Bocce (or Bocci, or Boccie) [ [http://www.bocce.org/rules.html bocce.org] ] [ [http://www.thefreedictionary.com/bocci TheFreeDictionary.com] ] [ [http://www.thefreedictionary.com/bocci+ball TheFreeDictionary.com] ] [ [http://www.wikipatents.com/5480026.html US Patent #5480026] ] [ [http://www.modern-ruins.com/buehler/aboveny/bocci.html modernruins.com] ] , is a precision
sportbelonging to the boulessport family, closely related to bowlsand pétanquewith a common ancestry from ancient games played in the Roman Empire. Developed into its present form in Italy(where it is called "Bocce", the plural of the italian word "boccia" which means "bowl"), it is played around Europeand also in overseas countries that have received Italian migrants, including Australia, North Americaand South America(where it is known as "bochas"; "bolas criollas" in Venezuela), initially amongst the migrants themselves but slowly becoming more popular with their descendants and the wider community. The game is also well-known in Serbiaas "boćanje" ("боћање") and in Croatiaas "boćanje", "bućanje", or "balote", depending on the region.
Rules and play
Bocce is traditionally played on an oyster shell court, but has also been played on decomposed granite, soil, or asphalt courts approximately 20 to 27 metres in length and 2.5 to 4 metres wide, sometimes with wooden boards of approximately 15 centimetres in height surrounding the court. Bocce balls can be made of
metal[ [http://www.boccevolo.com/about/ch1.html www.BocceVolo.com - Official Rules - Chapter 1 - Materials] ] , wood, stone, or various kinds of plastic. Unlike lawn bowls, bocce balls are spherical and have no inbuilt bias.
A game can be contested between two players, or two teams of two, three, or four. A court match is started by a randomly chosen side being given the opportunity to throw a smaller ball, the jack (called a pallino or a boccino in some areas), from one end of the court into a zone about 5 metres in length, ending 2 metres from the far end of the court. If they miss twice, the other team is awarded the opportunity to place the jack anywhere they choose within the prescribed zone. At this time the team that attempted to put the jack into play first gets to roll the first ball.
The side that places the jack is given the opportunity to bowl first. Once the first bowl has taken place, the other side has the opportunity to bowl. From then on, the side which does "not" have the ball closest to the jack has a chance to bowl, up until one side or the other has used their four balls. At that point, the other side bowls its remaining bocce balls. The team with the closest bocce ball to the jack is the only team that can score points in any frame. The scoring team receives one point for each of their balls that is closer to the jack than the closest ball of the other team. The length of a game varies by region, but is typically played to 11, 12, or 13 points.
Players are permitted to throw the ball in the air using an underarm action. This is generally used to knock either the jack or another ball away to attain a more favourable position. Tactics can get quite complex when players have sufficient control over the bocce ball to throw or roll it accurately.
A bocce player of note is Umberto Granaglia, who was awarded the honor of "Player of the Twentieth Century" by the Confederation Mondiale des Sport de Boules. Granaglia strictly excelled in a form of the game called Volo.Fact|date=February 2008
Fédération Internationale de Boules
* [http://www.boccevolo.com/ BocceVolo.com World Class Bocce]
* [http://www.cmsboules.com Confederation Mondiale des Sports de Boules]
* [http://www.bocce.com/ United States Bocce Federation]
* [http://www.boccevictoria.com/ Bocce Victoria, Australia]
* [http://www.fiboules.org/ International Bocce Federation (FIB)]
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