Hollywood blacklist

Hollywood blacklist

:"Hollywood Ten" redirects here. For the 1950 short documentary film, see The Hollywood Ten."


thumb|right|300px|Protestors_opposing_the_jailing_of_the_Hollywood Ten in 1950 (from the 1987 documentary "Legacy of the Hollywood Blacklist").
The Hollywood blacklist—more precisely the entertainment industry blacklist, into which it expanded—was the mid-twentieth-century list of screenwriters, actors, directors, musicians, and other U.S. entertainment professionals who were denied employment in the field because of their political beliefs or associations, real or suspected. Artists were barred from work on the basis of their alleged membership in or sympathy toward the American Communist Party, involvement in liberal or humanitarian political causes that enforcers of the blacklist associated with communism, and/or refusal to assist federal investigations into Communist Party activities; some were blacklisted merely because their names came up at the wrong place and time. Even during the period of its strictest enforcement, the late 1940s through the late 1950s, the blacklist was rarely made explicit and verifiable, but it caused direct damage to the careers of scores of American artists, often made betrayal of friendship (not to mention principle) the price for a livelihood, and promoted ideological censorship across the entire industry.

The first systematic Hollywood blacklist was instituted on November 25, 1947, the day after ten writers and directors were cited for contempt of Congress for refusing to give testimony to the House Committee on Un-American Activities. A group of studio executives, acting under the aegis of the Motion Picture Association of America, announced the firing of the artists—the so-called Hollywood Ten—in what has become known as the Waldorf Statement. On June 22, 1950, a pamphlet called "Red Channels" appeared, naming 151 entertainment industry professionals in the context of "Red Fascists and their sympathizers"; soon most of those named, along with a host of other artists, were barred from employment in much of the entertainment field. The blacklist was effectively broken in 1960 when Dalton Trumbo, an unrepentant member of the Hollywood Ten, was publicly acknowledged as the screenwriter of the films "Spartacus" and "Exodus". A number of those blacklisted, however, were still barred from work in their professions for years afterward.

Overview

The blacklist begins (1947)

The Hollywood blacklist is rooted in events of the 1930s and the early 1940s, encompassing the height of the Great Depression and World War II. During this era, long before the horrors of Soviet premier Joseph Stalin's rule became common knowledge in the West, the American Communist Party attracted a large number of followers, many of them young idealists in the field of arts and entertainment. While the party lost substantial support in the U.S. after the Moscow show trials of 1936–38 and the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact of 1939, the subsequent wartime alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union brought the party new credibility. During the war, membership in the American Communist Party reached a peak of 50,000. [Johnpoll (1994), p. xv.] Perceptions changed soon after the end of World War II, with communism increasingly becoming a focus of American fears and hatred. The "Second Red Scare" was spurred both by reports of Soviet repression in Eastern and Central Europe in the war's aftermath and the growth of conservative political influence in the U.S. following the Republican triumph in the 1946 Congressional elections, which saw the party take control of both the House and Senate. In October 1947, a number of persons working in the Hollywood film industry were summoned to appear before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC), which had declared its intention to investigate whether Communist agents or sympathizers had been surreptitiously planting propaganda in U.S. films. [See, e.g., Schwartz, R. (1999).] This group of American movie professionals—primarily screenwriters, but actors, directors, producers, and others as well—were either known or alleged to have been members of the American Communist Party. Several leading Hollywood figures, including director John Huston and actors Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall, organized the Committee for the First Amendment and flew to Washington to protest the government targeting of their industry.

Of the forty-three people put on the HUAC witness list, a total of nineteen declared that they would not give evidence. Eleven of these nineteen were called before the committee. Of the eleven "unfriendly witnesses", one, émigré playwright Bertolt Brecht, ultimately chose to answer the committee's questions. [Dick (1989), p. 7; [http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/arc/libraries/feuchtwanger/exhibits/Brecht/HUAC.html Bertolt Brecht's Appearance] .] The other ten refused, citing their First Amendment rights to freedom of speech and assembly. The crucial question they refused to answer is now generally rendered as "Are you now or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party?" Such membership was not and had never been illegal. [The following transcript of an excerpt from the interrogation of screenwriter John Howard Lawson gives an example of how the question was worded in actual practice and a sense of the tenor of some of the exchanges:

Interrogator: Are you a member of the Communist Party or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party?
Lawson: It's unfortunate and tragic that I have to teach this committee the basic principles of Americanism.
Interrogator: That's not the question. That's not the question. The question is—have you ever been a member of the Communist Party?
Lawson: I am framing my answer in the only way in which any American citizen can frame...absolutely invades his privacy...
Interrogator: Then you deny it? You refuse to answer that question, is that correct?
Lawson: I have told you that I will offer my beliefs, my affiliations and everything else to the American public and they will know where I stand as they do from what I have written.
Interrogator: Stand away from the stand. Stand away from the stand. Officer, take this man away from the stand.
See [http://www.authentichistory.com/1950s/speeches/19471029_John_Howard_Lawson_of_Hollywood_10_Testifies.html John Howard Lawson] .] In fact, each had at one time or another been a member; most still were, while a few had been in the past and only briefly. These ten were formally accused of contempt of Congress and proceedings against them began in the full House of Representatives.

In light of the "Hollywood Ten"'s defiance of HUAC—in addition to refusing to testify, many had attempted to read statements decrying the committee's investigation as unconstitutional—political pressure mounted on the film industry to demonstrate its "anti-subversive" bona fides. In October, with the hearings still under way, Eric Johnston, president of the Motion Picture Association of America, declared that he would never "employ any proven or admitted Communist because they are just a disruptive force and I don't want them around." [Dick (1989), p. 7.] Several Hollywood professionals, including Ronald Reagan, then head of the Screen Actors Guild, and Walt Disney, testified to HUAC that the threat of Communists in the film industry was a serious one. Actor Adolphe Menjou declared, "I am a witch hunter if the witches are Communists. I am a Red-baiter. I would like to see them all back in Russia." [Scott and Rutkoff (1999), p. 338.]

On November 17, 1947, the Screen Actors Guild voted to make its officers swear to a non-Communist pledge. The following week, on November 24, 1947, the House of Representatives voted 346 to 17 to approve citations against the Hollywood Ten for contempt of Congress. The next day, following a meeting of film industry executives at New York's Waldorf-Astoria hotel, MPAA president Johnston issued a press release on the executives' behalf that is today referred to as the Waldorf Statement. [At least a couple of important recent histories incorrectly give December 3 as the date of the Waldorf Statement: Ross (2002), p. 217; Stone (2004), p. 365. Among the many 1947 sources that make unquestionable the error, there is, for example, the "New York Times" article "Movies to Oust Ten Cited For Contempt of Congress; Major Companies Also Vote to Refuse Jobs to Communists—'Hysteria, Surrender of Freedom' Charged by Defense Counsel; Movies Will Oust Ten Men Cited for Contempt of Congress After Voting to Refuse Employment to Communists", which appeared on the front page of the newspaper November 26.] The statement declared that the ten would be fired or suspended without pay and not reemployed until they were cleared of contempt charges and had sworn that they were not Communists. The first Hollywood blacklist was now in effect.

The list grows (1948–50)

The HUAC hearings had failed to turn up any evidence that Hollywood was secretly disseminating Communist propaganda, but the industry was nonetheless transformed. The fallout from the inquiry was a factor in the decision by Floyd Odlum, the primary owner of RKO Pictures, to get out of the business. [Lasky (1989), p. 204.] As a result, the studio would pass into the hands of Howard Hughes; within weeks of taking over in May 1948, Hughes fired most of RKO's employees and virtually shut the studio down for half a year as he had the political sympathies of the rest investigated. Then, just as RKO swung back into production, Hughes made the decision to settle a long-standing federal antitrust suit against the industry's Big Five studios. This would be one of the crucial steps in the collapse of the studio system that had governed Hollywood, and ruled much of world cinema, for a quarter-century.

In early 1948, as well, all of the Hollywood Ten were convicted of contempt. Following a series of unsuccessful appeals, the cases arrived before the Supreme Court; among the submissions filed in defense of the ten was an amicus curiae brief signed by 204 Hollywood professionals. After the court denied review, the Hollywood Ten began serving one-year prison sentences in 1950. In September 1950, one of the ten, director Edward Dmytryk, publicly announced that he had once been a Communist and was prepared to give evidence against others who had been as well. He was released early from jail; following his 1951 HUAC appearance, in which he described his brief membership in the party and named names, his career recovered. [Gevinson (1997), p. 234.]

The others remained silent and most were unable to obtain work in the American film and television industry for many years. Adrian Scott, who had produced four of Dmytryk's films—"Murder, My Sweet"; "Cornered"; "So Well Remembered"; and "Crossfire"—was one of those named by his former friend. Scott's next screen credit would not come until 1972 and he would never produce another feature film. Some of those blacklisted continued to write for Hollywood or the broadcasting industry surreptitiously, using pseudonyms or the names of friends who posed as the actual writers (those who allowed their names to be used in this fashion were called "fronts"). Of the 204 who signed the amicus brief, 84 would be blacklisted themselves. [Stone (2004), p. 365.] There was a more general chilling effect: Humphrey Bogart, who had been one of the most prominent members of the Committee for the First Amendment, felt compelled to write an article for "Photoplay" magazine denying he was a Communist sympathizer. [Bogart (1948).]

A number of nongovernmental organizations participated in enforcing and expanding the blacklist; in particular, the American Legion, the conservative war veterans' group, was instrumental in pressuring the entertainment industry to exclude those of political sympathies it disagreed with. In 1949, the Americanism Division of the Legion issued its own blacklist—a roster of 128 people whom it claimed were participants in the "Communist Conspiracy." Among the names on the Legion's list was that of well-known playwright Lillian Hellman. [Newman (1989), 140.] Hellman had written or contributed to the screenplays of approximately ten motion pictures up to that point; she would not be employed again by a Hollywood studio until 1966.

Another influential group was American Business Consultants Inc., founded in 1947. In the subscription information for its weekly publication "Counterattack", "The Newsletter of Facts to Combat Communism", it declared that it was run by "a group of "former" FBI men. It has no affiliation whatsoever with any government agency." Notwithstanding that claim, it seems the editors of "Counterattack" had direct access to the files of both the Federal Bureau of Investigation and HUAC; the results of that access became widely apparent with the June 1950 publication of "Red Channels". This "Counterattack" spinoff listed 151 people in entertainment and broadcast journalism, along with records of their involvement in what the pamphlet meant to be taken as Communist or pro-Communist activities. ["Red Channels" (1950), pp. 6, 214; [http://dlib.nyu.edu:8083/tamwagead/servlet/SaxonServlet?source=/counter.xml&style=/saxon01t2002.xsl&part=body Guide to the American Business Consultants] .] A few of those named, such as Hellman, were already being denied employment in the motion picture, TV, and radio fields; the publication of "Red Channels" meant that scores more would be placed on the blacklist. That year, CBS instituted a loyalty oath which it required of all its employees. [Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 7.]

HUAC returns (1951–52)

In 1951, with the U.S. Congress now under Democratic control, HUAC launched a second investigation of Hollywood and Communism. As actor Larry Parks said when called before the panel,

Don't present me with the choice of either being in contempt of this committee and going to jail or forcing me to really crawl through the mud to be an informer. For what purpose? I don't think it is a choice at all. I don't think this is really sportsmanlike. I don't think this is American. I don't think this is American justice. [Parish (2004), p. 92.]
Parks ultimately testified, becoming however reluctantly, a "friendly witness", and found himself blacklisted, nonetheless.

In fact, the legal tactics of those refusing to testify had changed by this time; instead of relying on the First Amendment, they invoked the Fifth Amendment's shield against self-incrimination (though, as before, Communist Party membership was not illegal). While this usually allowed a witness to avoid "naming names" without being indicted for contempt of Congress, "taking the Fifth" before HUAC guaranteed that one would be added to the industry blacklist. [Ceplair and Englund (2003), p. 387.] Historians at times distinguish between the relatively official blacklist—the names of those who (a) were called by HUAC and, in whatever manner, refused to cooperate and/or (b) were identified as Communists in the hearings—and the so-called graylist—those others who were denied work because of their political or personal affiliations, real or imagined; the consequences, however, were largely the same.Like Parks and Dmytryk, others also named names to the committee. Some friendly witnesses gave broadly damaging testimony with less apparent reluctance, most prominently director Elia Kazan and screenwriter Budd Schulberg. Their cooperation in describing the political leanings of their friends and professional associates effectively brought a halt to dozens of careers and compelled a number of artists to depart for Mexico or Europe. Scholar Thomas Doherty describes how the HUAC hearings swept onto the blacklist those who had never even been particularly active politically, let alone suspected of being Communists:

[O] n March 21, 1951, the name of the actor Lionel Stander was uttered by the actor Larry Parks during testimony before HUAC. "Do you know Lionel Stander?" committee counsel Frank S. Tavenner inquired. Parks replied he knew the man, but had no knowledge of his political affiliations. No more was said about Stander either by Parks or the committee—no accusation, no insinuation. Yet Stander's phone stopped ringing. Prior to Parks's testimony, Stander had worked on ten television shows in the previous 100 days. Afterwards, nothing. [Doherty (2003), p. 31.]
When Stander was himself called before HUAC, he began by pledging his full support in the fight against "subversive" activities:
I know of a group of fanatics who are desperately trying to undermine the Constitution of the United States by depriving artists and others of Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness without due process of law.... I can tell names and cite instances and I am one of the first victims of it.... [This is] a group of ex-Fascists and America-Firsters and anti-Semites, people who hate everybody including Negroes, minority groups and most likely themselves.... [T] hese people are engaged in a conspiracy outside all the legal processes to undermine the very fundamental American concepts upon which our entire system of democracy exists. [Quoted in Belton (1994), pp. 202–203.]
Stander was clearly speaking of the committee itself.

The HUAC investigation also effectively destroyed families. Screenwriter Richard Collins, after a brief period on the blacklist, became a friendly witness and dumped his wife, actress Dorothy Comingore, who refused to name names. Divorcing Comingore, Collins took the couple's young son, as well. The family's story was later dramatized in the film "Guilty by Suspicion" (1991), in which the character based on Comingore "commits suicide rather than endure a long mental collapse." [Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 21.] In real life, Comingore succumbed to alcoholism and died of a pulmonary disease at the age of fifty-eight. In the description of historians Paul Buhle and David Wagner, "premature strokes and heart attacks were fairly common [among blacklistees] , along with heavy drinking as a form of suicide on the installment plan." [Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 250.]

For all that, evidence that Communists were actually using Hollywood films as vehicles for subversion remained hard to come by. Schulberg reported that the manuscript of his novel "What Makes Sammy Run?" (later a screenplay, as well) had been subject to an ideological critique by Hollywood Ten writer John Howard Lawson, whose comments he had solicited. The significance of such interactions was questionable. As historian Gerald Horne describes, many Hollywood screenwriters had joined or associated with the local Communist Party chapter because it "offered a collective to a profession that was enmeshed in tremendous isolation at the typewriter. Their 'Writers' Clinic' had 'an informal "board" of respected screenwriters'—including Lawson and Ring Lardner Jr.—'who read and commented upon any screenplay submitted to them. Although their criticism could be plentiful, stinging, and (sometimes) politically dogmatic, the author was entirely free to accept it or reject it as he or she pleased without incurring the slightest "consequence" or sanction.'" [Horne (2006), p. 134.] Much of the onscreen evidence of Communist influence uncovered by HUAC was feeble at best. One witness remembered Stander, while performing in a film, whistling the left-wing "Internationale" as his character waited for an elevator. "Another noted that screenwriter Lester Cole had inserted lines from a famous pro-Loyalist speech by La Pasionaria about it being 'better to die on your feet than to live on your knees' into a pep talk delivered by a football coach." [Belton (1994), p. 203.]

The blacklist at its height (1952–56)

In 1952, the Screen Writers Guild—which had been founded two decades before by three future members of the Hollywood Ten—authorized the movie studios to "omit from the screen" the names of any individuals who had failed to clear themselves before Congress. Writer Dalton Trumbo, for instance, one of the Hollywood Ten and still very much on the blacklist, had received screen credit in 1950 for writing, years earlier, the story on which the screenplay of Columbia Pictures' "Emergency Wedding" was based. There would be no more of that until the 1960s. The name of Albert Maltz, who had written the original screenplay for "The Robe" in the mid-1940s, was nowhere to be seen when the movie was released in 1953. [Dick (1989), p. 94.]

As William O'Neill describes, pressure was maintained even on those who had ostensibly "cleared" themselves:

On December 27, 1952, the American Legion announced that it disapproved of a new film, "Moulin Rouge", starring José Ferrer, who used to be no more progressive than hundreds of other actors and had already been grilled by HUAC. The picture itself was based on the life of Toulouse-Lautrec and was totally apolitical. Nine members of the Legion had picketed it anyway, giving rise to the controversy. By this time people were not taking any chances. Ferrer immediately wired the Legion's national commander that he would be glad to join the veterans in their "fight against communism." [O'Neill (1990), p. 239.]
The group's efforts dragged many others onto the blacklist: In 1954, " [s] creenwriter Louis Pollock, a man without any known political views or associations, suddenly had his career yanked out from under him because the American Legion confused him with Louis Pollack, a California clothier, who had refused to cooperate with HUAC." [Ceplair and Englund (2003), p. 388.] During this same period, a number of influential newspaper columnists covering the entertainment industry, including Walter Winchell, Hedda Hopper, Victor Riesel, Jack O'Brian, and George Sokolsky, regularly offered up names with the suggestion that they should be added to the blacklist. [Cohen (2004), p. 176.] The Hollywood blacklist had long gone hand in hand with the Red-baiting activities of J. Edgar Hoover's FBI. Adversaries of HUAC such as lawyer Bartley Crum, who defended some of the Hollywood Ten in front of the committee in 1947, were labeled as Communist sympathizers or subversives and targeted for investigation themselves. Throughout the 1950s, the FBI tapped Crum's phones, opened his mail, and placed him under continuous surveillance. As a result, he lost most of his clients and, unable to cope with the stress of ceaseless harassment, committed suicide in 1959. [Bosworth (1997), passim.]

The struggles attending the blacklist were played out metaphorically on the big screen in various ways.

Carl Foreman, who had refused to testify before the committee, wrote the western "High Noon" (1952), in which a town marshal (ironically played by friendly witness Gary Cooper) finds himself deserted by the good citizens of Hadleyville (for which read Hollywood) when a gang of outlaws who had terrorized the town several years earlier (for which read HUAC) returns. [Chapman (2003), p. 124.]
Cooper's lawman cleaned up Hadleyville, but Foreman was forced to leave for Europe to find work. Even more famously, Kazan and Schulberg collaborated on a movie widely seen as justifying their decision to name names. "On the Waterfront" (1954) became one of the most honored films in Hollywood history, winning eight Academy Awards, including Oscars for Best Film, Kazan's direction, and Schulberg's screenplay. While the film is still admired, its political subtext is now generally seen as a weak point; the "Time Out Film Guide", for instance, argues that it is "undermined" by its "embarrassing special pleading on behalf of informers." [Andrew (2005), p. 981.]

After his release from prison, Herbert Biberman of the Hollywood Ten directed "Salt of the Earth", working independently in New Mexico with fellow blacklisted Hollywood professionals—producer Paul Jarrico, writer Michael Wilson, and actors Rosaura Revueltas and Will Geer. The film, concerning a strike by Mexican-American mine workers, was denounced as Communist propaganda when it was completed in 1953. Distributors boycotted it, newspapers and radio stations rejected advertisements for it, and the projectionists' union refused to run it. Nationwide in 1954, only around a dozen theaters exhibited it. [Christensen and Haas (2005), pp. 116–117 ("screened in only eleven theaters"); Weigand (2002), p. 133 ("arranged showings of the film in only fourteen theaters").]

Breaking the blacklist (1957–present)

A key figure in bringing an end to blacklisting was John Henry Faulk. Host of an afternoon comedy radio show, Faulk was a leftist active in his union, the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists. He was scrutinized by AWARE, one of the private firms that examined individuals for signs of Communist sympathies and "disloyalty." Marked by the group as unfit, he was fired by CBS Radio. Almost uniquely among the many victims of blacklisting, Faulk decided to sue AWARE in 1957. [Faulk (1963), passim.] Though the case would drag through the courts for years, the suit itself was an important symbol of the building resistance to the blacklist.

The initial cracks in the entertainment industry blacklist were evident on television, specifically at CBS. In 1957, blacklisted actor Norman Lloyd was hired by Alfred Hitchcock as an associate producer for his anthology series "Alfred Hitchcock Presents", then entering its third season on the network. [Anderson (2007); Lumenick (2007b).] On November 30, 1958, a live CBS production of "Wonderful Town", based on short stories written by then-Communist Ruth McKenney, appeared with the proper writing credit of blacklisted Edward Chodorov, along with his literary partner, Joseph Fields. [Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 30.] The following year, actress Betty Hutton insisted that blacklisted composer Jerry Fielding be hired as musical director for her new series, also on CBS. [Burlingame (2000), p. 74.] The first main break in the Hollywood blacklist followed soon after: on January 20, 1960, director Otto Preminger publicly announced that Dalton Trumbo, one of the best known members of the Hollywood Ten, was the screenwriter of his forthcoming film "Exodus". Six-and-a-half months later, with "Exodus" still to debut, the "New York Times" announced that Universal Pictures would give Trumbo screen credit for his role as writer on "Spartacus", a decision star Kirk Douglas is now recognized as largely responsible for. [Smith (1999), p. 206.] On October 6, "Spartacus" premiered—the first movie to bear Trumbo's name since he had received story credit on "Emergency Wedding" in 1950. Since 1947, he had written or cowritten approximately seventeen motion pictures without credit. "Exodus" followed in December, also bearing Trumbo's name. The blacklist was now clearly coming to an end, but its effects would reverberate for years to come.

John Henry Faulk finally won his lawsuit in 1962. With this court decision, the private blacklisters and those who used them were put on notice that they were legally liable for the professional and financial damage they caused. This helped to bring an end to publications such as "Counterattack." [Fried (1997), p. 197.] Like Adrian Scott and Lillian Hellman, however, a number of those on the blacklist remained there for an extended period—Lionel Stander, for instance, could not find work in Hollywood until 1965. [Belton (1994), p. 202.] Some of those who named names, like Kazan and Schulberg, argued for years after that they had made an ethically proper decision. Others, like actor Lee J. Cobb and director Michael Gordon, who gave friendly testimony to HUAC after suffering on the blacklist for a time, "concede [d] with remorse that their plan was to name their way back to work." [Navasky (1980), p. 280.] And there were those more gravely haunted by the choice they had made. In 1963, actor Sterling Hayden declared,

I was a rat, a stoolie, and the names I named of those close friends were blacklisted and deprived of their livelihood.Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 251.]
Scholars Paul Buhle and Dave Wagner state that Hayden "was widely believed to have drunk himself into a near-suicidal depression decades before his 1986 death."As late as 2000, the Writers Guild was still pursuing the correction of screen credits from movies of the 1950s and early 1960s to properly reflect the work of blacklisted writers such as Carl Foreman and Hugo Butler. [ [http://www.webcitation.org/5Ycuqy8Og Corrected Blacklist Credits] ; Weinraub (2000).]

The blacklist

The Hollywood Ten and other 1947 blacklistees

The Hollywood Ten

*Alvah Bessie, screenwriter
*Herbert Biberman, screenwriter and director
*Lester Cole, screenwriter
*Edward Dmytryk, director
*Ring Lardner Jr., screenwriter
*John Howard Lawson, screenwriter
*Albert Maltz, screenwriter
*Samuel Ornitz, screenwriter
*Adrian Scott, producer and screenwriter
*Dalton Trumbo, screenwriter

Others

*Hanns Eisler, composer (Herman 1997: 356; Dick 1989: 7)
*Bernard Gordon, screenwriter (Gordon 1999: 16)
*Joan Scott, screenwriter (Ceplair and Englund 2003: 403; Goldstein 1999)

Persons first blacklisted between January 1948 and June 1950

(an asterisk after the entry indicates the person was also listed in "Red Channels")
*Ben Barzman, screenwriter (Ceplair and Englund 2003: 401)
*Sheridan Gibney, screenwriter (Navasky 1980: 88)
*Lillian Hellman, playwright and screenwriter* (Newman 1989: 140)
*Canada Lee, actor (Goudsouzian 2004: 88)
*Paul Robeson, actor and singer (Gill 2000: 50–52)
*Edwin Rolfe, screenwriter and poet (Nelson and Hendricks 1990: 53)
*William Sweets, radio personality* (Cogley 1956: 25–28)

The "Red Channels" list

(see, e.g., Schrecker [2002] , p. 244; Barnouw [1990] , pp. 122–124)
*Larry Adler, actor and musician
*Luther Adler, actor and director
*Stella Adler, actress and teacher
*Edith Atwater, actress
*Howard Bay, scenic designer
*Ralph Bell, actor
*Leonard Bernstein, composer and conductor
*Walter Bernstein, screenwriter
*Michael Blankfort, screenwriterfn|1
*Marc Blitzstein, composer
*True Boardman, screenwriter
*Millen Brand, writer
*Oscar Brand, folk singer
*Joseph Edward Bromberg, actor
*Himan Brown, producer and director
*John Brown, actor
*Abe Burrows, playwright and lyricist
*Morris Carnovsky, actor
*Vera Caspary, writer
*Edward Chodorov, screenwriter and producer
*Jerome Chodorov, writer
*Mady Christians, actress
*Lee J. Cobb, actor
*Marc Connelly, playwright
*Aaron Copland, composer
*Norman Corwin, writer
*Howard Da Silva, actor
*Roger De Koven, actor
*Dean Dixon, conductor
*Olin Downes, music critic
*Alfred Drake, actor
*Paul Draper, actor and dancer
*Howard Duff, actor
*Clifford J. Durr, attorney
*Richard Dyer-Bennett, folk singer
*José Ferrer, actor
*Louise Fitch (Lewis), actress
*Martin Gabel, actor
*Arthur Gaeth, radio commentator
*William S. Gailmor, journalist and radio commentator
*John Garfield, actor
*Will Geer, actor
*Jack Gilford, actor
*Tom Glazer, folk singer
*Ruth Gordon, actress and screenwriter
*Lloyd Gough, actor
*Morton Gould, pianist and composer
*Shirley Graham, writer
*Ben Grauer, radio and TV personality
*Mitchell Grayson, radio producer and director
*Horace Grenell, conductor and music producer
*Uta Hagen, actress and teacher
*Dashiell Hammett, writer
*E. Y. "Yip" Harburg, lyricist
*Robert P. Heller, television journalist
*Lillian Hellman, playwright and screenwriter
*Nat Hiken, writer and producer
*Rose Hobart, actress
*Judy Holliday, actress
*Roderick B. Holmgren, journalist
*Lena Horne, singer and actress
*Langston Hughes, writer
*Marsha Hunt, actress
*Leo Hurwitz, director
*Charles Irving, actor
*Burl Ives, folk singer and actor
*Sam Jaffe, actor
*Leon Janney, actor
*Joseph Julian, actor
*Garson Kanin, writer and director
*George Keane, actor
*Donna Keath, radio actress
*Pert Kelton, actress
*Alexander Kendrick, journalist and author
*Adelaide Klein, actress
*Felix Knight, singer and actor
*Howard Koch, screenwriter
*Tony Kraber, actor
*Millard Lampell, screenwriter
*John La Touche, lyricist
*Arthur Laurents, writer
*Gypsy Rose Lee, actress and ecdysiast
*Madeline Lee, actressfn|2
*Ray Lev, classical pianist
*Philip Loeb, actor
*Ella Logan, actress and singer
*Alan Lomax, folklorist and musicologist
*Avon Long, actor and singer
*Joseph Losey, director
*Peter Lyon, television writer
*Aline MacMahon, actress
*Paul Mann, director and teacher
*Margo, actress and dancer
*Myron McCormick, actor
*Paul McGrath, radio actor
*Burgess Meredith, actor
*Arthur Miller, playwright
*Henry Morgan, actor
*Zero Mostel, actor
*Jean Muir, actress
*Meg Mundy, actress
*Lyn Murray, composer and choral director
*Ben Myers, attorney
*Dorothy Parker, writer
*Arnold Perl, producer and writer
*Minerva Pious, actress
*Samson Raphaelson, screenwriter and playwright
*Bernard Reis, accountant
*Anne Revere, actress
*Kenneth Roberts, writer
*Earl Robinson, composer and lyricist
*Edward G. Robinson, actor
*William N. Robson, radio and TV writer
*Harold Rome, composer and lyricist
*Norman Rosten, writer
*Selena Royle, actress
*Coby Ruskin, TV director
*Robert St. John, journalist
*Hazel Scott, jazz and classical musician
*Pete Seeger, folk singer
*Lisa Sergio, radio personality
*Artie Shaw, jazz musician
*Irwin Shaw, writer
*Robert Lewis Shayon, former president of radio and TV directors' guild
*Ann Shepherd, actress
*William L. Shirer, journalist
*Allan Sloane, radio and TV writer
*Howard K. Smith, journalist
*Gale Sondergaard, actress
*Hester Sondergaard, actress
*Lionel Stander, actor
*Johannes Steel, journalist
*Paul Stewart, actor
*Elliott Sullivan, actor
*William Sweets, radio personality
*Helen Tamiris, choreographer
*Betty Todd, director
*Louis Untermeyer, poet
*Hilda Vaughn, actress
*J. Raymond Walsh, radio commentator
*Sam Wanamaker, actor
*Theodore Ward, playwright
*Fredi Washington, actress
*Margaret Webster, actress, director and producer
*Orson Welles, actor, writer and director
*Josh White, blues musician
*Irene Wicker, singer and actress
*Betty Winkler (Keane), actress
*Martin Wolfson, actor
*Lesley Woods, actress
*Richard Yaffe, journalistfnb|1 Michael Blankfort gave cooperative, if uninformative, testimony to HUAC and was not blacklisted (see Navasky 1980: 101–102).fnb|2 Madeline Lee—who was married to actor Jack Gilford, also listed by "Red Channels"—was frequently confused with another actress of the era named Madaline Lee.

Other persons first blacklisted after June 1950

*Eddie Albert, actor (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 188)
*Nelson Algren, writer (Hazucha 2002: 49)
*Lew Amster, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 28)
*Richard Attenborough, director and producer (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 253)
*Norma Barzman, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 159)
*Sol Barzman, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 146)
*Orson Bean, actor (Faulk 1963: 7)
*Albert Bein, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 28)
*Barbara Bel Geddes, actress (Katz 1994: 106)
*Ben Bengal, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 50)
*Seymour Bennett, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 123)
*Leonardo Bercovici, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 21)
*Herschel Bernardi, actor (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 42)
*John Berry, actor, screenwriter and director (Denning 1998: 374; Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 108)
*Henry Blankfort, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 31)
*Laurie Blankfort, artist (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 31)
*Roman Bohnen, actor (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 49)
*Allen Boretz, screenwriter and songwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 83)
*Phoebe Brand, actress (Schwartz, J. 1999; Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 50)
*John Bright, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 2)
*Phil Brown, actor (Barzman 2004: 449)
*Harold Buchman, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 22)
*Sidney Buchman, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 128)
*Luis Buñuel, director (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 6)
*Val Burton, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 17)
*Hugo Butler, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 22)
*Alan Campbell, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 129)
*Charles Chaplin, actor, director and producer (Katz 1994: 241)
*Maurice Clark, screenwriter (Navasky 1980: 283)
*Richard Collins, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 73)
*Charles Collingwood, radio commentator (Faulk 1963: 7–8)
*Dorothy Comingore, actress (Denning 1998: 374; Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 20)
*Jeff Corey, actor (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 77)
*George Corey, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 151)
*John Cromwell, director (Lumenick 2007a)
*Charles Dagget, animator (Cohen 2004: 178)
*Jules Dassin, director (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 105)
*Karen DeWolf, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 5)
*Howard Dimsdale, writer (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 250)
*Ludwig Donath, actor (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 49)
*Arnaud d'Usseau, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 83)
*Phil Eastman, cartoon writer (Cohen 2004: 178)
*Leslie Edgley, screenwriter (Navasky 1980: 282)
*Edward Eliscu, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 7)
*Faith Elliott, animator (Barzman 2004: 89)
*Cy Endfield, screenwriter and director (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 137)
*Guy Endore, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 83)
*Francis Edward Faragoh, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 14)
*Howard Fast, writer (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 48)
*John Henry Faulk, radio personality (Faulk 1963: 6–7)
*Jerry Fielding, composer (Burlingame 2000: 74)
*Carl Foreman, producer and screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: xi)
*Anne Froelick, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 250)
*Lester Fuller, director (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 251)
*Bert Gilden, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 105)
*Lee Gold, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 139)
*Harold Goldman, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 16)
*Michael Gordon, director (Dick 1982: 80)
*Jay Gorney, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 96)
*Lee Grant, actress (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 31)
*Morton Grant, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 13)
*Anne Green, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 95)
*Jack T. Gross, producer (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 37)
*Margaret Gruen, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 164)
*Tamara Hovey, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 15)
*John Hubley, animator (Cohen 2004: 178)
*Edward Huebsch, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 18)
*Ian McLellan Hunter, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 86)
*Kim Hunter, actress (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: viii)
*John Ireland, actor (Doherty 2003: 236)
*Daniel James, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 80)
*Paul Jarrico, producer and screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 134)
*Sidney Kingsley, playwright
*Gordon Kahn, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 250)
*Victor Kilian, actor (Graulich and Tatum 2003: 115)
*Alexander Knox, actor (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 194)
* Mickey Knox, actor (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 106)
*Lester Koenig, producer (Herman 1997: 356)
*Charles Korvin, actor (Korvin 1997)
*Hy Kraft, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 39)
*Millard Lampell, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 51)
*Constance Lee, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 24)
*Robert Lees, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 86)
*Carl Lerner, editor and director (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 150)
*Irving Lerner, director (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 53)
*Lewis Leverett, actor (Schwartz 1999)
*Alfred Lewis Levitt, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 130)
*Helen Slote Levitt, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 130)
*Mitch Lindemann, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 37)
*Norman Lloyd, actor (Denning 1998: 374; Lumenick 2007b)
*Ben Maddow, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 110)
*Arnold Manoff, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 20)
*Robert A. McGowan, screenwriter and director
*John McGrew, animator (Cohen 2004: 178)
*Ruth McKenney, writer (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 142)
*Bill Meléndez, animator (Cohen 2004: 178)
*John "Skins" Miller, actor (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 8)
*Paula Miller, actress (Schwartz 1999)
*Josef Mischel, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 110)
*Karen Morley, actress (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 78)
*Henry Myers, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 26)
*Mortimer Offner, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 7)
*Alfred Palca, writer and producer (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 157)
*Larry Parks, actor (Navasky 1980: 371–373)
*Leo Penn, actor (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 45)
*Irving Pichel, director (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 10)
*Louis Pollock, screenwriter (Ceplair and Englund 2003: 388)
*Abraham Polonsky, screenwriter and director (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 13)
*Vladimir Pozner, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 11)
*Stanley Prager, director (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 15)
*John Randolph, actor (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 247)
*Maurice Rapf, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 163)
*Rosaura Revueltas, actress (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 253)
*Robert L. Richards, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 80)
*Frederic I. Rinaldo, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 1)
*Martin Ritt, actor and director (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 18)
*W. L. River, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 5)
*Marguerite Roberts, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 88)
*Louise Rousseau, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 6)
*Jean Rouverol (Butler), actress and writer (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 142)
*Shimen Ruskin, actor (Navasky 1980: 282)
*Madeleine Ruthven, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 55)
*Waldo Salt, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 208)
*John Sanford, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 101)
*Bill Scott, voice actor (Cohen 2004: 178)
*Martha Scott, actress (Ceplair and Englund 2003: 388)
*Joshua Shelley, actor (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 45)
*Madeleine Sherwood, actress
*Reuben Ship, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 218)
*Viola Brothers Shore, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 11)
*George Sklar, playwright (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 6)
*Art Smith, actor (Schwartz, J. 1999)
*Louis Solomon, screenwriter and producer (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 63)
*Ray Spencer, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 37)
*Janet Stevenson, writer (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 49)
*Philip Stevenson, writer (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 49)
*Donald Ogden Stewart, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 36)
*Arthur Strawn, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 91)
*Bess Taffel, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 15)
*Julius Tannenbaum, producer (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 22)
*Frank Tarloff, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 175)
*Shepard Traube, director and screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 17)
*Dorothy Tree, actress (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 47)
*Paul Trivers, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 141)
*George Tyne, actor (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 45)
*Michael Uris, writer (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 90)
*Peter Viertel, screenwriter (Navasky 1980: 93–94)
*Bernard Vorhaus, director (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 9)
*John Weber, producer (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 209)
*Richard Weil, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 18)
*Hannah Weinstein, producer (Buhle and Wagner 2003b: 66)
*John Wexley, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 111)
*Michael Wilson, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: vii)
*Richard N. Wright, writer (Hazucha 2002: 49)
*Nedrick Young, actor and screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 248)
*Julian Zimet, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003a: 83)

Notes

ources and further reading

Published

*Anderson, John (2007). "Old Hollywood", "Village Voice", November 20 (available [http://www.villagevoice.com/film/0747,anderson,78397,20.html online] ).
*Andrew, Geoff (2005). "On the Waterfront", in "Time Out Film Guide", 14th ed., ed. John Pym. London: Time Out. ISBN 1-904978-48-7
*Barnouw, Erik (1990 [1975] ). "Tube of Plenty: The Evolution of American Television". New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506483-6
*Barzman, Norma (2004). "The Red And The Blacklist: The Intimate Memoir of a Hollywood Expatriate". New York: Thunder's Mouth/Nation Books. ISBN 1-56025-617-6
*Belton, John (1994). "American Cinema/American Culture" [excerpt] in Ross (2002), 193–212.
*Bernstein, Walter (2000). "Inside Out: A Memoir of the Blacklist". New York: Da Capo. ISBN 0-30680-936-2
*Bogart, Humphrey (1948). "I'm No Communist", "Photoplay", March (available [http://docs.google.com/View?docid=dg6n6657_103f7bsqj online] ).
*Bosworth, Patricia (1997). "Anything Your Little Heart Desires: An American Family Story". New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-684-80809-9
*Buhle, Paul, and David Wagner (2003a). "Hide in Plain Sight: The Hollywood Blacklistees in Film and Television, 1950-2002". New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6144-1
*Buhle, Paul, and David Wagner (2003b). "Blacklisted: The Film Lover's Guide to the Hollywood Blacklist". New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6145-X
*Burlingame, Jon (2000). "Sound and Vision: 60 Years of Motion Picture Soundtracks". New York: Billboard/Watson-Guptill. ISBN 0-8230-8427-2
*Ceplair, Larry, and Steven Englund (2003). "The Inquisition in Hollywood: Politics in the Film Community, 1930-1960". Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-07141-7
*Chapman, James (2003). "Cinemas of the World: Film and Society from 1895 to the Present". London: Reaktion. ISBN 1-86189-162-8
*Charity, Tom (2005). "Storm Center", in "Time Out Film Guide", 14th ed., ed. John Pym. London: Time Out. ISBN 1-904978-48-7
*Christensen, Terry and Peter J. Haas (2005). "Projecting Politics: Political Messages in American Films". Armonk, N.Y., and London: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-1444-8
*Cogley, John (1956). "Report on Blacklisting." Collected in "Blacklisting: An Original Anthology" (1971), Merle Miller and John Cogley. New York: Arno Press/New York Times. ISBN 0-405-03579-9
*Cohen, Karl F. (2004 [1997] ). "Forbidden Animation: Censored Cartoons and Blacklisted Animators in America". Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 0786403950
*Denning, Michael (1998). "The Cultural Front: The Laboring of American Culture in the Twentieth Century". London and New York: Verso. ISBN 1-85984-170-8
*Dick, Bernard F. (1982). "Hellman in Hollywood". East Brunswick, N.J., London, and Toronto: Associated University Presses. ISBN 0-8386-3140-1
*Dick, Bernard F. (1989). "Radical Innocence: A Critical Study of the Hollywood Ten". Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-1660-0
*Doherty, Thomas (2003). "Cold War, Cool Medium: Television, McCarthyism, and American Culture". New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12952-1
*Everitt, David (2007). "A Shadow of Red: Communism and the Blacklist in Radio and Television". Chicago: Ivan R. Dee. ISBN 1-56663-575-6
*Faulk, John Henry (1963). "Fear on Trial". Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-72442-X
*Fried, Albert (1997). "McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History". New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509701-7
*Georgakas, Dan (1992). "Hollywood Blacklist", in "Encyclopedia of the American Left", ed. Mari Jo Buhle, Paul Buhle, and Dan Georgakas. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press (available [http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/50s/blacklist.html online] ). ISBN 0-252-06250-7
*Gevinson, Alan (ed.) (1997). "American Film Institute Catalog—Within Our Gates: Ethnicity in American Feature Films, 1911-1960". Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20964-8
*Gill, Glenda Eloise (2000). "No Surrender! No Retreat!: African-American Pioneer Performers of 20th Century American Theater". New York: Palgrave. ISBN 0-312-21757-9
*Goldstein, Patrick (1999). "Many Refuse to Clap as Kazan Receives Oscar", "Los Angeles Times", March 22 (available [http://writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/50s/kazan-protest.html online] ).
*Gordon, Bernard (1999). "Hollywood Exile, Or How I Learned to Love the Blacklist". Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-72827-1
*Goudsouzian, Aram (2004). "Sidney Poitier: Man, Actor, Icon". Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-2843-2
*Graulich, Melody, and Stephen Tatum (2003). "Reading" The Virginian "in the New West". Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-7104-2
*Hazucha, Andy (2002). "Nelson Algren's Chicago: The Black Sox Scandal, McCarthyism, and the Truth About Cubs Fans", in "Baseball/Lierature/Culture: Essays, 2002–2003", ed. Peter Carino, 49–59. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-6910-4919-X
*Herman, Jan (1997 [1995] ). "A Talent for Trouble: The Life of Hollywood's Most Acclaimed Director, William Wyler". New York: Da Capo. ISBN 0-306-80798-X
*Horne, Gerald (2006). "The Final Victim of the Blacklist: John Howard Lawson, Dean of the Hollywood Ten". Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24860-0
*Johnpoll, Bernard K. (1994). "A Documentary History of the Communist Party of the United States", vol. 3. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-28506-3
*Kahn, Gordon (1948). "Hollywood on Trial: The Story of the 10 Who Were Indicted". New York: Boni & Gaer. ISBN 0-4050-3921-2
*Katz, Ephraim (1994). "The Film Encyclopedia", 2d ed. New York: HarperPerennial. ISBN 0-06-273089-4
*Korvin, Charles (1997). "Actors Suffered, Too" [letter to the editor] , "New York Times", May 4 (available [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D04E2DE1E31F937A35756C0A961958260&n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fSubjects%2fB%2fBlacklisting online] ).
*Lasky, Betty (1989). "RKO: The Biggest Little Major of Them All". Santa Monica, California: Roundtable. ISBN 0-915677-41-5
*Leab, Daniel J., with guide by Robert E. Lester (1991). "Communist Activity in the Entertainment Industry: FBI Surveillance Files on Hollywood, 1942–1958". Bethesda, Maryland: University Publications of America (available [http://www.lexisnexis.com/documents/academic/upa_cis/1708_FBIFilesCommActsEntertain.pdf online] ). ISBN 1-55655-414-1
*Lumenick, Lou (2007a). "Father's Footsteps", "New York Post", February 22 (available [http://www.nypost.com/seven/02222007/entertainment/fathers_footsteps_entertainment_lou_lumenick.htm?page=0 online] ).
*Lumenick, Lou (2007b). "Ask the Old Pro", "New York Post", November 23 (available [http://www.nypost.com/seven/11232007/entertainment/movies/ask_the_old_pro_605636.htm online] ).
*Navasky, Victor S. (1980). "Naming Names." New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-50393-2
*Nelson, Cary, and Jefferson Hendricks (1990). "Edwin Rolfe: A Biographical Essay and Guide to the Rolfe Archive at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign". Urbana: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-01794-3
*Newman, Robert P. (1989). "The Cold War Romance of Lillian Hellman and John Melby". Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-1815-1
*O'Neill, William L. (1990 [1982] ). "A Better World: Stalinism and the American Intellectuals". New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction. ISBN 0-88738-631-8
*Parish, James Robert (2004). "The Hollywood Book of Scandals: The Shocking, Often Disgraceful Deeds and Affairs of More than 100 American Movie and TV Idols". New York et al.: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-071421-89-0
*"Red Channels: The Report of Communist Influence in Radio and Television" (1950). New York: Counterattack.
*Ross, Stephen J. (ed.) (2002). "Movies and American Society". Malden, Massachusetts, and Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-21960-9
*Schrecker, Ellen (2002). "The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents". New York: Palgrave. ISBN 0-312-29425-5
*Schwartz, Jerry (1999). "Some Actors Outraged by Kazan Honor", Associated Press, March 13 (available [http://writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/50s/kazan-award-flap.html online] ).
*Scott, William Berryman, and Peter M. Rutkoff (1999). "New York Modern: The Arts and the City". Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5998-0
*"Seven-Year Justice", "Time", July 6, 1962 (available [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,940029,00.html online] ).
*Smith, Jeff (1999). "'A Good Business Proposition': Dalton Trumbo, "Spartacus", and the End of the Blacklist", in "Controlling Hollywood: Censorship/Regulation in the Studio Era", ed. Matthew Bernstein. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-2707-4
*Stone, Geoffrey R. (2004). "Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime from the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism". New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-05880-8
*Wakeman, John, ed. (1987). "World Film Directors—Volume One: 1890–1945". New York: H. W. Wilson. ISBN 0-8242-0757-2
*Weigand, Kate (2002). "Red Feminism: American Communism and the Making of Women's Liberation". Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6489-5
*Weinraub, Bernard (2000). "Blacklisted Screenwriters Get Credits", "New York Times", August 5.

Online

Authored
*Schwartz, Richard A. (1999). [http://comptalk.fiu.edu/blacklist.htm "How the Film and Television Blacklists Worked"] . Part of the Florida International University website.Archival
* [http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/arc/libraries/feuchtwanger/exhibits/Brecht/HUAC.html Bertolt Brecht's Appearance Before the HUAC] brief essay, including link to contemporary newspaper clipping; part of the USC–Feuchtwanger Memorial Library website
* [http://www.webcitation.org/5Ycuqy8Og Corrected Blacklist Credits (as of 7/17/00)] webpage of the Writers Guild of America, West, archived at WebCite from [http://www.wga.org/subpage_writersresources.aspx?id=1958 this original URL] on June 19, 2008
* [http://dlib.nyu.edu:8083/tamwagead/servlet/SaxonServlet?source=/counter.xml&style=/saxon01t2002.xsl&part=body Guide to the American Business Consultants, Inc. "Counterattack": Research Files 1930–1968] narrative summary and inventory of document holdings in the Tamiment Library/Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives; part of the NYU–Elmer Holmes Bobst Library website
* [http://www.authentichistory.com/1950s/speeches/19471029_John_Howard_Lawson_of_Hollywood_10_Testifies.html John Howard Lawson, Screenwriter, Testifies Before HUAC, October 29, 1947] film clip, transcript, and background essay; part of the "Authentic History Center" website

Additional links

* [http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/108/110880/ch26_a5_d1.pdf Albert Maltz's HUAC Testimony] transcript of the writer's testimony (preceded by excerpts of actor Ronald Reagan's testimony—see below for link to complete Reagan transcript)
* [http://www.cobbles.com/simpp_archive/huac_committee-of-five.htm "The Committee of Five: A Contemporary Account of the HUAC in Hollywood"] excerpt from "Hollywood on Trial" (1948), by Gordon Kahn
* [http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/50s/congcomms.html "Congressional Committees and Unfriendly Witnesses"] detailed examination of legal issues involved in HUAC proceedings by historian Ellen Schrecker
* [http://www.ejumpcut.org/archive/onlinessays/JC09folder/ColdWarFilms.html "Monsters, Spys, and Subversives: The Film Industry Responds to the Cold War, 1945–1955"] essay by Lawrence L. Murray; reproduced from "Jump Cut" 9 (1975)
* [http://www.oah.org/pubs/magazine/coldwar/briley1.html "Reel History and the Cold War"] essay by Ronald Briley; reproduced from "OAH Magazine of History" 8 (winter 1994)
* [http://www.twcnet.edu/cschutz/history-page/Consensus/Reagan-huac-testimony.html Ronald Reagan's HUAC Testimony] transcript of the actor's testimony of October 23, 1947
* [http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/entertainment/july-dec97/blacklist_10-24.html "Seeing Red"] transcript of excerpts from PBS documentary "The Legacy of the Hollywood Blacklist" and interview by "NewsHour" correspondent Elizabeth Farnsworth with two blacklisted artists, writer/producer Paul Jarrico and actress Marsha Hunt
* [http://www.wga.org/writtenby/writtenbysub.aspx?id=2247 "When Noir Turned Black"] interview with Jules Dassin by Sandra Berg detailing the process and effects of his blacklisting; reproduced from "Written By" (November 2006)


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