- B-2 Spirit
name = B-2 Spirit
type = Stealth bomber
national origin = United States
manufacturer = Northrop Corporation
caption = A USAF B-2 Spirit in flight.
first flight = 17 July 1989
introduction = April 1997
primary user =
United States Air Force
number built = 21 [ [http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=2757 National Museum of the United States Air Force Northrop B-2A Spirit fact sheet] ] [ [http://www.afa.org/magazine/may2007/0507weapons.pdf "AIR FORCE Magazine": 2007 Almanac; Gallery of Weapons] ]
status = Active service: 20 aircraft
unit cost = $737 million (1997 average procurement cost)
$2.1 billion (1997 average total program costs) [http://www.fas.org/man/gao/nsiad97181.htm United States General Accounting Office (GAO) B-2 Bomber: Cost and Operational Issues (Letter Report, 08/14/97, GAO/NSIAD-97-181)] .]
developed from =
variants with their own articles =
The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit is a multi-role stealth
heavy bomber, capable of penetrating dense anti-aircraft defenses to deploy both conventional and nuclear weapons. B2s are operated exclusively by the United States Air Force. Because of its astronomical capital and operations costs, the project was politically controversial during its development and placement into service. In addition, the United States Congressscaled back initial plans to purchase 135 of the bombers. By the early 1990s the United States elected to purchase 21 of the bombers at US$737 million per aircraft. Total program cost averaged US$2.1 billion per airplane in 1997 dollars. [http://www.fas.org/man/gao/nsiad97181.htm United States General Accounting Office (GAO) B-2 Bomber: Cost and Operational Issues (Letter Report, 08/14/97, GAO/NSIAD-97-181)] .]
Though originally designed during the
Cold War, the B-2 Spirit has been deployed in combat to drop bombs on Kosovoin the late 1990s, on Afghanistanfor Operation Enduring Freedom, and on Iraqfor Operation Iraqi Freedom. In 2008, the program had its first crash incident since its inception in the 1980s. Featuring formidable design specifications, a two officer crew aboard the bomber can drop up to eighty 500 pound class JDAM "smart" bombs, or sixteen 2,600 pound B83 nuclear bombs in a single pass through extremely dense anti-aircraft defenses. The bomber has made prominent appearances at air shows since the 1990s, and has been the subject of espionageand counter-espionageactivity.
The B-2 originated from the Advanced Technology Bomber (ATB)
black project. The bomber program began in 1979.Pace 1999, pp. 20-27.] The Department of Defense first disclosed they were working to develop a stealthy bomber on 22 August 1980.Fact|date=September 2008 The ATB competition was reduced to the Northrop/Boeing and Lockheed/Rockwell teams with each receiving a study contract for further work.
The Northrop/Boeing team's ATB design was selected over the Lockheed/Rockwell design on 20 October 1981. [Spick, Mike ed, "B-2 Spirit", "Great Book of Modern Warplanes". MBI, 2000. ISBN 0-7603-0893-4.] The black project was funded under the code name "Aurora".Rich, Ben, Leo Janos. "Skunk Works", 1994. Little, Brown & Company, ISBN 0-316-74300-3.] The Northrop design would receive the designation B-2 and name "Spirit". The bomber's design was changed in the mid-1980s when its mission profile was changed from high-altitude to low-altitude, terrain following. The redesign delayed the B-2's first flight by two years and added about $1 billion to the program's cost.Goodall, James C. "The Northrop B-2A Stealth Bomber", "America's Stealth Fighters and Bombers, B-2, F-117, YF-22, and YF-23". MBI Publishing Company, 1992. ISBN 0-87938-609-6.] An estimated US$23 billion was secretly spent for research and development on the B-2 in the 1980s.Fact|date=February 2008 At the program's peak, 13,000 people were employed at a dedicated plant in Pico Rivera, Cal. for the plane's engineering and some manufacturing. [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/pico-rivera.htm Pico Rivera] , globalsecurity.org]
The first B-2 was publicly displayed on 22 November 1988, when it was rolled out of its
hangarat Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, California, where it was built. Its first public flight was on 17 July 1989. The B-2 Combined Test Force, Air Force Flight Test Center, Edwards Air Force Base, California, is responsible for flight testing the engineering, manufacturing and development aircraft.
A procurement of 132 aircraft was planned in the mid-1980s, but this was later reduced to 75.Pace 1999, pp. 75-76.] Yielding to budgetary pressures and Congressional opposition, in his 1992
State of the Union Address, President George H.W. Bushannounced total B-2 production would be limited to 20 aircraft. [ [http://www.c-span.org/executive/transcript.asp?cat=current_event&code=bush_admin&year=1992 President George H. Bush's State of the Union Address] , 28 January 1992.] This reduction was largely a result of the disintegration of the Soviet Union, which effectively rendered void the Spirit's primary mission.
In 1990, the Department of Defense accused Northrop of using faulty components in the flight control system. More recent issues with the jet have included cracks in the tail, and efforts to reduce the probability that the engines will suck birds into the jet intakes, damaging fan blades. [ [http://www.kansascity.com/105/story/652030-p2.html "Moisture in sensors led to stealth bomber crash, Air Force report says"] , Kansas City Star, 5 June 2008.]
Northrop made a proposal to the USAF in the 1995 to build 20 additional aircraft with a flyaway cost of $566M.Eden, Paul. "Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit", "Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft". Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 1904687849.] This reflects the projected per aircraft cost had the full order had been manufactured. The high development costs reflect the inefficiencies of separating design teams into different parts of the country as a counter-espionage measure, and as a political measure to create jobs manufacturing different parts of the plane in a variety of Congressional districts.
Other costs included the development of a computer aided design system which requires no paper (the first aircraft so designed), a totally computerized manufacturing control system (the first of its kind), and a computerized maintenance system to help crew chiefs.Fact|date=February 2008
In 1996, the Clinton administration, though originally committed to ending production of the bombers once the 20th aircraft was completed authorized the conversion of an early
prototypetest model to operational status at a cost of nearly $500 million. [cite web
url = ?
title = US to add one B-2 plane to 20 plane fleet
publisher = Washington Post
author = Bradley Graham
page = Page A20
date = 22 March 1996
The program was the subject of public controversy for its costs to the treasury. In 1996 the
General Accounting Officedisclosed that the B-2 bomber "will be by far the most costly bombers to operate on a per aircraft basis" costing over three times as much as the B-1B (US$9.6 million annually) and over four times as much as the B-52H ($US6.8 million annually). A key reason for this cost is the extra care required to maintain the aircraft's stealthy properties, especially it's low-observable coatings and skin. [cite web
url = ?
title = The B-2's Stealthy Skins Need Tender, Lengthy Care
publisher = Defense Week
author = Tony Capaccio
page = p. 1
date = May 27, 1997
In September 1997, each hour of B-2 flight necessitated 119 hours of maintenance in turn. Comparable figures for the B-52 and the B-1B are 53 and 60 hours respectively. These maintenance requirements raise serious questions about the ability to deploy the B-2 overseas, [cite web
url = ?
title = Maintenance Problems Postpone Overseas Basing of Air Force B2 Bomber
publisher = The Washington Post
author = Bradley Graham
page = p. A16
date = 22 August 1997
accessdate =] where climate controlled hangars would be needed to protect the plane's stealthy skins. [cite web
url = ?
title = Air Force, Options to Retire of Restructure the Force would Reduce Planned Spending
publisher = US General Accounting Office
author = NSIAD-96-192
page = pp. 53, 56
date = September 1996
accessdate =] The cost of the B-2 program in 1994 dollars was reported at US$737 million production costs for the 21 A/C fleet. However, the total cost of the program with development, spare parts, and facilities averaged over US$2.1 billion per plane as of 1997 according to the B-2 program office.
While serving in Congress and as Chairman of the House Armed Services Committee during the 1980s and 1990s,
CaliforniaCongressman Ron Dellumsstrongly opposed the program's origination Fact|date=September 2008 and expansion. In 1997, Dellums, citing five independent studies consistent with his position, offered an amendment to that year's defense authorization bill to cap production of the bombers with the existing 21 aircraft. The amendment was narrowly defeated. [http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/bomber/970623-b2.htm Debate on Dellums Amendment to 1998 Defense Authorization Act] June 23, 1997] Nonetheless, Congress never approved funding for additional B-2 bombers.
Former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General
John Shalikashviliand former Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force, General Mike Ryan, were strongly opposed to the purchase of any additional B-2s, arguing that to do so would require unacceptable cuts in existing conventional and nuclear capable aircraft to pay for the new planes. [cite web
title = Shali: More Stealth Bombers Mean Less Combat Power
publisher = Defense Daily
author = Brian Bender and John Robinson
page = p. 206
date = 5 August 1997
As with the
B-52 Stratofortressand B-1 Lancer, the B-2 provides the versatility inherent in manned bombers. Like other bombers, its assigned targets can be canceled or changed while in flight, the particular weapon assigned to a target can be changed, and the timing of attack, or the route to the target can be changed while in flight. In addition, its low-observable, or " stealth", characteristics give it the ability to penetrate an enemy's most sophisticated defenses and attack its most heavily defended targets.
The blending of low-observable technologies with high aerodynamic efficiency and large payload gives the B-2 significant advantages over previous bombers. Its range is approximately 6,000
nautical miles (11,100 km) without refueling. Also, its low-observation ability provides the B-2 greater freedom of action at high altitudes, thus increasing its range and giving a better field of view for the aircraft's sensors. It combines GPS Aided Targeting System (GATS) with GPS-aided bombs such as Joint Direct Attack Munition(JDAM). This uses its passive electronically scanned array APQ-181 radarto correct GPS errors of targets and gain much better than laser-guided weapon accuracy when "dumb" gravity bombs are equipped with a GPS-aided "smart" guidance tail kit. It can bomb 16 targets in a single pass when equipped with 1,000 or 2,000-pound bombs, or as many as 80 when carrying 500-lb bombs.
The B-2's stealth comes from a combination of reduced acoustic, infrared, visual and radar signatures, making it difficult for defenses to detect, track and engage. Many specific aspects of the low-observability process remain classified.
The B-2 represents a further advancement of technology exploited for the
F-117. Pyotr Ufimtsev, whose theoretical work made the F-117 and B-2 possible, was hired by Northrop at one time. Additionally, the B-2's composite materials, special coatings and flying wingdesign (which cuts down on the number of leading edges) contribute to its stealth abilities. [ [http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3403300063.html B-2] , Encyclopedia.com] The B-2 uses radar absorbent material and coatings that require climate-controlled hangars for maintenance. Fulghum, D.A. "Away Game". " Aviation Week & Space Technology", 8 January 2007. [http://www.aviationnow.com/search/AvnowSearchResult.do?reference=xml/awst_xml/2007/01/08/AW_01_08_2007_p50-51-01.xml "First F-22 large-scale, air combat exercise wins praise and triggers surprise" (online title)] .] The engines are buried within the wing to conceal the induction fans and hide their exhaust. [ [http://www.aerospaceweb.org/aircraft/bomber/b2/ B-2 page] , Aerospaceweb.org.]
The B-2 has a crew of two: a pilot in the left seat, and mission commander in the right. The B-2 has a provision for a third crew member if required in the future. [ [http://www.is.northropgrumman.com/systems/b2spirit.html B-2 Spirit page] , Northrop Grumman] For comparison, the B-1B has a crew of four and the B-52 has a crew of five. B-2 crews have been used to pioneer sleep cycle research to improve crew performance on long flights. The B-2 is highly automated, and unlike two-seat fighters, one crew member can sleep, use a flush toilet or prepare a hot meal while the other monitors the aircraft. [Tirpak, John A. [http://www.afa.org/magazine/April1996/0496witht.asp "With the First B-2 Squadron."] "Air Force Magazine: Journal of the Air Force Association", Vol. 79, No. 4., April 1996.]
The first operational aircraft, christened "Spirit of Missouri", was delivered on 17 December 1993. The B-2 fleet is based at
Whiteman Air Force Basein Missouri. Depot maintenance for the B-2 is accomplished by United States Air Forcecontractor support and managed at the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center, Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma. [http://www.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=82 B-2 Spirit Fact Sheet] , US Air Force, April 2008. Retrieved: 6 July 2008.] Originally designed to deliver nuclear weapons, modern usage has shifted towards a flexible role with conventional and nuclear capability.
The prime contractor, responsible for overall system design and integration, is
Northrop GrummanIntegrated Systems Sector. Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, Hughes Aircraft(now Raytheon), General Electric Aircraft Enginesand Vought Aircraft Industries, are members of the aircraft contractor team. Another contractor, responsible for aircrew training devices (weapon system trainer and mission trainer) is Link Simulation & Training, a division of L-3 Communicationsformerly Hughes Training Inc. (HTI). [ [http://www.link.com/b2atd.html B-2 Aircrew Training System] ] Link Division, formerly known as CAE - Link Flight Simulation Corp. Link Simulation & Training is responsible for developing and integrating all aircrew and maintenance training programs.
The B-2 has seen service in three separate campaigns. Its debut was during the
Kosovo Waror Operation Allied Forcein 1999. It was responsible for destroying 33 percent of all Serbian targets in the first eight weeks, by flying non stop to Kosovo from its home base in Missouri and back. The B-2 first introduced the satellite guided JDAM in combat use. Since then, the aircraft has operated over Afghanistanin Operation Enduring Freedomand Iraqin Operation Iraqi Freedom. In support of Operation Enduring Freedomthe B-2 flew one of its longest missions to date from Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri to Afghanistan and back. During the Iraq campaign, B-2s were temporarily operated from Diego Garcia. Later missions to Iraq launched from Whiteman AFB. This resulted in missions lasting over 30 hours and one mission of over 50 hours. In support of Operation Iraqi Freedom, the B-2 flew 22 sortiesfrom Diego Garcia as well as 27 sorties from Whiteman AFB and released more than 1.5 million pounds of munitions. The B-2's proven combat performance led to a declaration of full operational capability in December 2003.
The Pentagon's Operational Test and Evaluation 2003 Annual Report noted that the B-2's serviceability for FY03 was still inadequate, mainly due to maintenance on the B-2's Low Observable materials. The evaluation also noted that the Defensive Avionics suite also had shortcomings with "pop-up threats". ["Pop-up" is an informative call of a contact that has suddenly appeared inside of meld/CCR/briefed range.] Despite these problems the B-2 reached full operational capability in December 2003. The B-2 maintained high mission capable rates for Operation Iraqi Freedom, dropping 583 JDAMs during the campaign. [ [http://pogo.org/m/dp/dp-2003-B2.pdf Air Force programs: B-2] ]
Noshir Gowadia, a design engineer who worked on the B-2's propulsion system, was arrested in October 2005 for selling B-2 related classified information to foreign countries. His trial was initially scheduled for 12 February 2008, but he received a continuance. [ [http://honolulu.fbi.gov/pressrel/2005/goodwin102605.htm FBI Honolulu Press Release] ] [ [http://www.cicentre.com/Documents/DOC_Noshir_Gowadia_Case.htm Gowadia case] ] In 1984 a Northrop employee, Thomas Cavanagh, was arrested for trying to sell secrets apparently smuggled out of the Pico Rivera plant to the Soviet Unionand was eventually sentenced to life in prison. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE1DB1231F937A15755C0A961948260 No Headline - New York Times ] ]
The USAF has funded a project to upgrade the B-2s weapon control systems so new weapons can be used, including weapons intended to hit moving targets. [Northrop Grumman Corporation: "Precision-Guided Weapons Could Allow Aircraft to Attack Multiple Moving Ground Targets in Adverse Weather From Stand-Off Ranges" Feb. 7, 2008]
United States Air Force
509th Bomb Wing, Whiteman Air Force Base(currently has 19 B-2s)
13th Bomb Squadron
393d Bomb Squadron
*** 394th Combat Training Squadron
131st Bomb Wing, Whiteman Air Force Base(associated unit)
***110th Bomb Squadron
412th Test Wing, Edwards Air Force Base(currently has 1 B-2)
*** 419th Flight Test Squadron
53d Wing, Eglin Air Force Base(former)
*** 72d Test and Evaluation Squadron,
Whiteman Air Force Base
57th Wing, Nellis Air Force Base(former)
*** 325th Weapons Squadron,
Whiteman Air Force Base
*** 715th Weapons Squadron (inactivated)
Accidents and incidents
On 23 February 2008, B-2A, "89-0127", "Spirit of Kansas", of the 393rd Bomb Squadron, 509th Bomb Wing,
Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri, crashed onto the runway shortly after takeoff from Andersen Air Force Basein Guam. [ [http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20080223/ap_on_re_us/b2_crash;_ylt=Ag37yNOsf0_iMsK2KMp9Y.JH2ocA B-2 stealth bomber crashes on Guam] , Yahoo! News, 23 February 2008.] The crash of the "Spirit of Kansas", which had 5,100 flight hours, was the first ever for the B-2. The crew attempted to save the bomber but, as the port wing began to hook the ground, they ejected and survived. The aircraft was completely destroyed, an estimated loss of US $1.4B. [cite web |url= http://www.cnn.com/2008/US/06/06/crash.ap/index.html |title= Air Force: Moisture caused $1.4 billion bomber crash |accessdate=2008-06-07 |publisher=CNN.com |date=6 June 2008 ]
No munitions were on board because it and three other B-2s were returning to
Whiteman Air Force Basefrom a temporary deployment to Guam. [ [http://www.airforcetimes.com/news/2008/02/ap_b2_guamcrash_022208/ No munitions on board B-2 that crashed] , Air Force Times, 23 February 2008.] At Guam Naval Hospital, one pilot was evaluated and released, while the second remained hospitalized. A B-2 already in the air was called back to Andersen following the crash, where it and the other B-2s were grounded until an initial investigation into the crash was complete. Six B-52s of the 96th Bomb Squadron, 2d Bomb Wingat Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana were deployed to replace the B-2s. [ [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23302483 Stealth bomber crashes on Guam] ] Lavitt, Michael O. [http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/generic/story.jsp?id=news/b2crsh02238.xml&headline=B-2%20Crashes%20on%20Takeoff%20From%20Guam&channel=defense "B-2 Crashes on Takeoff From Guam."] "Aviation Week", 23 February 2008.] Chief of Air Combat Command General John Corley stated that the B-2 "rotated early, rotated excessively, stalled, and then dragged the left wingtip". The pilots then ejected and the aircraft ran off the side of the runway and burned. ["News Breaks." "Aviation Week and Space Technology", 31 March 2008, pp. 18–19. Note: Latest evidence reveals that condensation in a sensor caused faulty readings leading to premature takeoff and an over-rotation.] [ [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M9hb-OutGAY USAF Crash Investigation video] ]
The commander of the 509th Bomb Wing, Brig. Gen. Garrett Harencak, followed up on the incident by temporarily suspending flying operations for all 20 remaining B-2s to review procedures. Harencak termed the suspension a "safety pause" and stated that the B-2s would resume flying if called upon for immediate operations. [ [http://www.airforcetimes.com/news/2008/02/airforce_b2_crash_022508w/ B-2 flights suspended following crash] ] The B-2 returned to flight on 15 April 2008. [Linch, Stephen. [http://www.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123095213 "B-2s return to flight after safety pause"] , USAF, 21 April 2008.]
The findings of the subsequent investigation stated that the B-2 crashed after "heavy, lashing rains" caused water to intrude into skin-flush air-data sensors, which feed
angle of attackand yaw data to the computerized flight-control system. The water distorted preflight readings in three of the plane's 24 sensors, causing the flight-control system to send an erroneous correction to the B-2 on takeoff. The B-2 quickly stalled, became unrecoverable, and subsequently crashed. [ [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24992781/ "Air Force: Sensor moisture caused 1st B-2 crash"] , MSNBC, 5 June 2008'] [ [http://www.airforcetimes.com/news/2008/06/airforce_b2_crashreport_060508w/ "Moisture confused sensors in B-2 crash"] , AirForceTimes, 6 June 2008.] [ [http://blog.wired.com/defense/2008/06/video-stealth-b.html Video: Stealth Bomber Crashes | Danger Room from Wired.com ] ] The sensors in question measure numerous environmentals, including air pressure and density, for data to calculate airspeed, altitude and attitude. Because of the faulty readings, the flight computers determined inaccurate airspeed readings and incorrectly indicated a downward angle for the aircraft, which contributed to an early rotation and an uncommanded 30-degree pitch up and left yaw, resulting in the stall. [ [http://www.asterpix.com/console?as=1212940989050-0de1add1e6 "B2 Stealth Bomber Crashes"] ] ["Air Force World:B-2 Crash Cause Identified", "AIR FORCE Magazine", July 2008, Vol. 91, No.7, pp. 16-17.]
Aircraft on display
Because of its cost, rarity, and combat value, no production B-2 has been placed on permanent display. However, B-2s have made periodic appearances on ground display at various
In 2004, one of the test articles (s/n AT-1000) built without engines or instruments for static testing was placed on display at the
National Museum of the United States Air Forcenear Dayton, Ohio. [The display airframe is marked to resemble B-2 82-1070, "The Spirit of Ohio", and has the original "Fire and Ice" nose wheel door from the actual bomber.] The test article had been used for structural testing, and after passing all planned tests, pressure was applied until the right wing broke off at 161% of specification. [http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=422 National Museum of the USAF B-2 fact page] ] The Museum's restoration team spent over a year reassembling the fractured airframe.
From 1989 to 2004, the
South Dakota Air and Space Museumlocated on the grounds of Ellsworth Air Force Basedisplayed the 10-ton (9.1 tonne) "Honda Stealth", a 60% scale mock-up of a stealth bomber, which had been built by North American Hondain 1988 for a national automobile campaign. [ [http://www.wfb4.com/HondaStealth.html "Honda Stealth"] ] Although not an actual replica of a B-2, the mock-up was close enough to create a stir that Honda had cracked national security, as the B-2 project was still officially classified in 1988. Honda donated the model to the Museum in 1989, on the condition that the model be destroyed if it were ever replaced with a different aircraft. In 2005, when the museum received a B-1 Lancerfor display (Ellsworth being a B-1 base), the Honda Stealth was cut up. [ [http://www.rapidcityjournal.com/articles/2004/10/22/news/features/356features.txt Museum slices stealth display] ] [ [http://www.rapidcityjournal.com/articles/2005/02/05/news/features/233features.txt B-1 to go on display in museum] ]
pecifications (B-2A Block 30)
plane or copter? = plane
jet or prop? = jet
ref=Pace,Pace 1999, Appendix A.] Globalsecurity [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/systems/b-2-specs.htm B-2 specifications] , GlobalSecurity.org.]
crew = 2
length main = 69 ft
length alt = 21.0 m
span main = 172 ft
span alt = 52.4 m
height main = 17 ft
height alt = 5.18 m
area main = 5,140 ft²
area alt = 478 m²
empty weight main = 158,000 lb
empty weight alt = 71.7 t
loaded weight main = 336,500 lb
loaded weight alt = 152.6 t
max takeoff weight main = 376,000 lb
max takeoff weight alt = 170.6 t
engine (jet) =
General Electric F118-GE-100
type of jet =
number of jets = 4
thrust main = 17,300 lbf
thrust alt = 77 kN
max speed main = Mach 0.95
max speed alt = 525 knots, 604 mph, 972 km/h
range main = 6,300 nmi
range alt = 11,600 km, 6,450 mi
ceiling main = 50,000 ft
ceiling alt = 15,200 m
climb rate main =
climb rate alt =
loading main = 67.3 lb/ft²
loading alt = 329 kg/m²
thrust/weight = 0.205
more performance =
* 2 internal bays for 50,000 lb (22,700 kg) of ordnance. [ Spick 2000, p. 340.]
**80× 500 lb class bombs (Mk-82) mounted on Bomb Rack Assembly (BRA)
**36× 750 lb CBU class bombs on BRA
**16× 2000 lb class weapons (Mk-84, JDAM-84, JDAM-102) mounted on Rotary Launcher Assembly (RLA)
**16× B61 or B83 nuclear weapons on RLA
Later avionics and equipment improvements allow B-2A to carry
JSOWand GBU-28s as well. The Spirit is also designated as a delivery aircraft for the AGM-158 JASSMwhen the missile enters service.
List of B-2 bombers
Sources: FAS.org, [ [http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/bomber/b-2.htm B-2 page on fas.org] ] B-2 Spirit (Pace) [Pace 1999, Appendix.]
*The "Spirit of Mississippi" was known as the "Black Widow" before her commissioning ceremony. [http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/systems/b-2-production.htm B-2 Production] , GlobalSecurity.org.]
*The "Spirit of Ohio" has been known as "Fire and Ice" as a result of 100 hours of hot and cold testing performed upon it at the McKinley Climate Laboratory at Eglin AFB, Florida, during which it experienced temperatures of between 45 and 120 degrees Fahrenheit.
*The "Spirit of New York" has been alternately called "Navigator", "Ghost" and "Afternoon Delight!". It is the only B-2 which is located at Edwards AFB.
*The "Spirit of Texas" is also known as "Pirate Ship".
*The "Spirit of America" is also known as "Fatal Beauty".
List of active United States military aircraft
List of bomber aircraft
List of flying wing aircraft
* [http://www.cnn.com/US/9903/24/us.kosovo.military/index.html CNN - B-2 stealth bombers make combat debut - 24 March 1999]
* Donald, David, ed. "Black Jets: The Development and Operation of America's Most Secret Warplanes". Norwalk, Connecticut: AIRtime Publishing Inc., 2003. ISBN 1-880588-67-6.
* Pace, Steve. "B-2 Spirit: The Most Capable War Machine on the Planet". New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999. ISBN 0-07-134433-0.
* Richardson, Doug. "Northrop B-2 Spirit" (Classic Warplanes). New York: Smithmark Publishers Inc., 1991. ISBN 0-8317-1404-2.
* Spick, Mike. "The Great Book of Modern Warplanes". St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company, 2000. ISBN 0-7603-0893-4.
* Winchester, Jim, ed. "Northrop B-2 Spirit". "Modern Military Aircraft" (Aviation Factfile). Rochester, Kent, UK: Grange Books plc, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-640-5.
* "The World's Great Stealth and Reconnaissance Aircraft". New York: Smithmark, 1991. ISBN 0-8317-9558-1.
* [http://www.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=82 B-2 Spirit fact sheet on U.S. Air Force site]
* [http://www.is.northropgrumman.com/systems/b2spirit.html B-2 Spirit page on Northrop Grumman site]
* [http://oea.larc.nasa.gov/PAIS/Partners/B_2.html B-2 page on NASA Langley site]
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/systems/b-2.htm B-2 Spirit page at GlobalSecurity.org]
* [http://www.cdi.org/issues/aviation/B296.html B-2 Bomber page on Center for Defense Information site]
* [http://pogo.org/m/dp/dp-2003-B2.pdf B-2 Operational Test and Evaluation 2003 Annual Report]
* [http://www.airforce-technology.com/projects/b2/ B-2 Spirit Stealth bomber on airforce-technology.com]
* [http://portal.aircraft-info.net/article32.html B-2 Spirit (Stealth Bomber) page on Aircraft-Info.net]
* [http://www.bugimus.com/stealth/stealth.html B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber gallery page on bugimus.com]
* [http://www.liveleak.com/e/f6d_1212714828 Stealth Bomber crash video on LiveLeak.com]
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