Promotional art for Batman #608 (Oct. 2002, second printing)
Pencils by Jim Lee and inks by Scott Williams
Publication information Publisher DC Comics First appearance Detective Comics #27
Created by Bob Kane (concept)
Bill Finger (developer, uncredited)
In-story information Alter ego Bruce Wayne Team affiliations Batman Family
Notable aliases Matches Malone, Sir Hemingford Grey, Mordecai Wayne, The Insider Abilities
- High human strength, agility, athleticism and peak conditions
- Master martial artist
- Use of high tech equipment, weapons & gadgets
- Master of stealth
- Genius-level intellect
- Proficient with technology
- Excellent observational skills
- Master strategist
- Master escapologist
Batman is a fictional character created by the artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger. A comic book superhero, Batman first appeared in Detective Comics #27 (May 1939), and since then has appeared primarily in publications by DC Comics. Originally referred to as "the Bat-Man" and still referred to at times as "the Batman", he is additionally known as the "Caped Crusader", the "Dark Knight", and the "World's Greatest Detective," among other titles.
In the original version of the story and the vast majority of retellings, Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, an American millionaire (later billionaire) playboy, industrialist, and philanthropist. Having witnessed the murder of his parents as a child, he swore revenge on crime, an oath tempered with the greater ideal of justice. Wayne trains himself both physically and intellectually and dons a bat-themed costume in order to fight crime. Batman operates in the fictional American Gotham City, assisted by various supporting characters including his crime-fighting partner, Robin, his butler Alfred Pennyworth, the police commissioner Jim Gordon, and occasionally the heroine Batgirl. He fights an assortment of villains such as the Joker, the Penguin, the Riddler, Two-Face, Poison Ivy and Catwoman. Unlike most superheroes, he does not possess any superpowers; he makes use of intellect, detective skills, science and technology, wealth, physical prowess, martial arts skills, an indomitable will, fear, and intimidation in his continuous war on crime.
Batman became a very popular character soon after his introduction and gained his own comic book title, Batman, in 1940. As the decades wore on, differing interpretations of the character emerged. The late 1960s Batman television series used a camp aesthetic which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended. Various creators worked to return the character to his dark roots, culminating in the 1986 miniseries Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, by Frank Miller, while the successes of Tim Burton's 1989 film Batman and Christopher Nolan's 2005 reboot Batman Begins also helped to reignite popular interest in the character. A cultural icon, Batman has been licensed and adapted into a variety of media, from radio to television and film, and appears on a variety of merchandise sold all over the world such as toys and video games. The character has also intrigued psychiatrists with many trying to understand the character's psyche and his true ego in society. In May 2011, Batman placed second on IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes of All Time, after Superman.
- 1 Publication history
- 2 Fictional character biography
- 3 Characterization
- 4 Skills, abilities, and resources
- 5 Supporting characters
- 6 Cultural impact
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
In early 1939, the success of Superman in Action Comics prompted editors at the comic book division of National Publications (the future DC Comics) to request more superheroes for its titles. In response, Bob Kane created "the Bat-Man." Collaborator Bill Finger recalled "Kane had an idea for a character called 'Batman', and he'd like me to see the drawings. I went over to Kane's, and he had drawn a character who looked very much like Superman with kind of ... reddish tights, I believe, with boots ... no gloves, no gauntlets ... with a small domino mask, swinging on a rope. He had two stiff wings that were sticking out, looking like bat wings. And under it was a big sign ... BATMAN."
Finger offered such suggestions as giving the character a cowl instead of a simple domino mask, a cape instead of wings, and gloves, and removing the red sections from the original costume. Finger said he devised the name Bruce Wayne for the character's secret identity: "Bruce Wayne's first name came from Robert Bruce, the Scottish patriot. Bruce, being a playboy, was a man of gentry. I searched for a name that would suggest colonialism. I tried Adams, Hancock ... then I thought of Mad Anthony Wayne." He later said his suggestions were influenced by Lee Falk's popular The Phantom, a syndicated newspaper comic-strip character with which Kane was familiar as well.
Various aspects of Batman's personality, character history, visual design, and equipment were inspired by contemporary popular culture of the 1930s, including movies, pulp magazines, comic strips, newspaper headlines, and even aspects of Kane himself. Kane noted especially the influence of the films The Mark of Zorro (1920) and The Bat Whispers (1930) in the creation of the iconography associated with the character, while Finger drew inspiration from literary characters Doc Savage, The Shadow, and Sherlock Holmes in his depiction of Batman as a master sleuth and scientist.
Kane, in his 1989 autobiography, detailed Finger's contributions to Batman's creation:One day I called Bill and said, 'I have a new character called the Bat-Man and I've made some crude, elementary sketches I'd like you to look at'. He came over and I showed him the drawings. At the time, I only had a small domino mask, like the one Robin later wore, on Batman's face. Bill said, 'Why not make him look more like a bat and put a hood on him, and take the eyeballs out and just put slits for eyes to make him look more mysterious?' At this point, the Bat-Man wore a red union suit; the wings, trunks, and mask were black. I thought that red and black would be a good combination. Bill said that the costume was too bright: 'Color it dark gray to make it look more ominous'. The cape looked like two stiff bat wings attached to his arms. As Bill and I talked, we realized that these wings would get cumbersome when Bat-Man was in action, and changed them into a cape, scalloped to look like bat wings when he was fighting or swinging down on a rope. Also, he didn't have any gloves on, and we added them so that he wouldn't leave fingerprints.
Kane signed away ownership in the character in exchange for, among other compensation, a mandatory byline on all Batman comics. This byline did not, originally say "Batman created by Bob Kane"; his name was simply written on the title page of each story. The name disappeared from the comic book in the mid-1960s, replaced by credits for each story's actual writer and artists. In the late 1970s, when Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster began receiving a "created by" credit on the Superman titles, along with William Moulton Marston being given the byline for creating Wonder Woman, Batman stories began saying "Created by Bob Kane" in addition to the other credits.
Finger did not receive the same recognition. While he had received credit for other DC work since the 1940s, he began, in the 1960s, to receive limited acknowledgment for his Batman writing; in the letters page of Batman #169 (February 1965) for example, editor Julius Schwartz names him as the creator of the Riddler, one of Batman's recurring villains. However, Finger's contract left him only with his writing page rate and no byline. Kane wrote, "Bill was disheartened by the lack of major accomplishments in his career. He felt that he had not used his creative potential to its fullest and that success had passed him by." At the time of Finger's death in 1974, DC had not officially credited Finger as Batman co-creator.
Jerry Robinson, who also worked with Finger and Kane on the strip at this time, has criticized Kane for failing to share the credit. He recalled Finger resenting his position, stating in a 2005 interview with The Comics Journal:Bob made him more insecure, because while he slaved working on Batman, he wasn't sharing in any of the glory or the money that Bob began to make, which is why... [he was] going to leave [Kane's employ]. ... [Kane] should have credited Bill as co-creator, because I know; I was there. ... That was one thing I would never forgive Bob for, was not to take care of Bill or recognize his vital role in the creation of Batman. As with Siegel and Shuster, it should have been the same, the same co-creator credit in the strip, writer and artist.
Although Kane initially rebutted Finger's claims at having created the character, writing in a 1965 open letter to fans that "it seemed to me that Bill Finger has given out the impression that he and not myself created the ''Batman, t' [sic] as well as Robin and all the other leading villains and characters. This statement is fraudulent and entirely untrue." Kane himself also commented on Finger's lack of credit. "The trouble with being a 'ghost' writer or artist is that you must remain rather anonymously without 'credit'. However, if one wants the 'credit', then one has to cease being a 'ghost' or follower and become a leader or innovator."
In 1989, Kane revisited Finger's situation, recalling in an interview,In those days it was like, one artist and he had his name over it [the comic strip] — the policy of DC in the comic books was, if you can't write it, obtain other writers, but their names would never appear on the comic book in the finished version. So Bill never asked me for it [the byline] and I never volunteered — I guess my ego at that time. And I felt badly, really, when he [Finger] died.
The first Batman story, "The Case of the Chemical Syndicate," was published in Detective Comics #27 (May 1939). Finger said, "Batman was originally written in the style of the pulps," and this influence was evident with Batman showing little remorse over killing or maiming criminals. Batman proved a hit character, and he received his own solo title in 1940, while continuing to star in Detective Comics. By that time, National was the top-selling and most influential publisher in the industry; Batman and the company's other major hero, Superman, were the cornerstones of the company's success. The two characters were featured side-by-side as the stars of World's Finest Comics, which was originally titled World's Best Comics when it debuted in fall 1940. Creators including Jerry Robinson and Dick Sprang also worked on the strips during this period.
Over the course of the first few Batman strips elements were added to the character and the artistic depiction of Batman evolved. Kane noted that within six issues he drew the character's jawline more pronounced, and lengthened the ears on the costume. "About a year later he was almost the full figure, my mature Batman," Kane said. Batman's characteristic utility belt was introduced in Detective Comics #29 (July 1939), followed by the boomerang-like batarang and the first bat-themed vehicle, the Batplane, in #31 (September 1939). The character's origin was revealed in #33 (November 1939), unfolding in a two-page story that establishes the brooding persona of Batman, a character driven by the death of his parents. Written by Finger, it depicts a young Bruce Wayne witnessing his parents' murder at the hands of a mugger. Days later, at their grave, the child vows that "by the spirits of my parents [I will] avenge their deaths by spending the rest of my life warring on all criminals."
The early, pulp-inflected portrayal of Batman started to soften in Detective Comics #38 (April 1940) with the introduction of Robin, Batman's kid sidekick. Robin was introduced, based on Finger's suggestion Batman needed a "Watson" with whom Batman could talk. Sales nearly doubled, despite Kane's preference for a solo Batman, and it sparked a proliferation of "kid sidekicks." The first issue of the solo spin-off series Batman was notable not only for introducing two of his most persistent antagonists, the Joker and Catwoman, but for a story in which Batman shoots some monstrous giants to death. That story prompted editor Whitney Ellsworth to decree that the character could no longer kill or use a gun.
By 1942, the writers and artists behind the Batman comics had established most of the basic elements of the Batman mythos. In the years following World War II, DC Comics "adopted a postwar editorial direction that increasingly de-emphasized social commentary in favor of lighthearted juvenile fantasy." The impact of this editorial approach was evident in Batman comics of the postwar period; removed from the "bleak and menacing world" of the strips of the early 1940s, Batman was instead portrayed as a respectable citizen and paternal figure that inhabited a "bright and colorful" environment.
1950s and early 1960s
Batman was one of the few superhero characters to be continuously published as interest in the genre waned during the 1950s. In the story "The Mightiest Team in the World" in Superman #76 (June 1952), Batman teams up with Superman for the first time and the pair discovers each other's secret identity. Following the success of this story, World's Finest Comics was revamped so it featured stories starring both heroes together, instead of the separate Batman and Superman features that had been running before. The team-up of the characters was "a financial success in an era when those were few and far between"; this series of stories ran until the book's cancellation in 1986.
Batman comics were among those criticized when the comic book industry came under scrutiny with the publication of psychologist Fredric Wertham's book Seduction of the Innocent in 1954. Wertham's thesis was that children imitated crimes committed in comic books, and that these works corrupt the morals of the youth. Wertham criticized Batman comics for their supposed homosexual overtones and argued that Batman and Robin were portrayed as lovers. Wertham's criticisms raised a public outcry during the 1950s, eventually leading to the establishment of the Comics Code Authority. The tendency towards a "sunnier Batman" in the postwar years intensified after the introduction of the Comics Code. It has also been suggested by scholars that the characters of Batwoman (in 1956) and the pre-Barbara Gordon Bat-Girl (in 1961) were introduced in part to refute the allegation that Batman and Robin were gay, and the stories took on a campier, lighter feel.
In the late 1950s, Batman stories gradually became more science fiction-oriented, an attempt at mimicking the success of other DC characters that had dabbled in the genre. New characters such as Batwoman, Ace the Bat-Hound, and Bat-Mite were introduced. Batman's adventures often involved odd transformations or bizarre space aliens. In 1960, Batman debuted as a member of the Justice League of America in The Brave and the Bold #28 (February 1960), and went on to appear in several Justice League comic series starting later that same year.
"New Look" Batman and camp
By 1964, sales on Batman titles had fallen drastically. Bob Kane noted that, as a result, DC was "planning to kill Batman off altogether." In response to this, editor Julius Schwartz was assigned to the Batman titles. He presided over drastic changes, beginning with 1964's Detective Comics #327 (May 1964), which was cover-billed as the "New Look". Schwartz introduced changes designed to make Batman more contemporary, and to return him to more detective-oriented stories. He brought in artist Carmine Infantino to help overhaul the character. The Batmobile was redesigned, and Batman's costume was modified to incorporate a yellow ellipse behind the bat-insignia. The space aliens and characters of the 1950s such as Batwoman, Ace, and Bat-Mite were retired. Batman's butler Alfred was killed off (though his death was quickly reversed due to fan response) while a new female relative for the Wayne family, Aunt Harriet, came to live with Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson.
The debut of the Batman television series in 1966 had a profound influence on the character. The success of the series increased sales throughout the comic book industry, and Batman reached a circulation of close to 900,000 copies. Elements such as the character of Batgirl and the show's campy nature were introduced into the comics; the series also initiated the return of Alfred. Although both the comics and TV show were successful for a time, the camp approach eventually wore thin and the show was canceled in 1968. In the aftermath, the Batman comics themselves lost popularity once again. As Julius Schwartz noted, "When the television show was a success, I was asked to be campy, and of course when the show faded, so did the comic books."
Starting in 1969, writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Neal Adams made a deliberate effort to distance Batman from the campy portrayal of the 1960s TV series and to return the character to his roots as a "grim avenger of the night." O'Neil said his idea was "simply to take it back to where it started. I went to the DC library and read some of the early stories. I tried to get a sense of what Kane and Finger were after."
O'Neil and Adams first collaborated on the story "The Secret of the Waiting Graves" (Detective Comics #395, January 1970). Few stories were true collaborations between O'Neil, Adams, Schwartz, and inker Dick Giordano, and in actuality these men were mixed and matched with various other creators during the 1970s; nevertheless the influence of their work was "tremendous." Giordano said: "We went back to a grimmer, darker Batman, and I think that's why these stories did so well... Even today we're still using Neal's Batman with the long flowing cape and the pointy ears." While the work of O'Neil and Adams was popular with fans, the acclaim did little to help declining sales; the same held true with a similarly acclaimed run by writer Steve Englehart and penciler Marshall Rogers in Detective Comics #471–476 (August 1977 – April 1978), which went on to influence the 1989 movie Batman and be adapted for Batman: The Animated Series, which debuted in 1992. Regardless, circulation continued to drop through the 1970s and 1980s, hitting an all-time low in 1985.
The Dark Knight Returns and later
Frank Miller's limited series Batman: The Dark Knight Returns (February–June 1986), which tells the story of a 50-year old Batman coming out of retirement in a possible future, reinvigorated the character. The Dark Knight Returns was a financial success and has since become one of the medium's most noted touchstones. The series also sparked a major resurgence in the character's popularity.
That year Dennis O'Neil took over as editor of the Batman titles and set the template for the portrayal of Batman following DC's status quo-altering miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths. O'Neil operated under the assumption that he was hired to revamp the character and as a result tried to instill a different tone in the books than had gone before. One outcome of this new approach was the "Year One" storyline in Batman #404–407 (February–May 1987), in which Frank Miller and artist David Mazzucchelli redefined the character's origins. Writer Alan Moore and artist Brian Bolland continued this dark trend with 1988's 48-page one-shot Batman: The Killing Joke, in which the Joker, attempting to drive Commissioner Gordon insane, cripples Gordon's daughter Barbara, and then kidnaps and tortures the commissioner, physically and psychologically.
The Batman comics garnered major attention in 1988 when DC Comics created a 900 number for readers to call to vote on whether Jason Todd, the second Robin, lived or died. Voters decided in favor of Jason's death by a narrow margin of 28 votes (see Batman: A Death in the Family). The following year saw the release of Tim Burton's Batman feature film, which firmly brought the character back to the public's attention, grossing millions of dollars at the box office, and millions more in merchandising. However, the three sequels, Tim Burton's Batman Returns and director Joel Schumacher's Batman Forever and Batman & Robin, did not perform as well at the box office. The Batman movie franchise was rebooted with director and co-writer Christopher Nolan's Batman Begins in 2005 and The Dark Knight in 2008. In 1989, the first issue of Legends of the Dark Knight, the first new solo Batman title in nearly fifty years, sold close to a million copies.
The 1993 "Knightfall" story arc introduced a new villain, Bane, who critically injures Bruce Wayne. Jean-Paul Valley, known as Azrael, is called upon to wear the Batsuit during Wayne's convalescence. Writers Doug Moench, Chuck Dixon, and Alan Grant worked on the Batman titles during "Knightfall," and would also contribute to other Batman crossovers throughout the 1990s. 1998's "Cataclysm" storyline served as the precursor to 1999's "No Man's Land", a year-long storyline that ran through all the Batman-related titles dealing with the effects of an earthquake-ravaged Gotham City. At the conclusion of "No Man's Land", O'Neil stepped down as editor and was replaced by Bob Schreck.
Another writer who rose to prominence on the Batman comic series, was Jeph Loeb. Along with longtime collaborator Tim Sale, they wrote two miniseries ("The Long Halloween" and "Dark Victory") that pit an early in his career version of Batman against his entire rogue's gallery (most notably Two-Face, whose origin was re-envisioned by Loeb) while dealing with various mysteries involving serial killers Holiday and the Hangman, of which the former was the subject of intense debate and speculation amongst Batman fans. In 2003, Loeb teamed with artist Jim Lee to work on another mystery arc: "Batman: Hush" for the main Batman book. The twelve issue storyline saw Batman and Catwoman running the gauntlet against Batman's entire rogue's gallery, including an apparently resurrected Jason Todd, while seeking to find the identity of the mysterious supervillain Hush. While the character of Hush failed to catch on with readers, the arc was a sales success for DC. As the storyline was Jim Lee's first regular comic book work in nearly a decade, the series became #1 on the Diamond Comic Distributors sales chart for the first time since Batman #500 (October 1993) and Jason Todd's appearance laid the groundwork for writer Judd Winick's subsequent run as writer on Batman, with another multi-issue epic, "Under the Hood," which ran from Batman #637–650.
In 2005, DC launched All-Star Batman and Robin, a stand-alone comic series set outside the existing DC Universe. Written by Frank Miller and drawn by Jim Lee, the series was a commercial success for DC Comics though widely panned by critics for its writing.
Starting in 2006, the regular writers on Batman and Detective Comics were Grant Morrison and Paul Dini, with Grant Morrison reincorporating controversial elements of Batman lore (most notably, the science fiction themed storylines of the 1950s Batman comics, which Morrison revised as hallucinations Batman suffered under the influence of various mind-bending gases and extensive sensory deprivation training) into the character. Morrison's run climaxed with "Batman R.I.P.", which brought Batman up against the villainous "Black Glove" organization, which sought to drive Batman into madness. "Batman R.I.P." segued into Final Crisis (also written by Morrison), which saw the apparent death of Batman at the hands of Darkseid. In the 2009 miniseries Batman: Battle for the Cowl, Wayne's former protégé Dick Grayson becomes the new Batman, and Wayne's son Damian becomes the new Robin. In June 2009, Judd Winick returned to writing Batman, while Grant Morrison was given his own series, titled Batman and Robin.
In 2010, the storyline Batman: The Return of Bruce Wayne saw Bruce travel through history, eventually returning to the present day. Although he reclaimed the mantle of Batman, he also allowed Grayson to continue being Batman as well. Bruce decided to take his war on crime globally, which is the central focus of Batman Incorporated. DC Comics would later announce that Grayson would be the main character in Batman, Detective Comics and Batman and Robin, while Wayne would be the main character in Batman Incorporated. Also, Bruce appeared in another ongoing series, Batman: The Dark Knight.
2011 "New 52" relaunch
In September 2011, DC Comics' entire line of superhero books, including its Batman franchise, was cancelled and relaunched with new #1 issues as part of its New 52 reboot. Bruce Wayne is the only character to be identified as Batman and will be featured in Batman, Detective Comics, Batman and Robin, and Batman: The Dark Knight. Dick Grayson returns to the mantle of Nightwing and appears in his own ongoing series. While many characters have their histories significantly altered to attract newer, younger readers, Batman's history remains mostly intact. Batman Incorporated will be relaunched in 2012 to complete the "Leviathan" storyline.
Fictional character biography
Batman's history has undergone various revisions, both minor and major. Few elements of the character's history have remained constant. Scholars William Uricchio and Roberta E. Pearson noted in the early 1990s, "Unlike some fictional characters, the Batman has no primary urtext set in a specific period, but has rather existed in a plethora of equally valid texts constantly appearing over more than five decades."
The central fixed event in the Batman stories is the character's origin story. As a little boy, Bruce Wayne is horrified and traumatized to see his parents, the physician Dr. Thomas Wayne and his wife Martha, being murdered by a mugger in front of his very eyes. This drives him to fight crime in Gotham City as Batman. Pearson and Uricchio also noted beyond the origin story and such events as the introduction of Robin, "Until recently, the fixed and accruing and hence, canonized, events have been few in number," a situation altered by an increased effort by later Batman editors such as Dennis O'Neil to ensure consistency and continuity between stories.
In Batman's first appearance in Detective Comics #27, he is already operating as a crime fighter. Batman's origin is first presented in Detective Comics #33 (Nov. 1939), and is later fleshed out in Batman #47. As these comics state, Bruce Wayne is born to Dr. Thomas Wayne and his wife Martha, two very wealthy and charitable Gotham City socialites. Bruce is brought up in Wayne Manor, with its wealthy splendor, and leads a happy and privileged existence until the age of eight, when his parents are killed by a small-time criminal named Joe Chill while on their way home from a movie theater. Bruce Wayne swears an oath to rid the city of the evil that had taken his parents' lives. He engages in intense intellectual and physical training; however, he realizes that these skills alone would not be enough. "Criminals are a superstitious cowardly lot," Wayne remarks, "so my disguise must be able to strike terror into their hearts. I must be a creature of the night, black, terrible..." As if responding to his desires, a bat suddenly flies through the window, inspiring Bruce to take on the persona of Batman.
In early strips, Batman's career as a vigilante earns him the ire of the police. During this period Wayne has a fiancée named Julie Madison. Wayne takes in an orphaned circus acrobat, Dick Grayson, who becomes his sidekick, Robin. Batman also becomes a founding member of the Justice Society of America, although he, like Superman, is an honorary member, and thus only participates occasionally. Batman's relationship with the law thaws quickly, and he is made an honorary member of Gotham City's police department. During this time, butler Alfred Pennyworth arrives at Wayne Manor, and after deducing the Dynamic Duo's secret identities joins their service.
The Silver Age of Comic Books in DC Comics is sometimes held to have begun in 1956 when the publisher introduced Barry Allen as a new, updated version of The Flash. Batman is not significantly changed by the late 1950s for the continuity which would be later referred to as Earth-One. The lighter tone Batman had taken in the period between the Golden and Silver Ages led to the stories of the late 1950s and early 1960s that often feature a large number of science-fiction elements, and Batman is not significantly updated in the manner of other characters until Detective Comics #327 (May 1964), in which Batman reverts to his detective roots, with most science-fiction elements jettisoned from the series.
After the introduction of DC Comics' multiverse in the 1960s, DC established that stories from the Golden Age star the Earth-Two Batman, a character from a parallel world. This version of Batman partners with and marries the reformed Earth-Two Catwoman, Selina Kyle (as shown in Superman Family #211) and fathers Helena Wayne, who, as the Huntress, becomes (along with Dick Grayson, the Earth-Two Robin) Gotham's protector once Wayne retires from the position to become police commissioner, a position he occupies until he is killed during one final adventure as Batman. Batman titles however often ignored that a distinction had been made between the pre-revamp and post-revamp Batmen (since unlike The Flash or Green Lantern, Batman comics had been published without interruption through the 1950s) and would on occasion make reference to stories from the Golden Age. Nevertheless, details of Batman's history were altered or expanded upon through the decades. Additions include meetings with a future Superman during his youth, his upbringing by his uncle Philip Wayne (introduced in Batman #208, January/February 1969) after his parents' death, and appearances of his father and himself as prototypical versions of Batman and Robin, respectively. In 1980 then-editor Paul Levitz commissioned the Untold Legend of the Batman limited series to thoroughly chronicle Batman's origin and history.
Batman meets and regularly works with other heroes during the Silver Age, most notably Superman, whom he began regularly working alongside in a series of team-ups in World's Finest Comics, starting in 1954 and continuing through the series' cancellation in 1986. Batman and Superman are usually depicted as close friends. Batman becomes a founding member of the Justice League of America, appearing in its first story in 1960s Brave and the Bold #28. In the 1970s and 1980s, Brave and the Bold became a Batman title, in which Batman teams up with a different DC Universe superhero each month.
In 1969, Dick Grayson attends college as part of DC Comics' effort to revise the Batman comics. Additionally, Batman also moves from his mansion, Wayne Manor into a penthouse apartment atop the Wayne Foundation building in downtown Gotham City, in order to be closer to Gotham City's crime. Batman spends the 1970s and early 1980s mainly working solo, with occasional team-ups with Robin and/or Batgirl. Batman's adventures also become somewhat darker and more grim during this period, depicting increasingly violent crimes, including the first appearance (since the early Golden Age) of the Joker as a homicidal psychopath, and the arrival of Ra's al Ghul, a centuries-old terrorist who knows Batman's secret identity. In the 1980s, Dick Grayson becomes Nightwing.
In the final issue of Brave and the Bold in 1983, Batman quits the Justice League and forms a new group called the Outsiders. He serves as the team's leader until Batman and the Outsiders #32 (1986) and the comic subsequently changed its title.
After the 12-issue limited series Crisis on Infinite Earths, DC Comics retconned the histories of some major characters in an attempt at updating them for contemporary audiences. Frank Miller retold Batman's origin in the storyline "Year One" from Batman #404–407, which emphasizes a grittier tone in the character. Though the Earth-Two Batman is erased from history, many stories of Batman's Silver Age/Earth-One career (along with an amount of Golden Age ones) remain canonical in the post-Crisis universe, with his origins remaining the same in essence, despite alteration. For example, Gotham's police are mostly corrupt, setting up further need for Batman's existence. While Dick Grayson's past remains much the same, the history of Jason Todd, the second Robin, is altered, turning the boy into the orphan son of a petty crook, who tries to steal the tires from the Batmobile. Also removed is the guardian Phillip Wayne leaving young Bruce to be raised by Alfred Pennyworth. Additionally, Batman is no longer a founding member of the Justice League of America, although he becomes leader for a short time of a new incarnation of the team launched in 1987. To help fill in the revised backstory for Batman following Crisis, DC launched a new Batman title called Legends of the Dark Knight in 1989 and has published various miniseries and one-shot stories since then that largely take place during the "Year One" period. Various stories from Jeph Loeb and Matt Wagner also touch upon this era.
In 1988's "Batman: A Death in the Family" storyline from Batman #426–429 Jason Todd, the second Robin, is killed by the Joker. Subsequently Batman begins exhibiting an excessive, reckless approach to his crime-fighting, a result of the pain of losing Jason Todd. Batman works solo until the decade's close, when Tim Drake becomes the new Robin. In 2005, writers resurrected the Jason Todd character and have pitted him against his former mentor.
Many of the major Batman storylines since the 1990s have been inter-title crossovers that run for a number of issues. In 1993, DC published both the "Death of Superman" storyline and "Knightfall" . In the Knightfall storyline's first phase, the new villain Bane paralyzes Batman, leading Wayne to ask Azrael to take on the role. After the end of "Knightfall," the storylines split in two directions, following both the Azrael-Batman's adventures, and Bruce Wayne's quest to become Batman once more. The story arcs realign in "KnightsEnd," as Azrael becomes increasingly violent and is defeated by a healed Bruce Wayne. Wayne hands the Batman mantle to Dick Grayson (then Nightwing) for an interim period, while Wayne trains to return to the role.
The 1994 company-wide crossover Zero Hour changes aspects of DC continuity again, including those of Batman. Noteworthy among these changes is that the general populace and the criminal element now considers Batman an urban legend rather than a known force. Similarly, the Waynes' killer is never caught or identified, effectively removing Joe Chill from the new continuity, rendering stories such as "Year Two" non-canon.
Batman once again becomes a member of the Justice League during Grant Morrison's 1996 relaunch of the series, titled JLA. While Batman contributes greatly to many of the team's successes, the Justice League is largely uninvolved as Batman and Gotham City face catastrophe in the decade's closing crossover arc. In 1998's "Cataclysm" storyline, Gotham City is devastated by an earthquake and ultimately cut off from the United States Government afterwards. Deprived of many of his technological resources, Batman fights to reclaim the city from legions of gangs during 1999's "No Man's Land".
Meanwhile, Batman's relationship with the Gotham City Police Department changed for the worse with the events of "Batman: Officer Down" and "Batman: War Games/War Crimes"; Batman's long-time law enforcement allies Commissioner Gordon and Harvey Bullock are forced out of the police department in "Officer Down", while "War Games" and "War Crimes" saw Batman become a wanted fugitive after a contingency plan of his to neutralize Gotham City's criminal underworld is accidentally triggered, resulting in a massive gang war that ends with the sadistic Black Mask the undisputed ruler of the city's criminal gangs. Other troubles come for Batman in the form of Lex Luthor (secretly behind the events of "No Man's Land"), who seeks revenge for Bruce Wayne cancelling all of his company's government contracts upon Luthor being elected President of the United States. Luthor arranges for the murder of Batman's on-again, off-again love interest Vesper (introduced in the mid-1990s) during the "Bruce Wayne: Murderer?" and "Bruce Wayne: Fugitive" story arcs. Though Batman is able to clear his name, he loses another ally in the form of his new bodyguard Sasha, who is recruited into the organization known as "Checkmate" while stuck in prison due to her refusal to turn states evidence against her employer. While he was unable to prove that Luthor was behind the murder of Vesper, Batman does get his revenge with help from Talia al Ghul in Superman/Batman #1–6: not only does he bring down Lex Luthor's Presidency but also engages in a hostile take-over of Luthor's corporate holdings, bankrupting the villain in the process.
DC's 2005 limited series Identity Crisis reveals that JLA member Zatanna had edited Batman's memories to prevent him from stopping the League from lobotomizing Dr. Light after he raped Sue Dibny. This served as a retcon for Batman's complete distrust for his fellow superheroes, which, under writers such as Mark Waid in the "Tower of Babel" arc in JLA, manifested itself in the form of Batman keeping extensive files on how to kill his fellow superheroes. Batman later creates the Brother I satellite surveillance system to watch over and if necessary, kill the other heroes. It is eventually co-opted by Maxwell Lord, who then kills superhero Blue Beetle to keep him from alerting the Justice League of the existence of Batman's murderous creation. The revelation of Batman's creation and his tacit responsibility for Blue Beetle's death becomes a driving force in the lead-up to the Infinite Crisis miniseries, which again restructures DC continuity. In Infinite Crisis #7, Alexander Luthor, Jr. mentions that in the newly rewritten history of the "New Earth", created in the previous issue, the murderer of Martha and Thomas Wayne – again, Joe Chill – was captured, thus undoing the retcon created after Zero Hour. Batman and a team of superheroes destroy Brother Eye and the OMACs, though at the very end Batman reaches his apparent breaking point when Alexander Luthor Jr. seriously wounds Nightwing. Picking up a gun, Batman nearly shoots Luthor in order to avenge his former sidekick, until Wonder Woman convinces him to not pull the trigger.
Following Infinite Crisis, Bruce Wayne, Dick Grayson (having recovered from his wounds), and Tim Drake retrace the steps Bruce had taken when he originally left Gotham City, to "rebuild Batman." In the Face the Face storyline, Batman and Robin return to Gotham City after their year-long absence. Part of this absence is captured during Week 30 of the 52 series, which shows Batman fighting his inner demons. Later on in 52, Batman is shown undergoing an intense meditation ritual in Nanda Parbat. This becomes an important part of the regular Batman title, which reveals that Batman is reborn as a more effective crime fighter while undergoing this ritual, having "hunted down and ate" the last traces of fear in his mind.
At the end of the "Face the Face" story arc, Bruce officially adopts Tim (who had lost both of his parents at various points in the character's history) as his son. The follow-up story arc in Batman, Batman & Son, introduces Damian Wayne, who is Batman's son with Talia al Ghul. Batman, along with Superman and Wonder Woman, reforms the Justice League in the new Justice League of America series, and is leading the newest incarnation of the Outsiders.
Grant Morrison's 2008 storyline, Batman R.I.P., featuring Batman being physically and mentally broken by the enigmatic "Black Glove," garnered much news coverage in advance of its highly promoted conclusion, which would supposedly feature the death of Bruce Wayne. The original intention was, in fact, not for Batman to die in the pages of "R.I.P.," but for the story to continue with the current DC event Final Crisis and have the death occur there. As such, a two-issue bridge arc was designed called "Last Rites" that showed Batman survive his helicopter crash into the Gotham City River and return to the Batcave, only to be summoned to the Hall of Justice by the JLA to help investigate Orion's death. This in turn led into the events of "Final Crisis" (which began publication during the conclusion of "Batman RIP"), where Batman is kidnapped by Granny Goodness. "Last Rites" told the tale of Batman being mentally probed by Darkseid's minions Mokkari and Simyon, in an attempt to cull the personality traits that make Batman the successful superhero that he is in order to transplant them into cloned bodies. The plan fails due to the clones, unable to handle the stress and grief Batman processes on a daily basis choose to kill themselves rather than endure such a tortured existence. The two-parter concludes with a major "Final Crisis" plot point, as it is revealed that Batman kept the bullet used to kill Orion in his utility belt.
The Batman's apparent death occurs in Final Crisis #6 when he confronts Darkseid. Batman announces that he will break his "no gun" rule while facing the villain. Wielding a sidearm made by Apokolips, Batman shoots Darkseid in the chest with a bullet made of Radion (the same bullet used to kill Orion), just as Darkseid unleashes his Omega Sanction, or the "death that is life", upon Batman. However, the Omega Sanction does not actually kill its target, but sends its consciousness into parallel worlds. Although the presence of Batman's corpse would suggest that he is dead, at the conclusion of Final Crisis it is revealed that Batman has been sent to the distant past where he is able to watch the passing of Anthro.
The three-issue Battle for the Cowl miniseries, ('cowl' referring to Batman's mask) sees those closest to Wayne compete for the "right" to assume the role of Batman. Eventually, Grayson reluctantly assumes the role. Tim Drake takes on the identity of Red Robin, questing around the world searching for Bruce Wayne, who he believes is still alive.
In Blackest Night, the villain Black Hand is seen digging up Bruce Wayne's body, stealing his skull, and recruiting it into the Black Lantern Corps. Deadman, whose body has also become a Black Lantern, rushes to aid the new Batman and Robin, along with Red Robin against the Gotham villains who have been reanimated as Black Lanterns, as well as their own family members. The skull was briefly reanimated as a Black Lantern, reconstructing a body in the process by Black Hand's lord, Nekron, to move against the Justice League and the Titans. After the Black Lantern Batman created several black power rings to attach to and kill the majority of the Justice League, the skull was returned to normal after Nekron explained it served its purpose as an emotional tether. Nekron also referred to the skull as "Bruce Wayne", knowing that the body was not authentic.
In Batman and Robin's third storyline, "Blackest Knight," it is revealed that the body left behind at the end of Final Crisis #6 was actually a clone created from a failed attempt by Darkseid to amass an army of "Batmen". Because of this, the skull that was used by the Black Lantern Corps and reanimated by Nekron was a fake. Dick Grayson, thinking it was Bruce Wayne's real body, attempted to resurrect it in a Lazarus Pit only to be met with a fierce, mindless combatant. He then realized the truth about the body.
Morrison's storyline continues with the miniseries Batman: The Return of Bruce Wayne. In the miniseries, Bruce travels through time from the prehistoric era back to present-day Gotham. However, the Dark Knight must overcome unforeseen obstacles: unbeknownst to the hero, Darkseid turned him into a living doomsday weapon when he sent him back in time, which forces Batman's allies to stop him. Thanks to his allies, Batman is able to foil Darkseid's final plan and return to the present.
After Bruce's return, he returns to his role as the Dark Knight on a global scale, thus allowing Dick and Damian to continue as Gotham's Dynamic Duo. This is seen in the new ongoing series Batman, Inc., where Batman will form an army of heroes that will serve as the Batman on every country of the world. To this end, Bruce publicly announces that Wayne Enterprises will aid Batman on his mission, known as "Batman, Incorporated." Also, Batman is the protagonist in the new title Batman: The Dark Knight, which will be written and drawn by David Finch. This new title details Batman's most recent adventures in Gotham to investigate about the disappearance of his friend Dawn Golden, in an environment of mysticism and magic.
The New 52 relaunch
In September 2011, Batman, Detective Comics, Batman and Robin and Batman: The Dark Knight were relaunched as part of The New 52, DC's line-wide reboot of every one of its books. In the new series, Bruce Wayne is the sole character to be identified as Batman while Dick Grayson returns to the Nightwing identity.
Batman's primary character traits can be summarized as "wealth; physical prowess; deductive abilities and obsession." The details and tone of Batman comic books have varied over the years due to different creative teams. Dennis O'Neil noted that character consistency was not a major concern during early editorial regimes: "Julie Schwartz did a Batman in Batman and Detective and Murray Boltinoff did a Batman in the Brave and the Bold and apart from the costume they bore very little resemblance to each other. Julie and Murray did not coordinate their efforts, did not pretend to, did not want to, were not asked to. Continuity was not important in those days."
The driving force behind Batman's character is from his childhood. Bob Kane and Bill Finger discussed Batman's background and decided that "there's nothing more traumatic than having your parents murdered before your eyes." Despite his trauma, he is driven to train to become a brilliant scientist and train his body into absolute physical perfection to fight crime in Gotham City as Batman, an inspired idea from Wayne's insight into the criminal mind. Another of Batman's characterizations is a vigilante; in order to stop evil that started with the death of his parents, he must sometimes break laws himself. Although manifested differently by being re-told by different artists, it is nevertheless that the details and the prime components of Batman's origin have never varied at all in the comic books, the "reiteration of the basic origin events holds together otherwise divergent expressions". The origin is the source of the character's traits and attributes, which play out in many of the character's adventures.
Batman is often treated as a vigilante by other characters in his stories. Frank Miller views the character as "a dionysian figure, a force for anarchy that imposes an individual order." Dressed as a bat, Batman deliberately cultivates a frightening persona in order to aid him in crime-fighting, a fear that originates from the criminals' own guilty conscience.
In his secret identity, Batman is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy businessman who lives in Gotham City. To the world at large, Bruce Wayne is often seen as an irresponsible, superficial playboy who lives off his family's personal fortune (amassed when his family invested in Gotham real estate before the city was a bustling metropolis) and the profits of Wayne Enterprises, a major private technology firm that he inherits. However, Wayne is also known for his contributions to charity, notably through his Wayne Foundation, a charity devoted to helping the victims of crime and preventing people from becoming criminals. Bruce creates the playboy public persona to aid in throwing off suspicion of his secret identity, often acting dim-witted and self-absorbed to further the act. Among the more noted measures he uses to maintain the facade is pretending he is a heavy drinker by claiming his glasses of ginger ale are strong beverages; Bruce is actually a strict teetotaler to maintain his physical fitness and mental acuity.
Writers of both Batman and Superman stories have often compared the two within the context of various stories, to varying conclusions. Like Superman, the prominent persona of Batman's dual identities varies with time. Modern age comics have tended to portray "Bruce Wayne" as the facade, with "Batman" as the truer representation of his personality (in counterpoint to the post-Crisis Superman, whose "Clark Kent" persona is the 'real' personality, and "Superman" is the 'mask'). In Batman Unmasked, a television documentary about the psychology of the character, Associate Professor of Social Psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles, and an adjunct behavioral scientist at the Rand Corporation Benjamin Karney, notes that Batman's personality is driven by Bruce Wayne's inherent humanity; that "Batman, for all its benefits and for all of the time Bruce Wayne devotes to it, is ultimately a tool for Bruce Wayne's efforts to make the world better".
As noted in the Will Brooker book, Batman Unmasked, "the confirmation of Batman's identity lies with the young audience...he doesn't have to be Bruce Wayne; he just needs the suit and gadgets, the abilities, and most importantly the morality, the humanity. There's just a sense about him: 'they trust him... and they're never wrong."
Finger came up with the name "Bruce Wayne" for the superhero's secret identity. In Jim Steranko's History of the Comics, vol. 1, Bill Finger reveals, "Bruce Wayne's first name came from Robert Bruce, the Scottish patriot. Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry. I searched for a name that would suggest colonialism. I tried Adams, Hancock...then I thought of Mad Anthony Wayne."
In T. James Musler's book Unleashing the Superhero in Us All, he explores the extent to which money is important in Bruce Wayne's life.
While Wayne traveled through time to get back to the present, Dick Grayson became the new Batman. This was the second time he had taken on the mantle in Bruce Wayne's absence, albeit the first time (when Wayne was recovering from his broken back) reluctantly. After Wayne's "death", Dick stated that he had no problem becoming Batman, but Wayne had left a prerecorded message telling him not to take up the mantle and to continue fighting crime as Nightwing with Robin at his side. Realizing that Gotham still needed the Dark Knight, Dick retired his Nightwing mantle to become the new Batman. With Wayne's return and plans to launch Batman worldwide, Dick remained the Batman of Gotham City. After the events of Flashpoint, Dick will return to being Nightwing.
In an interview with IGN, Morrison details that having Grayson as Batman and Damian Wayne as Robin will be a "reverse" of the normal dynamic between Batman and Robin, with, "a more light-hearted and spontaneous Batman and a scowling, badass Robin." Morrison explains his intentions for the new characterization of Batman: "Dick Grayson is kind of this consummate superhero. The guy has been Batman's partner since he was a kid, he's led the Teen Titans, and he's trained with everybody in the DC Universe. So he's a very different kind of Batman. He's a lot easier; He's a lot looser and more relaxed."
Skills, abilities, and resources
There are a plethora of superheroes without superpowers, but of them all the Batman character relies on "his own scientific knowledge, detective skills, and athletic prowess." In the stories Batman is regarded as one of the world's greatest detectives. In Grant Morrison's first storyline in JLA, Superman describes Batman as "the most dangerous man on Earth," able to defeat a team of superpowered aliens by himself in order to rescue his imprisoned teammates. He is a master of disguise, often gathering information under the identity of Matches Malone, a notorious gangster. Additionally, the Batman has been repeatedly described as one of the greatest martial artists in the DC Universe, having either trained with or fought against the very best of them including such notables as Lady Shiva, Bronze Tiger, and Richard Dragon.
Batman's costume incorporates the imagery of a bat in order to frighten criminals. The details of the Batman costume change repeatedly through various stories and media, but the most distinctive elements remain consistent: a scallop-hem cape, a cowl covering most of the face featuring a pair of batlike ears, and a stylized bat emblem on the chest, and the ever-present utility belt. The costumes' colors are traditionally blue and grey, although this colorization arose due to the way comic book art is colored. Finger and Kane conceptualized Batman as having a black cape and cowl and grey suit, but conventions in coloring called for black to be highlighted with blue. This coloring has been claimed by Larry Ford, in Place, Power, Situation, and Spectacle: A Geography of Film, to be an inversion of conventional color-coding symbolism, which sees "bad guys" wearing dark colors. Batman's gloves typically feature three scallops that protrude from long, gauntlet-like cuffs, although in his earliest appearances he wore short, plain gloves without the scallops. A yellow ellipse around the bat logo on the character's chest was added in 1964, and became the hero's trademark symbol, akin to the red and yellow "S" symbol of Superman. The overall look of the character, particularly the length of the cowl's ears and of the cape, varies greatly depending on the artist. Dennis O'Neil said, "We now say that Batman has two hundred suits hanging in the Batcave so they don't have to look the same . . . Everybody loves to draw Batman, and everybody wants to put their own spin on it."
Batman uses a large arsenal of specialized gadgets in his war against crime, the designs of which usually share a bat motif. Batman historian Les Daniels credits Gardner Fox with creating the concept of Batman's arsenal with the introduction of the utility belt in Detective Comics #29 (July 1939) and the first bat-themed weapons the batarang and the "Batgyro" in Detective Comics #31 and #32 (September; October, 1939). Batman's primary vehicle is the Batmobile, which is usually depicted as an imposing black car with large tailfins that suggest a bat's wings. Batman's other vehicles include the Batplane (aka the Batwing), Batboat, Bat-Sub, and Batcycle.
In proper practice, the "bat" prefix (as in batmobile or batarang) is rarely used by Batman himself when referring to his equipment, particularly after some portrayals (primarily the 1960s Batman live-action television show and the Super Friends animated series) stretched the practice to campy proportions. The 1960s television series Batman has an arsenal that includes such "bat-" names as the bat-computer, bat-scanner, bat-radar, bat-cuffs, bat-pontoons, bat-drinking water dispenser, bat-camera with polarized bat-filter, bat-shark repellent bat-spray, and bat-rope. The storyline "A Death in the Family" suggests that given Batman's grim nature, he is unlikely to have adopted the "bat" prefix on his own.
Batman keeps most of his field equipment in a utility belt. Over the years it is shown to contain a virtually limitless variety of crime-fighting tools. Different versions of the belt have these items stored in either pouches or hard cylinders attached evenly around it. A typical major exception to the range of Batman's equipment are conventional firearms, which he refuses to use on principle considering that weapon class was the instrument of his parents' murder. Modern depictions of Batman have him compromise for practicality by arming his vehicles mainly for the purpose of removing obstacles or disabling enemy vehicles.
When Batman is needed, the Gotham City police activate a searchlight with a bat-shaped insignia over the lens called the Bat-Signal which shines into the night sky, creating a bat-symbol on a passing cloud which can be seen from any point in Gotham. The origin of the signal varies, depending on the continuity and medium.
In various incarnations, most notably the 1960s Batman TV series, Commissioner Gordon also has a dedicated phone line, dubbed the Bat-Phone, connected to a bright red telephone (in the TV series) which sits on a wooden base and has a transparent cake cover on top. The line connects directly to Batman's residence, Wayne Manor, specifically both to a similar phone sitting on the desk in Bruce Wayne's study and the extension phone in the Batcave.
The Batcave is Batman's secret headquarters, consisting of a series of subterranean caves beneath his mansion, Wayne Manor. It serves as his command center for both local and global surveillance, as well as housing his vehicles and equipment for his war on crime. It also is a storeroom for Batman's memorabilia. In both the comic Batman: Shadow of the Bat (issue #45) and the 2005 film Batman Begins, the cave is said to have been part of the Underground Railroad. Of the heroes and villains who see the Batcave, few know where it is located.
Batman's interactions with the characters around him, both heroes and villains, help to define the character. Commissioner James "Jim" Gordon, Batman's ally in the Gotham City police, debuted along with Batman in Detective Comics #27 and has been a consistent presence since then. Later on, Batman gained Alfred as his butler and Lucius Fox as his business manager and apparently unwitting armorer. However, the most important supporting role in the Batman mythos is filled by the hero's young sidekick Robin. The first Robin, Dick Grayson, eventually leaves his mentor and becomes the hero Nightwing, though he and Batman would still continue to work together. The second Robin, Jason Todd, is badly beaten and then killed in an explosion set by the Joker, but later returns as an adversary. Tim Drake, the third Robin, first appeared in 1989 and went on to star in his own comic series. Alfred, Bruce Wayne's loyal butler, father figure, and one of the few to know his secret identity, "[lends] a homey touch to Batman's environs and [is] ever ready to provide a steadying and reassuring hand" to the hero and his sidekick.
Batman is at times a member of superhero teams such as the Justice League of America and the Outsiders. Batman has often been paired in adventure with his Justice League teammate Superman, notably as the co-stars of World's Finest and Superman/Batman series. In pre-Crisis continuity, the two are depicted as close friends; however, in current continuity, they have a mutually respectful but uneasy relationship, with an emphasis on their differing views on crime-fighting and justice. In Superman/Batman #3 (December 2003), Superman observes, "Sometimes, I admit, I think of Bruce as a man in a costume. Then, with some gadget from his utility belt, he reminds me that he has an extraordinarily inventive mind. And how lucky I am to be able to call on him."
Batman is involved romantically with many women throughout his various incarnations. These range from society women such as Julie Madison, Vicki Vale, and Silver St. Cloud, to allies like Wonder Woman and Sasha Bordeaux, to even villainesses such as Catwoman and Talia al Ghul, with the latter of whom he sired a son, Damian, and with the former of whom sired a daughter, Helena (on Earth-Two). While these relationships tend to be short, Batman's attraction to Catwoman is present in nearly every version and medium in which the characters appear. Authors have gone back and forth over the years as to how Batman manages the 'playboy' aspect of Bruce Wayne's personality; at different times he embraces or flees from the women interested in attracting "Gotham's most eligible bachelor."
Other supporting characters in Batman's world include former Batgirl Barbara Gordon, Commissioner Gordon's daughter who, now using a wheelchair due to a gunshot wound inflicted by the Joker, serves the superhero community at large as the computer hacker Oracle; Azrael, a would-be assassin who replaces Bruce Wayne as Batman for a time; Cassandra Cain, an assassin's daughter who became the new Batgirl, Huntress, the sole surviving member of a mob family turned Gotham vigilante who has worked with Batman on occasion, Stephanie Brown, the daughter of a criminal who operated as the Spoiler and temporarily as Robin, Ace the Bat-Hound, Batman's Canine partner; and Bat-Mite, an extra-dimensional imp who idolizes Batman.
Batman faces a variety of foes ranging from common criminals to outlandish supervillains. The list is one of the most recognizable in popular culture , many of them mirror aspects of the Batman's character and development, often having tragic origin stories that lead them to a life of crime. Batman's "most implacable foe" is the Joker, a psychopathic, clown-like criminal who, as a "personification of the irrational", represents "everything Batman [opposes]." Other long time recurring antagonists include Catwoman, the Scarecrow, the Penguin, Two-Face, the Riddler, Mr. Freeze, Poison Ivy, and Ra's al Ghul, among many others.
Batman has become a pop culture icon, recognized around the world. The character's presence has extended beyond his comic book origins; events such as the release of the 1989 Batman film and its accompanying merchandising "brought the Batman to the forefront of public consciousness." In an article commemorating the sixtieth anniversary of the character, The Guardian wrote, "Batman is a figure blurred by the endless reinvention that is modern mass culture. He is at once an icon and a commodity: the perfect cultural artefact for the 21st century." In addition, media outlets have often used the character in trivial and comprehensive surveys — Forbes magazine estimated Bruce Wayne to be the 9th-richest fictional character with his $5.8 billion fortune, several places after Iron Man, who is at 6. BusinessWeek listed the character as one of the ten most intelligent superheroes appearing in American comics. Entertainment Weekly named Batman as one of The 20 All Time Coolest Heroes in Pop Culture. He also was placed on AFI's 100 Years…100 Heroes and Villains from the 1989 feature film by the American Film Institute.
In other media
The character of Batman has appeared in various media aside from comic books. The character has been developed as a vehicle for newspaper syndicated comic strips, books, radio dramas, television, and several theatrical feature films. The first adaptation of Batman was as a daily newspaper comic strip which premiered on October 25, 1943. That same year the character was adapted in the 15-part serial Batman, with Lewis Wilson becoming the first actor to portray Batman on screen. While Batman never had a radio series of his own, the character made occasional guest appearance in The Adventures of Superman starting in 1945 on occasions when Superman voice actor Bud Collyer needed time off. A second movie serial, Batman and Robin, followed in 1949, with Robert Lowery taking over the role of Batman. The exposure provided by these adaptations during the 1940s "helped make [Batman] a household name for millions who never bought a comic book."
In the 1964 publication of Donald Barthelme's collection of short stories "Come Back, Dr. Caligari", Barthelme wrote "The Joker's Greatest Triumph." Batman is portrayed for purposes of spoof as a pretentious French-speaking rich man.
The Batman television series, starring Adam West, premiered in January 1966 on the ABC television network. Inflected with a camp sense of humor, the show became a pop culture phenomenon. In his memoir, Back to the Batcave, West notes his dislike for the term 'camp' as it was applied to the 1960s series, opining that the show was instead a farce or lampoon, and a deliberate one, at that. The series ran for 120 episodes, ending in 1968. In between the first and second season of the Batman television series the cast and crew made the theatrical release Batman (1966). The Kinks performed the theme song from the Batman series on their 1967 album Live at Kelvin Hall. The popularity of the Batman TV series also resulted in the first animated adaptation of Batman in the series The Batman/Superman Hour; the Batman segments of the series were repackaged as The Adventures of Batman and Batman with Robin the Boy Wonder which produced thirty-three episodes between 1968 and 1977. From 1973 until 1986, Batman had a starring role in ABC's Super Friends series, which was animated by Hanna-Barbera. Olan Soule was the voice of Batman in all these series, but was eventually replaced during Super Friends by Adam West, who voiced the character in Filmation's 1977 series The New Adventures of Batman.
In 1989, Batman returned to movie theaters in director Tim Burton's Batman starring Michael Keaton as the title character. The film was a huge success; not only was it the top-grossing film of the year, but at the time was the fifth highest-grossing film in history. The film spawned three sequels: Batman Returns (1992), Batman Forever (1995), and Batman & Robin (1997), the latter two of which were directed by Joel Schumacher instead of Burton, and replaced Keaton as Batman with Val Kilmer and George Clooney, respectively. The second Schumacher film, while a box office success, failed to outgross any of its predecessors and was critically panned, causing Warner Bros. to cancel the planned fifth film, Batman Triumphant, and place the film series on hiatus.
In 1992, Batman returned to television in Batman: The Animated Series, which was produced by Warner Bros. and broadcast on the Fox television network. The Emmy Award-winning series was praised for its darker, more serious treatment than previous cartoons; author Les Daniels described the series as "[coming] as close as any artistic statement has to defining the look of Batman for the 1990s." The success of Batman: The Animated Series led to the theatrical spin-off film Batman: Mask of the Phantasm (1993), as well as various other series set in the same continuity, including Superman: The Animated Series, The New Batman Adventures, Justice League, and Justice League Unlimited. As with Batman: The Animated Series, each of these productions featured Kevin Conroy as the voice of Batman. The futuristic series Batman Beyond was also set in the same continuity as Batman: The Animated Series, and featured a newer, younger Batman voiced by Will Friedle. In 2004, a new animated series titled The Batman made its debut with Rino Romano as the title character. In 2008, this show was replaced by another animated series, Batman: The Brave and the Bold, with Diedrich Bader as Batman.
In 2005, Batman Begins, a reboot of the film series, was released; directed by Christopher Nolan and starring Christian Bale as Batman. Its sequel, The Dark Knight (2008), set the record for the highest grossing opening weekend of all time in the U.S., earning approximately $158 million, and became the fastest film to reach the $400 million mark in the history of American cinema (eighteenth day of release). These record breaking attendances saw The Dark Knight listed as the third-highest domestic grossing film of all time with $533 million, bested only by Titanic and Avatar. Another sequel, The Dark Knight Rises, is expected to be released in 2012, and is said to be the final Batman film to feature Nolan and Bale as director and leading actor, respectively.
Controversy has arisen over various sexual interpretations made regarding the content of Batman comics in the early decades. Homosexual interpretations have been part of the academic study of Batman since psychologist Fredric Wertham asserted in his Seduction of the Innocent in 1954 that "Batman stories are psychologically homosexual." He claimed, "The Batman type of story may stimulate children to homosexual fantasies, of the nature of which they may be unconscious." Wertham wrote, "Only someone ignorant of the fundamentals of psychiatry and of the psychopathology of sex can fail to realize a subtle atmosphere of homoeroticism which pervades the adventures of the mature 'Batman' and his young friend 'Robin.'"
Andy Medhurst wrote in his 1991 essay "Batman, Deviance, and Camp" that Batman is interesting to gay audiences because "he was one of the first fictional characters to be attacked on the grounds of his presumed homosexuality," "the 1960s TV series remains a touchstone of camp," and "[he] merits analysis as a notably successful construction of masculinity."
Creators associated with the character have expressed their own opinions. Writer Alan Grant has stated, "The Batman I wrote for 13 years isn't gay. Denny O'Neil's Batman, Marv Wolfman's Batman, everybody's Batman all the way back to Bob Kane... none of them wrote him as a gay character. Only Joel Schumacher might have had an opposing view." Writer Devin Grayson has commented, "It depends who you ask, doesn't it? Since you're asking me, I'll say no, I don't think he is ... I certainly understand the gay readings, though." While Frank Miller has described the relationship between Batman and the Joker as a "homophobic nightmare," he views the character as sublimating his sexual urges into crimefighting, concluding, "He'd be much healthier if he were gay." Burt Ward, who portrayed Robin in the 1960s television show, has also remarked upon this interpretation in his autobiography Boy Wonder: My Life in Tights; he writes that the relationship could be interpreted as a sexual one, with the show's double entendres and lavish camp also possibly offering ambiguous interpretation.
Such homosexual interpretations continue to attract attention. One notable example occurred in 2000, when DC Comics refused to allow permission for the reprinting of four panels (from Batman #79, 92, 105 and 139) to illustrate Christopher York's paper All in the Family: Homophobia and Batman Comics in the 1950s. Another happened in the summer of 2005, when painter Mark Chamberlain displayed a number of watercolors depicting both Batman and Robin in suggestive and sexually explicit poses. DC threatened both artist and the Kathleen Cullen Fine Arts gallery with legal action if they did not cease selling the works and demanded all remaining art, as well as any profits derived from them.
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- ^ "The Big Question: What is the history of Batman, and why does he still appeal?". The Independent (London). July 22, 2008. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/film-and-tv/features/the-big-question-what-is-the-history-of-batman-and-why-does-he-still-appeal-873780.html.
- ^ "Batman – Top 100 Comic Book Heroes". IGN Entertainment. http://www.ign.com/top/comic-book-heroes/2. Retrieved May 27, 2011.
- ^ Daniels, Les. Batman: The Complete History. Chronicle Books, 1999. ISBN 0-8118-4232-0, pg. 18
- ^ Steranko, Jim. The Steranko History of Comics 1. Reading, PA: Supergraphics, 1970. (ISBN 0-517-50188-0)
- ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 21, 23
- ^ Havholm, Peter; Sandifer, Philip (Autumn 2003). "Corporate Authorship: A Response to Jerome Christensen". Critical Inquiry 30 (1): 192. doi:10.1086/380810. ISSN 00931896.
- ^ Biography by Joe Desris, in Batman Archives, Volume 3 (DC Comics, 1994), p. 223 ISBN 1-56389-099-2
- ^ Daniels, Les (1999). Batman: The Complete History. Chronicle Books. pp. 21, 23. ISBN 0-8118-4232-0.
- ^ a b Kane, Andrae, p. 44
- ^ a b Kane, Andrae, p. 41
- ^ Daniels, Les. DC Comics: A Celebration of the World's Favorite Comic Book Heroes. New York: Billboard Books/Watson-Guptill Publications, 2003, ISBN 0-8230-7919-8, pg. 23
- ^ Boichel, Bill. "Batman: Commodity as Myth." The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero and His Media. Routledge: London, 1991. ISBN 0-85170-276-7, pg. 6–7
- ^ Groth, Gary (October 2005). "Jerry Robinson". The Comics Journal 1 (271): 80–81. ISSN 0194-7869. http://www.tcj.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=350&Itemid=48. Retrieved November 18, 2007. [dead link]
- ^ Comic Book Artist 3. Winter 1999. TwoMorrows Publishing
- ^ "Comic Book Interview Super Special: Batman" Fictioneer Press, 1989
- ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 25
- ^ Wright, Bradford W. Comic Book Nation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 2001. ISBN 0-8018-7450-5, pg. 19
- ^ a b Daniels (1999), pg. 29
- ^ Bill Finger (w), Bob Kane (p), Sheldon Moldoff (i). "The Batman and How He Came to Be" Detective Comics 33: 1–2 (November, 1939), DC Comics
- ^ Detective Comics #33 (November 1939), Grand Comics Database
- ^ John Jefferson Darowski, "The Mythic Symbols of Batman" December 2007. Retrieved March 20, 2008. Archived on 2008-03-20.
- ^ a b Wright, pg. 17
- ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 38
- ^ Daniels (2003), pg. 36
- ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 42
- ^ a b Boichel, pg. 9
- ^ Wright, pg. 59
- ^ Edmund Hamilton (w), Curt Swan (p). "The Mightiest Team In the World" Superman #76 (June 1952), DC Comics
- ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 88
- ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 91
- ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 84
- ^ Boichel, pg. 13
- ^ York, Christopher (2000). "All in the Family: Homophobia and Batman Comics in the 1950s". The International Journal of Comic Art 2 (2): 100–110.
- ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 94
- ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 95
- ^ Bill Finger (w), Sheldon Moldoff (p). "Gotham Gang Line-Up!" Detective Comics 328 (June, 1964), DC Comics
- ^ Benton, Mike. The Comic Book in America: An Illustrated History. Dallas: Taylor, 1989. ISBN 0-87833-659-1, pg. 69
- ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 115
- ^ Wright, pg. 233
- ^ Pearson, Roberta E.; Uricchio, William. "Notes from the Batcave: An Interview with Dennis O'Neil." The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero and His Media. Routledge: London, 1991. ISBN 0-85170-276-7, pg. 18
- ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 140
- ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 141
- ^ SciFi Wire (March 28, 2007): "Batman Artist Rogers is Dead": "Even though their Batman run was only six issues, the three laid the foundation for later Batman comics. Their stories include the classic 'Laughing Fish' (in which the Joker's face appeared on fish); they were adapted for Batman: The Animated Series in the 1990s. Earlier drafts of the 1989 Batman movie with Michael Keaton as the Dark Knight were based heavily on their work."[dead link]
- ^ Boichel, pg. 15
- ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 147, 149
- ^ Wright, pg. 267
- ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 155, 157
- ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 161
- ^ a b Pearson, Roberta E.; Uricchio, William. "Introduction." The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero and His Media. Routledge: London, 1991. ISBN 0-85170-276-7, pg. 1
- ^ "Diamond's 2005 Year-End Sales Charts & Market Share" (http). newsarama.com. 2006. Archived from the original on May 25, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060525013002/http://www.newsarama.com/marketreport/05Year_End.html. Retrieved October 26, 2006.
- ^ "July 2005 Sales Charts: All-Star Batman & Robin Lives Up To Its Name" (http). newsarama.com. 2005. Archived from the original on September 7, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060907063905/http://www.newsarama.com/marketreport/july05sales.html. Retrieved October 26, 2006.
- ^ Review by Iann Robinson, Crave Online
- ^ Review by William Gatevackes, PopMatters, February 10, 2006
- ^ a b Phillips, Dan (August 8, 2009). "Grant Morrison's New Batman and Robin". IGN. http://comics.ign.com/articles/986/986031p1.html. Retrieved August 8, 2009.
- ^ George, Richard (March 11, 2009). "Morrison discusses Batman and Robin". IGN. http://comics.ign.com/articles/961/961488p1.html. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
- ^ Wilkins, Alasdair (June 27, 2009). "Batman Is Reborn...With A Vengeance". io9. Gawker Media. http://io9.com/5303197/batman-is-rebornwith-a-vengeance. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
- ^ Pearson, pg. 185
- ^ a b c d e Pearson; Uricchio. "'I'm Not Fooled By That Cheap Disguise.'" Pg. 186
- ^ Pearson, pg. 191
- ^ Bill Finger (w), Bob Kane (p). "The Case of the Chemical Syndicate" Detective Comics #27 (May, 1939), DC Comics
- ^ Bill Finger (w), Bob Kane (p). "The Batman Wars Against the Dirigible of Doom" Detective Comics #33 (November, 1939), DC Comics
- ^ She first appears in Detective Comics #31 (Sept. 1939)
- ^ Paul Levitz (w), Joe Staton (p). "The Untold Origin of the Justice Society" DC Special 29 (August/September 1977), DC Comics
- ^ Gardner Fox (w). All Star Comics 3 (Winter 1940/41), DC Comics
- ^ Bill Finger (w), Bob Kane (p). Batman 7 (November, 1941), DC Comics
- ^ Batman #16 (May 1943); his original last name, Beagle, is revealed in Detective Comics #96 (Feb. 1945)
- ^ One example is the Englehart/Rogers run of the late 1970s, which has editorial notes directing readers to issues such as Batman #1
- ^ Bill Finger (w), Sheldon Moldoff (p). "The First Batman" Detective Comics 235 (September, 1956), DC Comics
- ^ Edmond Hamilton (w), Dick Sprang (p). "When Batman Was Robin" Detective Comics 226 (December, 1955), DC Comics
- ^ Miller, Frank; David Mazzucchelli and Richmond Lewis (1987). Batman: Year One. DC Comics. p. 98. ISBN 1-85286-077-4.
- ^ Max Allan Collins (w), Chris Warner (p). "Did Robin Die Tonight?" Batman 408 (June, 1987), DC Comics
- ^ Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p). "Master of Fear" Batman 457 (December, 1990), DC Comics
- ^ Dixon, Chuck. et al. "Batman: Prodigal". Batman 512–514, Shadow of the Bat 32–34, Detective Comics 679–681, Robin 11–13. New York: DC Comics, 1995.
- ^ "Infinite Crisis" #7, p. 32
- ^ 52 #30
- ^ Batman #673
- ^ Batman #681
- ^ James Robinson (w), Don Kramer (p). "Face the Face – Conclusion" Batman 654 (August, 2006), DC Comics
- ^ Brad Meltzer (w), Ed Benes (p). "The Tornado's Path" Justice League of America (vol. 2) 1 (August, 2006), DC Comics
- ^ Chuck Dixon (w), Julian Lopex (p). Batman and the Outsiders (vol. 2) 1 (November, 2007), DC Comics
- ^ Rothstein, Simon. "Batman killed by his OWN dad." November 28, 2008. The Sun. Archived November 28, 2008.
- ^ Adams, Guy. "Holy smoke, Batman! Are you dead?" November 28, 2008, The Independent. Archived November 28, 2008.
- ^ Newsarama: "Batman R.I.P. – Finally?" January 15, 2009
- ^ Grant Morrison (w), J.G. Jones (p). "How to Murder the Earth" Final Crisis #6 (January 2009), DC Comics
- ^ Grant Morrison (w). Final Crisis #7 (January 2009), DC Comics
- ^ "Grant Morrison: Final Crisis Exit Interview, Part 2". http://newsarama.com/comics/020904-Grant-FC2.html.
- ^ Tony Daniel (w). Battle for the Cowl #3 (May 2009), DC Comics
- ^ Chris Yost (w). Red Robin #1 (August 2009), DC Comics
- ^ Geoff Johns (w). Blackest Night #0 (June 2009), DC Comics
- ^ Peter J. Tomasi (w). Blackest Night: Batman #1 (October 2009), DC Comics
- ^ Geoff Johns (w). Blackest Night #5 (January 2010), DC Comics
- ^ Grant Morrison (w). Batman and Robin #7 (January 2010), DC Comics
- ^ Grant Morrison (w). Batman and Robin #8 (February 2010), DC Comics
- ^ a b Geddes, John (December 9, 2009). "Grant Morrison on return of original Batman". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/life/comics/2009-12-09-morrison-bruce-wayne-st_N.htm?loc=interstitialskip. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- ^ Segura, Alex (December 9, 2009). "DCU in 2010: The Return of Bruce Wayne hits in April". The Source. DC Comics.com. http://dcu.blog.dccomics.com/2009/12/09/dcu-in-2010-the-return-of-bruce-wayne-hits-in-april/. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- ^ "Batman solicitations for May 2010 at DC's The Source". Dcu.blog.dccomics.com. February 11, 2010. http://dcu.blog.dccomics.com/2010/02/11/take-an-early-look-at-batman-titles-for-may/#more-7397. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
- ^ Pearson; Uricchio. "Notes from the Batcave: An Interview with Dennis O'Neil" p. 23
- ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 31
- ^ a b c DETECTIVE Comics #33, November 1939, Bill Finger, Bob Kane
- ^ a b c BATMAN #1 Spring 1940,Bill Finger, Bob Kane
- ^ Pearson, pg. 194
- ^ Sharrett, Christopher. "Batman and the Twilight of the Idols: An Interview with Frank Miller." The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero and His Media. Routledge: London, 1991. ISBN 0-85170-276-7, pg. 44
- ^ Pearson, pg. 208
- ^ Dennis O'Neil, Wizard Batman Special 1998
- ^ Dennis O'Neil Batman: Knightfall. 1994, Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-09673-7
- ^ Pearson, pg. 202
- ^ Daniels, 1999, pg. ??
- ^ Scott Beatty, The Batman Handbook: The Ultimate Training Manual. 2005, Quirk Books, p51. ISBN 1-59474-023-2
- ^ Aichele, G. (1997). Rewriting Superman. In G. Aichele & T. Pippin (Eds.), The Monstrous and the Unspeakable: The Bible as Fantastic Literature (pp. 75–101). Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.
- ^ Superman vol. 2, #53
- ^ Brooker, Will (2001). Batman Unmasked. NY/London: Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 368. ISBN 0-8264-1343-9. http://books.google.com/?id=GNRreYO91ogC&pg=PA137&dq=Unmasking+Batman.
- ^ T. James Musler. 2006. Unleashing the Superhero in Us All.
- ^ Mike Conray, 500 Great Comicbook Action Heroes. 2002, Collins & Brown. ISBN 1-84411-004-4
- ^ Grant Morrison (w), Howard Porter (p). "War of the Worlds" JLA 3 (March, 1997), DC Comics
- ^ a b c d Daniels (1999)
- ^ Larry Ford, "Lighting and Color in the Depiction" in Place, Power, Situation, and Spectacle: A Geography of Film, Stuart C. Aitken, Leo Zonn, Leo E. Zonn eds. 1994 Rowman & Littlefield, p132. ISBN 0-8476-7826-1
- ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 98
- ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 159–60
- ^ Boichel, pg. 7
- ^ a b Boichel, pg. 8
- ^ Loeb, Jeph (w), McGuinness, Ed (p), Vines, Dexter (i). "Running Wild" Superman/Batman 3 (December 2003), DC Comics
- ^ a b Daniels (1995), pg. 138
- ^ Finkelstein, David; Macfarlane, Ross (March 15, 1999). "Batman's big birthday". The Guardian (London: Guardian News and Media Limited). http://www.guardian.co.uk/g2/story/0,,314504,00.html. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
- ^ Noer, Michael; David M. Ewalt (December 18, 2008). "In Pictures: The Forbes Fictional 15". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/2008/12/18/bruce-wayne-money-oped-fictional1508-cx_de_1218batman.html. Retrieved April 13, 2009.
- ^ Pisani, Joseph (2006). "The Smartest Superheroes". www.businessweek.com. http://images.businessweek.com/ss/06/05/smart_heroes/index_01.htm. Retrieved November 25, 2007.
- ^ "Entertainment Weekly's 20 All Time Coolest Heroes in Pop Culture". Entertainment Weekly. http://www.ew.com/ew/gallery/0,,20268279_3,00.html. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- ^ "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains". afi.com. http://connect.afi.com/site/DocServer/handv100.pdf?docID=246. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 50
- ^ a b Daniels (1999), pg. 64
- ^ Olsen, Lance. "Linguistic Pratfalls in Barthelme", South Atlantic Review 5.4 (1986), pp. 69–77. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3199757
- ^ Boichel, pg. 14
- ^ "Batman (1989)". BoxOfficeMojo.com. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=batman.htm. Retrieved May 27, 2007.
- ^ "The Greatest Comic Book Cartoons of All Time". IGN. IGN.com. January 26, 2007. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- ^ "Batman" (1992) - Awards. IMDB. IMDB.com. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- ^ Daniels (1999), pg. 178
- ^ "Opening Weekends". BoxOfficeMojo.com. http://boxofficemojo.com/alltime/weekends/. Retrieved July 20, 2008.
- ^ "Fastest to $400 million". BoxOfficeMojo.com. http://boxofficemojo.com/alltime/fastest.htm?page=400&p=.htm. Retrieved August 6, 2008.
- ^ "All Time Domestic Box Office Results". BoxOfficeMojo.com. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/alltime/domestic.htm. Retrieved November 23, 2008.
- ^ Wertham, Fredric. Seduction of the Innocent. Rinehart and Company, Inc., 1954. pg. 189–90
- ^ Medhurst, Andy. "Batman, Deviance, and Camp." The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero and His Media. Routledge: London, 1991. ISBN 0-85170-276-7, pg. 150
- ^ "Is Batman Gay?". http://www.comicsbulletin.com/panel/106070953757230.htm. Retrieved December 28, 2005.
- ^ Sharrett, pg. 37–38
- ^ Sharrett, pg. 38
- ^ "Bruce Wayne: Bachelor". Ninth Art: Andrew Wheeler Comment. Archived from the original on April 28, 2005. http://web.archive.org/web/20050428003852/http://www.ninthart.com/display.php?article=963. Retrieved June 21, 2005.
- ^ Beatty, Bart (2000). "Don't Ask, Don't Tell: How Do You Illustrate an Academic Essay about Batman and Homosexuality?". The Comics Journal (228): 17–18.
- ^ "Mark Chamberlain (American, 1967)". Artnet. http://www.artnet.com/Galleries/Artists_detail.asp?G=&gid=423822183&which=&aid=424157172&ViewArtistBy=online&rta=http://www.artnet.com/ag/fulltextsearch.asp?searchstring=Mark+Chamberlain.
- ^ "Gallery told to drop 'gay' Batman". BBC News (BBC). August 19, 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/4167032.stm.
- Beatty, Scott; et al. (2005). The Batman Handbook: The Ultimate Training Manual.. Quirk Books. ISBN 1-59474-023-2.
- Daniels, Les. Batman: The Complete History. Chronicle Books, 1999. ISBN 0-8118-4232-0
- Daniels, Les. DC Comics: Sixty Years of the World's Favorite Comic Book Heroes. Bulfinch, 1995. ISBN 0-8212-2076-4
- Jones, Gerard. Men of Tomorrow: Geeks, Gangsters, and the Birth of the Comic Book. Basic Books, 1995. ISBN 0-465-03657-0
- Pearson, Roberta E.; Uricchio, William (editors). The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero and His Media. Routledge: London, 1991. ISBN 0-85170-276-7
- Wright, Bradford W. Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America. Johns Hopkins, 2001. ISBN 0-8018-7450-5
- Official website
- Earth-1 Batman Index
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- Post-Crisis Batman Index
- Batman Bio at the Unofficial Guide to the DC Universe
- Batman on DC Database, an external wiki, a DC Comics wiki
- The Batman Wiki
- Another Earth-1 Batman Index
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