in the Hills · Giant · Remember Compilations Related articles
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