Korechika Anami

Infobox Military Person
name=Korechika Anami
lived=21 February 1887 -15 August 1945
placeofbirth=Taketa, Ōita, Japan
placeofdeath=Tokyo, Japan


caption=Japanese General Anami Korechika
nickname=
allegiance=Empire of Japan
serviceyears=1906-1945
branch=
rank=General
commands=IJA 109th Division, IJA 11th Army, IJA 2nd Area Army
unit=
battles=Second Sino-Japanese War, Pacific War
awards=
laterwork= War Minister
nihongo|Korechika Anami|阿南惟幾|Anami Korechika|extra= 21 February 1887 -15 August 1945 was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II, and was War Minister at the surrender of Japan.

Biography

Early career

Anami was born in Taketa city in Ōita Prefecture. He attended the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Infantry in December 1906.

In November 1918, Anami graduated from the Army War College with the rank of captain. He was assigned to the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff from April 1919 and was promoted to major in February 1922. From August 1923 to May 1925 he was assigned to the Sakhalin Expeditionary Army. Anami was promoted to lieutenant colonel in August 1925.

From August-December 1925, Anami was sent as a military attaché to France. On his return to Japan, he was assigned to the 45th Infantry Regiment, becoming unit commander in August 1928.

From August 1929-August 1930, Anami served as Aide-de-camp to Emperor Hirohito. He was then promoted to colonel.

From August 1933-August 1934, Anami served as regimental commander of the 2nd Guard Regiment of the Imperial Guards. He was subsequently Commandant of the Tokyo Military Preparatory School, and promoted to major general in March 1935.

War-time career

From August 1936, Anami served as Chief of the Military Administration Bureau of the War Ministry. He became Chief of the Personnel Bureau in March 1937 and was promoted to lieutenant general in March the following year.

With the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War, Anami was given a combat command, as Commander of the IJA 109th Division in China from November 1938. He was recalled to Japan in October 1939 to assume the role of Vice-Minister of War. However, in April 1941, Anami returned to China as Commander in Chief of the IJA 11th Army, covering operations in central China. He was transferred to the Japanese 2nd Area Army in Manchukuo in July 1942. [Ammentorp, The Generals of World War II]

In May 1943, Anami was promoted to full general. As the war conditions in the Pacific deteriorated for the Japanese, Anami was reassigned to the Southern Theater from November 1943, where he directed operations in western New Guinea and Halmahera.

Anami was recalled to Japan December 1944, becoming Inspector General of Army Aviation and Chief of the Army Aeronautical Department, while concurrently serving on the Supreme War Council (Japan). In April 1945, he was appointed War Minister.

Political career

As War Minister, Anami was outspoken against the idea of surrender, despite Japan's losses on the battlefield and the destruction of Japan's cities and industrial capability by American bombing. Even after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Anami opposed talk of surrender, and proposed instead that a large-scale battle be fought on the Japanese mainland causing such massive Allied casualties that Japan would somehow be able to evade surrender and perhaps even keep some of what it had conquered. [Brooks, Behind Japan's Surrender]

Eventually, his arguments were overcome when Emperor Hirohito directly requested an end to the war himself; Anami's supporters suggested that he either vote against surrender or resign from the Cabinet. Instead, he ordered his officers to concede, later saying to his brother-in-law, "As a Japanese soldier, I must obey my Emperor." [Toland, The Rising Sun]

On 14 August 1945, Anami signed the surrender document with the rest of the cabinet, then committed suicide by seppuku early the next morning. His suicide note read: "I - with my death - humbly apologize to the Emperor for the great crime." [Pacific War Research Society, Japan's Longest Day, pg88-89] Historians are divided as to what crime he was referring to. It is possibly a reference to his part in the aborted coup against Emperor Hirohito in the hours following Japan's decision to surrender at the end of World War II.

Anami's grave is at Tama Reien Cemetery, in Fuchu, Tokyo. His sword and blood-splattered dress uniform and suicide note are on display at the Yushukan Museum next to Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo.

Anami's son Anami Koreshige served as Japan's ambassador to China from 2001-2006.

References

Books

*cite book
last = Brooks
first = Lester
authorlink =
year = 1968
title = Behind Japan's Surrender: The Secret Struggle That Ended an Empire
publisher = McGraw-Hill
location =
id =ASIN: B000GRIF3G

*cite book
last = Butow
first = Robert
authorlink =
year = 1978
title = Japan's Decision to Surrender
publisher = Stanford University Press
location =
id = ASIN: B000W0G7CS

*cite book
last = Toland
first = John
authorlink =
year = 2003
title = The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire, 1936-1945
publisher = Modern Library
location =
id = ISBN 0812968581

*cite book
last = Pacific War Research Society
first =
authorlink =
year = 2002
title = Japan's Longest Day
publisher = Kodansha International
location =
id = ISBN 4770028873

*cite book
last = Kurzman
first = Dan
authorlink =
year =1986
title = Day of the Bomb
publisher = McGraw-Hill
location =
id = ASIN: B000J0IOEA

External links

*cite web
last = Ammentorp
first = Steep
url = http://www.generals.dk/general/Anami/Korechika/Japan.html
title = Anami, Korechika
work = The Generals of World War II

*cite web
last = Long
first = Doug
url = http://www.doug-long.com/anami.htm
title = Anami, Korechika
work = Hiroshima:Was It Necessary?

* [http://alsos.wlu.edu/qsearch.aspx?browse=people/Anami,+Korechika Annotated bibliography for Korechika Anami from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues]

Notes


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