Werewolf fiction

Werewolf fiction denotes the portrayal of werewolves and other shapeshifting man-beasts, in the media of literature, drama, film, games, and music. Werewolf literature includes folklore, legend, saga, fairy tales, Gothic and Horror fiction, fantasy fiction and poetry. Such stories may be supernatural, symbolic or allegorical. A classic cinematic example of the theme is "The Wolf Man" (1941) in which Lon Chaney Jr. transforms into a werewolf at the full moon, and in later films teams up with Frankenstein and Dracula, as one of the three famous horror icons of the modern day. However, werewolf fiction is an exceptionally diverse genre with ancient folkloric roots and manifold modern re-interpretations.

History

Literary origins

:"For more on werewolves in ancient myth, legend and folklore see Werewolf"In medieval romances, such as "Bisclavret", and "Guillaume de Palerme" the werewolf is relatively benign, appearing as the victim of evil magic and aiding knights errant.

However, in most folk tales, (influenced by medieval theology) the werewolf was demonic, part of Satan's army of darkness, inimical to the human race and having a craving for human flesh. This appears in such later fiction as "The White Wolf of the Hartz Mountains": an episode in the novel "The Phantom Ship" (1839) by Marryat, featuring a demonic femme fatale who transforms from woman to wolf. [http://www.thirdspace.ca/articles/3_2_nielsen.htm] .

Sexual themes are common in werewolf fiction; the protagonist kills his girlfriend as she walks with a former lover in "Werewolf of London", suggesting sexual jealousy. The writers of "Wolf Man" was careful in depicting killings as motivated out of hunger.

In the fairy tale Little Red Riding Hood, the figure of the werewolf is more ambiguous and subject to an allegorical or Freudian interpretation. These tales are the inspiration behind modern fiction such as "The Company of Wolves" (1979) by Angela Carter (filmed as"The Company of Wolves" (1984)) and the film "Ginger Snaps" (2000) which address female sexuality

Nineteenth century

Nineteenth century Gothic horror stories drew on previous folklore and legend to present the theme of the werewolf in a new fictional form. An early example is "Hugues, the Wer-Wolf" by Sutherland Menzies published in 1838. In another, "Wagner the Wehr-Wolf" (1847) by G. W. M. Reynolds, we find the classic subject of a man cursed to be transformed into a werewolf at the time of the full moon: representing the split personality and evil, bloodthirsty, dark side of humanity itself. Other werewolf stories of this period include "The Wolf-Leader" (1857) by Alexandre Dumas and "Hugues-le-Loup" (1869) by Erckmann-Chatrian.

A later Gothic story Robert Lewis Stevenson's "Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde" (1886) has an implicit werewolf subtext, according to some commentators. [Colin Wilson (1986) "Werewolves" in "The Penguin Encyclopedia of Horror and the Supernatural" edited by Jack Sullivan] This has been made explicit in some recent adaptations of this story, such the BBC TV series "Jekyll" (2007).

A rapacious female werewolf who appears in the guise of a seductive femme-fatale before transforming into lupine form to devour her hapless male victims is the protagonist of Clemence Houseman's acclaimed "The Were-wolf" published in 1896. [Brian Frost (1973) "Book of the Werewolf": 29]

Twentieth century

The twentieth century saw an explosion of werewolf short stories and novels published in both England and America. The famed English supernatural story writer Algernon Blackwood wrote a number of werewolf short stories. These often had an occult aspect to them. American Pulp magazines of the 1920–50s such as "Weird Tales" include many memorable werewolf tales, written by such authors as H. Warner Munn, Seabury Quinn and Manly Wade Wellman. [ [http://www.gwthomas.org/werewolfinliterature.htm. The Werewolf in Literature] ] The most renowned werewolf novel of the twentieth century was "The Werewolf of Paris" (1933) by American author Guy Endore. This has been accorded classic status and is considered by some to be the "Dracula" of werewolf literature. [J. Squires (1986) "Endore, Guy S." in "The Penguin Encyclopedia of Horror and the Supernatural": edited by Jack Sullivan] It was adapted as "The Curse of the Werewolf" in 1961 for Hammer Film Productions.

The first feature film to use an anthropomorphic werewolf was "Werewolf of London" in 1935 (not to be confused with the 1981 film of a similar title) establishing the canon that the werewolf always kills what he loves most. The main werewolf of this film was a dapper London scientist who retained some of his style and most of his human features after his transformation.cite book |title=Films of Science Fiction and Fantasy |author=Searles B|pages=p. 165-67|year=1988 |publisher=Harry N. Abrams |location=New York |isbn=0-8109-0922-7]

However, he lacked warmth, and it was left to the tragic character Talbot played by Lon Chaney Jr. in 1941's "The Wolf Man" to capture the public imagination. This catapulted the werewolf into public consciousness. The theme of lycanthropy as a disease or curse reached its standard treatment in the film, which contained the now-famous rhyme: quotation|Even a man who is pure in heart
And says his prayers each night
May become a wolf when the wolf-bane blooms
And the autumn moon is bright.

This movie draws on elements traditional folklore and fiction, such as the vulnerability of the werewolf to a silver bullet (as seen for instance in the legend of Beast of Gevaudan [Robert Jackson (1995) "Witchcraft and the Occult". Devizes, Quintet Publishing: 25] ), though at the climax of the film the Wolf Man is actually dispatched with a silver headed cane. The process of transmogrification is portrayed in such films and works of literature to be painful. The resulting wolf is typically cunning but merciless, and prone to killing and eating people without compunction regardless of the moral character of the person when human.

Lon Chaney himself became somewhat typecast as the Wolfman and reprised his role in several sequels for Universal Studios. In these films the werewolf lore of the first film was clarified. In "Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man" (1943) it is firmly established that the Wolf Man is revived at every full moon. In "House of Frankenstein" (1944) silver bullets are used for the first time to dispatch him. Further sequels were the "House of Dracula" (1945) and the parodic "Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein" (1948).

The success of Universal's "The Wolf Man" prompted rival Hollywood film companies Columbia Studios and Fox Studios to bring out their own, now somewhat obscure, werewolf movies. The first of these was "The Undying Monster" produced by Fox in 1942, adapted from a werewolf novel of the same name by Jessie Douglas Kerruish, published in 1936.

In 1981, two prominent werewolf films, "The Howling" and "An American Werewolf in London", both drew on themes from the Universal series [http://www.reelviews.net/movies/a/american_london.html] . More recently, the portrayal of werewolves has taken a more sympathetic turn in some circles. With the rise of environmentalism and other back-to-nature ideals, the werewolf has come to be seen as a representation of humanity allied more closely with nature. A prime example of this outlook can be seen in the role-playing game (1992) in which players roleplay various werewolf characters who work on behalf of Gaia against the destructive supernatural spirit named Wyrm, who represents the forces of destructive industrialization and pollution. Author Whitley Strieber previously explored these themes in his novels "The Wolfen" (1978), in which werewolves are shown to act as predators of humanity, acting as a "natural" control on their population now that it has been removed from the traditional limits of nature, and "The Wild" (1991), in which the werewolf is portrayed as a medium through which to bring human intelligence and spirit back into nature. The heroic werewolf has also returned via the paranormal romance genre, where wolf-like characteristics such as loyalty are shown as positive traits in a prospective mate.

Werewolves have featured a number of times in the long-running British science fiction television series "Doctor Who" and its other media tie-ins. The first time a werewolf appeared in the television series was in the Seventh Doctor serial "The Greatest Show in the Galaxy" (1988). A wolf-man appears in the 1986 Sixth Doctor story "Mindwarp", and the primords in the 1970 Third Doctor story "Inferno" are also lupine in appearance, but in both cases these are induced mutations rather than people who switched between human and wolf forms).

In the Harry Potter series (1997-2007) the most prominent werewolf is Remus Lupin who's portrayed as struggling with his curse and terrified of infecting someone, though repeatedly careless in ensuring his being safe when transformed. The series also includes a werewolf villain Fenrir Greyback, who fits more with the older image of werewolves. The Potter books, while showing the intense threat the humans transformed to bloodthirsty monsters pose to the population, essentially use werewolves as a methaphor for marginalised and discriminated against groups in modern society.

A very popular modern subgenre consists of stories that treat werewolves as separate race or species (either science fictional or magical) or as persons using magic in order to deliberately transform into wolves at will. Such current-day werewolf fiction almost exclusively involves lycanthropy being either a hereditary condition or being transmitted like a disease by the bite of another werewolf. The form a werewolf takes is not always an ordinary wolf, but is often anthropomorphic or may be otherwise larger and more powerful than an ordinary wolf. Sometimes the beast form of the werewolf will have some physical characteristics borrowed from an animal species other than the wolf, as can be seen in the boar-like werewolf of "Wild Country" (2006) and the cat-like werewolves of "Underworld" (2003). Many modern werewolves are also supposedly immune to damage caused by ordinary weapons, being vulnerable only to silver objects (usually a bullet or blade). This negative reaction to silver is sometimes so strong that the mere touch of the metal on a werewolf's skin will cause burns.

Despite the recent upsurge in the motif of heroic werewolves, unsympathetic portrayals of werewolves as monsters also continue to be common in popular culture. This is especially true in movies, which are only slowly incorporating trends in written fiction. There are very few werewolf movies outside the horror genre.

Lists

Literature

This section includes novels and short stories.
*"The Satyricon" by Petronius (approx. 61 AD).
*"Bisclavret" from "Lais" by Marie de France (approx. 1175).
*"Guillaume de Palerme" (approx. 1200).
*Single line reference, Thomas Malory, "Le Morte d'Arthur" translated "Death of Arthur" (1469–1470), "Sir Marrok the good knyghte that was betrayed with his wyf for she made hym seven yere a werwolf."
*The Damnable Life and Death of Stubbe Peeter by George Boren (1590).
*"Hughes the Wer-Wolf: A Kentish Legend of the Middle Ages" by Sutherland Menzies (1838).
*"The White Wolf of the Hartz Mountains": an episode from "The Phantom Ship" by Frederick Marryat (1839) featuring a female werewolf who inhabits the Harz Mountains in Germany.
*" [http://www.pgdp.net/c/tools/project_manager/displayimage.php?project=projectID4352a6a2bf9d8&imagefile=001.pngWagner the Wehr-Wolf] " by G. W. M. Reynolds (1848).
*"The Wolf-Leader" (Fr: "Le Meneur de loups"), Alexandre Dumas, père (1857)
*"The Man-Wolf" (Fr: "Hugues-le-loup") by Erckmann-Chatrian (1859): set in the Black Forest of Germany this story features a noble house afflicted by an ancestral lycanthropic curse.
*"The White Wolf of Kostopchin" by Sir Gilbert Campbell (1889).
*"A Pastoral Horror" by Arthur Conan Doyle (1890).
*"The Mark of the Beast" by Rudyard Kipling (1891).
*"The Eyes of the Panther" by Ambrose Bierce (1891).
*"The Were-Wolf" by Clemence Housman (1896).
*"The Werwolves" (sic) by H. Beaugrand (1898).
*"The Camp of the Dog" by Algernon Blackwood (1908).
*"Gabriel-Ernest" and "The She-Wolf" by Saki (H. H. Munro) (1910).
*"The Door of the Unreal" by Gerald Biss (1919).
*"Running Wolf" by Algernon Blackwood (1921): set in the Canadian wilderness and featuring a spectral native American werewolf.
*"The Phantom Farmhouse" by Seabury Quinn (1923).
*"The Werewolf of Ponkert" by H. Warner Munn (1925, collected 1958).
*"Wolfshead" by Robert E. Howard, a novelette first published in "Weird Tales" in April 1926.
*"Sudenmorsian" by Aino Kallas (1928), a Finnish werewolf tale translated into English as "The Wolf's Bride" by Alex Matson, 1930. Adapted as an opera by Tauno Pylkkänen.
*"The Wolf of St. Bonnot" by Seabury Quinn (1930).
*"Tarnhelm" by Hugh Walpole (1933).
*"The Werewolf of Paris" by Guy Endore (1933).
*"Death of a Poacher" by H. Russell Wakefield (1935).
*"The Undying Monster" by Jessie Douglas Kerruish (1936).
*"Grey Shapes" by Jack Mann (Evelyn Charles Vivian) (1937).
*"The Hairy Ones Shall Dance" by Manly Wade Wellman (1938).
*"Darker Than You Think", a werewolf classic by Jack Williamson (1940, expanded 1948).
*"The White Wolf" by Franklin Gregory (1941).
*"The Compleat Werewolf" by Anthony Boucher (1942).
*"The Kill" by Peter Fleming (1942).
*"There Shall Be No Darkness" by James Blish (1950).
*"The Hunt" by Joseph Payne Brennan (1958).
*"Invaders from the Dark" by Greye La Spina (1960).
*"Three Hearts and Three Lions" by Poul Anderson (1961): an alternate history fantasy wherein a modern day engineer is translated to a universe where the Matter of France is history. It includes an episode in which the hero must deduce which of four people in a family is the werewolf that plagued the area.
*"Operation Chaos" by Poul Anderson (1971) and its sequel, "Operation Luna", are first-person narration by the werewolf hero in a fantasy alternate history United States where magic and technology combine. Werewolfery is not only hereditary, but a recessive gene, and the polarized component of moonlight has been isolated, so that the hero can use a "Were-flash" to transform without the full moon.
*"Reflections for the Winter of My Soul" by Karl Edward Wagner (1973)
*"The Hero as Werwolf" by Gene Wolfe (1975).
*"The Howling" (1977) by Gary Brandner and its sequels.
*"The Wolfen" by Whitley Strieber (1978) portrays werewolves as predators of humanity, acting as a "natural" control on their population now that it has been removed from the traditional limits of nature. The concept was reused, with some changes, as a historic practice long since abandoned in the now classic White Wolf tabletop RPG, "".
*"The Nightwalker" by Thomas Tessier, (1979) features a deranged Vietnam Vet resident in London who tranforms into a werewolf. [Douglas Winter (1986) "Writers of Today" in "The Penguin Encyclopedia of Horror and the Supernatural" edited by Jack Sullivan]
*"The Company of Wolves", "The Werewolf" and "Wolf-Alice" collected in the book "The Bloody Chamber" (1979) by Angela Carter are modern takes on the story of Little Red Riding Hood in which the wolf is actually a werewolf. These stories inspired the film "The Company of Wolves" (1984).
*"" by H. Warner Munn (1979)
**"" (1980)
*"The Book of the Beast" trilogy: "The Orphan" (1980), "The Captive" (1981), "The Beast" by Robert Stallman (1982).
*" The Beast Within" (1981) by Edward Levy.
*"Blood Fever" (1982) by Kit Reed.
*The "Discworld" (1983–) series by Terry Pratchett features a number of werewolves in supporting roles, most notably Angua of the Ankh-Morpork Night Watch. These werewolves can be both born and infected by a bite.
*"The Talisman", (1983) co-written by Stephen King and Peter Straub, features werewolves, known simply as Wolfs, who inhabit the far western parts of a world parallel to America called the Territories and serve as royal herdsman or bodyguards.
*"The Godforsaken" by Chelsea Quinn Yarbro (1983).
*"The Wolf's Hour" by Robert R. McCammon (1984).
*"Cycle of the Werewolf" an illustrated novel by Stephen King (1985).
*"The Dark Cry of the Moon" by Charles L. Grant (1986).
*"Werewolves" by Jane Yolen, ed. (1988).
*"Howling Mad" (1989) by Peter David features a wolf who has been bitten by a werewolf, becoming a "werehuman" as a result, providing a unique perspective on human civilization.
*"Moon Dance" (1989) by S.P. Somtow follows the immigration of a motley group of European werewolves to colonial America, where they confront disturbed human characters as well as Native American werewolves.
*"The Werewolves of London" by Brian Stableford (1990).
*"Silverwolf" by Roger Emerson (July 1990) Banned Books Publishings (gay erotica).
*"The Ultimate Werewolf" by Harlan Ellison, ed. (Dell, 1991).
*"The Wild" (1991) by Whitley Strieber portrays the werewolf as a medium through which to bring human intelligence and spirit back into nature.
*"Animals" (1992) by John Skipp & Craig Spector.
*"Wilding" (1992) by Melanie Tem.
*"The Werewolf's Kiss" (1992) by Cheri Scotch.:*"The Werewolf's Touch" (1993) by Cheri Scotch.:*"The Werewolf's Sin" (1994) by Cheri Scotch.
*"Blood Trail" by Tanya Huff (1992). Volume 2 in Huff's vampire series, this instalment deals with a werewolf clan.
*"Wild Blood" by Nancy A. Collins (1993).
*The "" series (1993 onwards) by Laurell K. Hamilton features a number of werewolf characters and explores the concept of werewolf packs. Lycanthropy is a disease, and a major character has contracted it from a faulty vaccine against it.
*"Vampire World 1: Blood Brothers" by Brian Lumley (1992). First part of the Necroscope series features the Wamphyri werewolf Canker Canison. Followed by::*"Vampire World 2: The Last Aerie" (1993);:*"Vampire World 3: Bloodwars" (1994);:*"Necroscope: The Lost Years Volume 1" (1995);:*"Necroscope: The Lost Years Volume 2" (1996).
*"Thor" by Wayne Smith. Publisher: Fawcett (August 29, 1994). German Shepherd protects his family from a relative who was infected by a werewolf. Basis for the movie "Bad Moon".
*"Women Who Run with the Werewolves" by Pam Keesey (1995)
*"Nadya – The Wolf Chronicles" by Pat Murphy (1996) A race of European werewolves immigrate to the United States in the nineteenth century.
*"The Werewolf Chronicles" by Rodman Philbrick & Lynn Harnett (1996).
*"Return of The Wolfman" by Jeff Rovin (1998).
*"The Silver Wolf" (1998) by Alice Borchardt follows the lives of several werewolves in ancient Rome and Ireland. Followed by::*"Night of the Wolf" (1999);:*"The Wolf King".
*"The Werewolf Book" by Brad Steiger (1999).
*"The Blooding" by Patricia Windsor (1999).
*"Blood and Chocolate" by Annette Curtis Klause (1999)
*"Touch of the Wolf" by Susan Krinard. (1999) First in a series of historical werewolf novels.
*"" by David Holland (2000).
*The series "Prowlers" (2001–2) by Christopher Golden. This portrays werewolves as a separate species, mostly ruthless monsters but occasionally decent individuals.
*"Fool Moon" by Jim Butcher, book two(2) of The Dresden Files (2001).
*"Summer Knight" by Jim Butcher, book four(4) of The Dresden Files (2003).
*"Bitten" by Kelley Armstrong (2001). Followed by: :*"Stolen" (2002);:*"Broken" (2006).
*"Low Red Moon" by Caitlín R. Kiernan (2003) contains multiple allusions to lycanthropy though no actual werewolves appear in the story. Other works by Kiernan containing werewolves or mentions of werewolves include "The Black Alphabet", "The Road of Pins", "Stoker's Mistress", and "Untitled 4".
*"The Essential Guide to Werewolf Literature" by Brian Frost (2003)
*"World of the Lupi" series by Eileen Wilks (2003-)
*The "Crimson City" series by Liz Maverick, Marjorie Liu, Patti O'Shea, and Carolyn Jewel (2005–).
*"Kitty and the Midnight Hour" by Carrie Vaughn features werewolf radio show host Kitty Norville (2005). Followed by: "Kitty Goes to Washington" (2006), "Kitty Takes a Holiday" (2007), and "Kitty and the Silver Bullet" (2008)
*"Maximum Ride" series by James Patterson features genetically engineered werewolves called "Erasers" as antagonists (2005–6).
*"The Demonata " series by Darren Shan (2005–6).
*"River" by Skyla Dawn Cameron provides a different approach to werewolves, revolving around wolves who have been changed into humans (2006).
*"Benighted" by Kit Whitfield (2006).
* "Mooncalled" by Patricia Briggs (2006). Told from the viewpoint of a coyote skinwalker who was raised by a werewolf pack. Followed by::*"Blood Bound" (2007) and *"Iron Kissed" (2008).
*"" by Michael Jan Friedman (2007).
*"The Southern Vampire Mysteries" series by Charlaine Harris features a wide array of supernatural beings including werewolves.:*"Club Dead" introduces the werewolf character of Alcide Herveaux.
* "Ravenous" by Ray Garton (2008) explores lycanthropy passed on as a sexually transmitted disease.

Juvenile fiction

*"Prince Caspian" (1951) by C. S. Lewis
*"Werewolves Don't Go to Summer Camp" (1991) by Debbie Dadey and Thornton Jones
*"True Monster Stories" (1992) by Terry Deary
*"Bad Moonlight", Fear Street novel by R. L. Stine. (1995):*"The Werewolf of Fever Swamp", book #14 in the Goosebumps series by R. L. Stine. (1995):*"Werewolf Skin", book #60 in the Goosebumps series by R. L. Stine. (1997)- :*"Full Moon Fever", book #22 in the Goosebumps 2000 series by R. L. Stine. (1999):*"Werewolf in the Living Room", book #17 in the Goosebumps 2000 series by R. L. Stine. (1999)
*"Blood and Chocolate" by Annette Curtis Klause (1997) (upper teen fiction)
*"Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban" (1999) by J. K. Rowling. :*"Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince" (2005) by J. K. Rowling.:*"Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows" (2007) by J. K. Rowling.
*"Twilight" (2005) by "Stephenie Meyer":*"New Moon" (2006):*"Eclipse" (2007):*"Breaking Dawn" (2008)
*"The Mortal Instruments series, by Cassandra Clare.
*"The Wolving Time" (2003) by Patrick Jennings
*"Red Rider's Hood" (2005) by Neal Shusterman
*"Wolf Pack" (2004) by Edo Van Belkom:*"Lone Wolf" (2005) by Edo Van Belkom
*"Wereling" trilogy by Stephen Cole (writer) (2005):*"The Wereling: Wounded":*"The Wereling: Prey":*"The Wereling: Resurrection"
*"Tantalize" by Cynthia Leitich Smith (2007) (upper teen fiction)
*"The Icemark Chronicles" by Stuart Hill:*"The Cry of the Icemark" (2005):*"Blade of Fire"(2007)

Films

[
Werewolf vs The Vampire Women"]
*"The Werewolf" (1913), featured a Native American werewolf. It is based on the 1898 story by H. Beaugrand (see above).
*"Le Loup-Garou" (1923), a French silent film.
*"Wolf Blood" (1925)
* "Le Loup Garou" aka "Werewolf" (1932), an obscure probably lost movie from German director Friedrich Feher based on the novel "Der Schwarze Mann" by Alfred Machard. Apparently the first "talkie" to feature a werewolf.
*"Werewolf of London" (1935), first film to feature bipedal anthropomorphic werewolves
*"The Wolf Man" (1941), the Universal classic starring Lon Chaney, Jr. in the title role. Lon Chaney reappeared as the Wolf Man in several sequels, where he teamed up with the other major horror icons of the period::*"Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man" (1943):*"House of Frankenstein" (1944):*"House of Dracula" (1945):*"Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein" (1948).
*"The Mad Monster" (1942)
*"The Undying Monster" (1942)
*"Cry of the Werewolf" (1944)
*"The Return of the Vampire" (1944)
*"She-Wolf of London" (1946)
*"The Werewolf" (1956)
*"El Castillo de los Monstruos" (1957)
*"I Was a Teenage Werewolf" (1957), Michael Landon portrayed the young man-wolf.
*"How to Make a Monster" (1958)
*"La Casa del Terror" (1959)
*"The Curse of the Werewolf" (1961)
*"Lycanthropus" (1962) - also known as "Werewolf in a Girls' Dormitory"
*"Face of the Screaming Werewolf" (1964)
*"La Loba" (1964)
*"Dr. Terror's House of Horrors" (1965)
*"Mad Monster Party" (1967)
*"La Marca del Hombre Lobo" (1967), a Spanish horror film, known in English as The Mark of the Wolfman, and the first in a long series about the werewolf Count Waldemar Daninsky, played by Paul Naschy. The latter actor, acclaimed as Spain's Lon Chaney, appeared as the titular "Hombre Lobo" in several sequels: :*"Las Noches del Hombre Lobo" (1968):*"Los Monstruos del Terror" (1970):*"La Noche de Walpurgis" (1971):*"La Furia del Hombre Lobo" (1972):*"Dr. Jekyll y el Hombre Lobo" (1972):*"El Retorno de Walpurgis" (1973):*"La Maldicion de la Bestia" (1975):*"El Retorno del Hombre Lobo" (1980):*"La Bestia y la Espada Magica" (1983):*"Licántropo" (1996):*"Tomb of the Werewolf" (2003)
*"Return from the Past" (1967)
*"Blood of Dracula's Castle" (1969)
*"Nympho Werewolf" (1970)
*"Werewolves on Wheels" (1971)
*"O Homem Lobo" (1971)
*"The Werewolf of Washington" (1973)
*"The Boy Who Cried Werewolf" (1973)
*"The Beast Must Die" (1974)
*"La Běte" (1975) by Walerian Borowczyk, an erotic take on the werewolf legend.
*"Legend of the Werewolf" (1975)
*"The Werewolf of Woodstock" (1975)
*"La Lupa Mannara" (1976)
*"Wolfman" (1979)
*"Full Moon High" (1981)
*"The Howling" (1981), the first werewolf film of the modern horror genre
**"" (1985)
**"" (1987), the only film to feature marsupial werewolves
**"" (1988)
**"" (1989)
**"" (1991)
**"" (1995)
*"An American Werewolf in London" (1981), a mix of horror and comedy, written and directed by John Landis
**"An American Werewolf in Paris" (1997)
*"Wolfen" (1981)
*"Monster Dog" (1984)
*"The Company of Wolves" (1984)
*"Silver Bullet" (1985), based on the novella "Cycle of the Werewolf" (1985) by Stephen King.
*"Ladyhawke" (1985)
*"Teen Wolf" (1985)
**"Teen Wolf Too" (1987)
*"Transylvania 6-5000" (1985)
*"The Monster Squad" (1987)
*"Curse of the Queerwolf" (1988)
*"My Mom's A Werewolf" (1989)
*"Wolfman - A Cinematic Scrapbook" (1991)
*"Mad at the Moon" (1992)
*"Full Eclipse" (1993)
*"Wolf" (1994)
*"" (1995)
*"Shriek of the Lycanthrope" (1995)
*"Bad Moon" (1996)
*"Werewolf" (1996), used as a MST3K episode
*"Wilderness" (1996)
*"Tale of The Urban Werewolf" (1997)
*"The Werewolf Reborn!" (1998)
*"Lycanthrophobia" (1998)
*"The Wolves of Kromer" (1998)
*"Lycanthrope" (1999)
*"Alvin and the Chipmunks Meet the Wolfman" (2000)
*"Ginger Snaps" (2000)
**"" (2004)
**"Ginger Snaps Back" (2005)
*"Dog Soldiers" (2002)
**"Dog Soldiers: Fresh Meat" (2007)
*"Wolves of Wall Street" (2002)
*"Underworld" (2003)
**"" (2006)
**"Underworld 3" (2008)
*"Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban" (2004)
*"Van Helsing" (2004)
*"Cursed" (2005), also featured a Golden Retriever that became endowed with werewolf characteristics
*"The Beast of Bray Road" (2005)
*"Wild Country" (2005)
*"The Feeding" (2006)
*"Bloodz vs Wolvez" (2006)
*"Lycanthropy" (2006)
*"Blood and Chocolate" (2007)
*"The Lycanthrope" (2007)
*"Skinwalkers" (2007)
*"Benighted" (2008)
*"Freeborn" (2008), the director has been taking input from werewolf fans
*"In the Blood" (2008)
*"Never Cry Werewolf" (2008)
*"Attack of The Lycan"(2008)
*"The Wolf Man" (2009)
*"Full Moon Fever" (2009)
*"Hotel Transylvania" (2009)

Music

*"Werewolves of London," by Warren Zevon
*"I Was a Teenage Werewolf," by The Cramps
*"Zomby Woof," by Mothers of Invention
*"Wolf," by Iced Earth
*"Wolfshade," from the album "Wolfheart" by Moonspell
*"Full Moon Madness," from the album "Irreligious" by Moonspell
*"Bark at the Moon," by Ozzy Osbourne
*"In the Year of the Wolf," by Motörhead
*"Lycanthropy," by Six Feet Under
*"Lycanthrope," by +44
*"She-Wolf," by Megadeth
*"Of Wolf and Man," by Metallica
*"Killer Wolf," by Danzig
*"Wolf Moon (Including Zoanthropic Paranoia)," by Type O Negative
*"House of God", a concept album by King Diamond
*"Werewolf Hat" by Space Mandino
*"In Rapture By The Fenrir Moon," by Grand Belial's Key
*"Nattens Madrigal", a concept album by Ulver
*"Wolf Like Me," by TV on the Radio
*"Still of the Night" By Whitesnake
*"Midnight Dreams" By Solitude Aeturnus
*"FullMoon" by Sonata Arctica
*"Werewolf" by Cat Power, originally by Michael Hurley and also covered by The Dransfields.
*"American Werewolves in London" by Wednesday 13
*"The Wolf Is Loose" by progressive metal band Mastodon is a song considered to be about a werewolf.
*The Album Mate. Feed. Kill. Repeat. by Slipknot has many references to lycanthropy (and to the RPG )
*"The Wolfman Stole My Baby" by The Frankenstein Drag Queens from Planet 13

Music videos

* In the music video of the Backstreet Boys song "Everybody" from the Backstreet's Back album, each band member becomes a monster, with Brian Littrell turning into a werewolf.

* In the first half of Michael Jackson's famous music video for his song "Thriller" he transforms into something that is often thought to be a werewolf, but is really a werecat, according to director John Landis.

* TV on the Radio's music video for "Wolf Like Me" from the album Return to Cookie Mountain features a love story involving werewolves in the music video and in the lyrics as well. The video was directed by Jon Watts.

* The music video for "The Yeah Yeah Yeah Song" by The Flaming Lips has Wayne Coyne getting chased by a werewolf.

* The man with wolf-eye contacts in the Evanescence music video "Call Me When You're Sober" is supposed to resemble a werewolf, although the video is based on Little Red Riding Hood.

* The claymation music video for "Flowers" by Émilie Simon features an assortment of monsters, including a werewolf.

*The music video for "Dance in My Blood" by the furry-themed band Men, Women & Children has a werewolf dancing on the surface of the sun amid mermaids, Indians and other costumed characters. The werewolf is dressed in clothing that is nearly identical to that worn by the lead singer, with black gloves and a suit without the jacket.

*Clor's music video for "Good Stuff" has a dance-off between a naked man and a werewolf.

*Rammstein's 1998 version (opposed to that of 1995) of the music video for Du Riechst so gut, in which the band members are portrayed as a pack of werewolves in a medieval setting. They are shown hunting and eventually cornering a woman, in which they suddenly take their animal form and attack.

*In the music video for Bark at the Moon, Ozzy Osbourne is portrayed as a werewolf.

*The video It's a Wonderful Night from Fat Boy Slim shows the lead singer changing into a werewolf and then killing people, flirting with woman and getting drunk in a Broadway style.

*The video for Waking The Demon by Bullet For My Valentine shows a boy waiting for the full moon and becoming a werewolf to kill the boys who bully him.

Television

TV movies and mini-series

*"Moon of the Wolf" (1972)
*"Scream of the Wolf" (1974)
*"The Adventures of a Two-Minute Werewolf" (1985)
*"Scooby-Doo and the Reluctant Werewolf" (1989)
*"House of Frankenstein 1997" (1997), a television mini-series featuring characters from the Universal Studios horror films.
*"The 10th Kingdom" (2000), a television mini-series about an entire other world where fairy tales are real. Wolf, one of the main, characters is half-wolf and the grandson of Little Red Riding Hood.
*"Wolf Girl" (2001)
*"Nature of the Beast" (2007)
*"Being Human" (2008 pilot)
* Recent Chef Boyardee commercials have featured a "Tame the Beast" theme. A hiker walks out of his tent and finds a werewolf/sasquatch-like beast that ransacks the hiker's minivan and swallows some Chef Boyardee ravioli sauce and turns into a boy. The ad ends with the narrator saying "only the fresh, meaty sauce of Chef Boyardee can tame the beast in you."

eries

*"Dark Shadows" (1968)
*"Groovie Goolies" (1970)
*"The Hilarious House of Frightenstein" (1971) Billy Van portrayed amongst his many characters the Wolfman, a rock and roll loving disc jockey for Castle Frightenstein's EECH radio station. He was based on the character Wolfman Jack and loved to dance against a psychedelic background in silhouette.
*"Monster Squad" (1976)
*"Fangface" (1978)
*"The Drak Pack" (1980)
*"Teen Wolf" (1986), animated show based on the film
*"Werewolf" (1987)
*"Gravedale High" (1990)
*"She-Wolf of London" (1991 - 1992) called Love and Curses for the last six episodes
*"Monster Force" (1994), features a wolfman as one of protagonists fighting against the evil Creatures of the Night, as well as an evil werewolf fighting alongside the Creatures
* "Buffy the Vampire Slayer" (1997-2003) features a likeable young werewolf, Daniel "Oz" Osbourne, who often assisted Buffy in fighting evil while in human form, and had himself locked in a cage during the full moon. During one of Oz's wolf phases, which takes place the night before, during and the night after the full moon, he copulated with a werewolf female. This werewolf was Veruca, a lead singer in a band called "Shy". Veruca was able to retain the memories of her experiences during her transformation and tried to convince Oz to embrace his werewolf persona rather than contain it. Veruca sought out Willow, intending to kill her, and would have if not for Oz, who (as a werewolf) fought and killed Veruca. Oz later returned with the power to resist the werewolf transformation, except under extreme emotional stress. The spin-off, "Angel", established that there are other breeds of werewolves, similar to dogs.

*"Darkstalkers" (1997), features the werewolf character Jon Talbain.
*"Big Wolf on Campus" (1999) is a TV series about a teenager called Thomas "Tommy" P. Dawkins who was bitten during a camping trip by a werewolf. After subsequently turning into a werewolf himself, he regularly fights against an array of enemies in order to keep his neighborhood safe.
*"Wolf Lake" (2001)
*"Magipoka" is an anime that features Liru, a female werewolf who is one of the four protagonists in a series also involving a witch, a vampire, and an updated version of Frankenstein's monster.
*The long running British sci-fi series "Doctor Who" has featured werewolves on two occasions: In 1988's "The Greatest Show in the Galaxy" and 2006's "Tooth and Claw.
*"" (2001) In the episode "Howl", whilst the O'Connors are visiting Ireland, they are attacked by a malicious wolf pack which are revealed to be lycanthropes after Rick is bitten during the attack and becomes a werewolf himself.
*"Ben 10" (2005) In Benwolf, an evil werewolf-like alien known as a Loboan attacks Ben. During his attack, instead of getting bitten, Ben's Omnitrix get scratched, causing him to turn into a Loboan himself. This form is known as BenWolf.
*"Tom and Jerry Tales" (2006) In Monster Con, after a werewolf bites Tom's rear, he becomes a werewolf himself.
*"Supernatural (TV series)" features a wide array of supernatural beings, including werewolves. The plot of the episode 'Heart' (2.17) centers around a werewolf.
*"The X-Files" features a werewolf-like creature called a "manitou" as well as references to lycanthropy in the Season 1 episode "Shapes"
*"Kamen Rider Kiva" features Jiro, the last of a werewolf-like race called the Wolfen.
*In Marvel Comics, Wolfsbane is a mutant with the power of lycanthropy. She has been a member of various X-Men teams such as The New Mutants, X-Factor, and most recently X-Force.
*Another X-Men related character with werewolf-powers is Wolf Cub, who is associated with the New X-Men, and currently the Young X-Men.
*Werewolf, whose fur color changed from white to brown halfway through the series, is Monster in My Pocket #3. His human form is never shown, but he is among the good monsters in all incarnations. He was silent in the comics save for howls, but said to be very intelligent. When directed by a little girl named Teresa, who thought he was an anthropomorphic dog doll, to sit, he grabbed a chair.
*"Hyper Police" (MEE)/Tokyopop (Batanen and Tommy(Tomy) Fujioka are werewolves and cousins as bounty hunters in this series.
*"Crescent Moon (manga)" (Haruko Iida/Red Entertainment, 2000-present) (The character Akira Yamabuki is a happy-go-lucky werewolf who is also an excellent chef. Unlike the usual werewolves of modern lore, his transformational state is not induced by a full moon. He himself can choose when to induce the transformation.)
*"Fables" (Vertigo, 2002-present) (The character Bigby Wolf, the Big Bad Wolf of fairy tales, is a wolf that can become human or anthropomorhic due to lycanthropy).
*"Werewolf by Night" (Marvel Comics, 1971-4) features the character Jack Russell, a play on words to the breed of dog Jack Russell Terriers. This character also has a niece who is half werewolf and half vampire, going by the name Vampire by Night.
* In the DC Comics "Green Lantern" title one of the supporting characters is named Arkkis Chummuck, who is an alien form of werewolf.
*Marvel comics character John Jameson transforms into the werewolf-like "Man-Wolf".
*Link briefly turns into a werewolf like creature in the comic book adaptation of when he enters the Dark World (although this is only a silhouette). When his arm touches the world, it also becomes wolf-like.
*Lycanthropes are frequently featured in Fred Perry's Manga Gold Digger. They vary in species, from were-wolves to were-cheetahs. As well as basic animal and human forms, they can also change at will to a third 'hybrid' form, in which they retain their animal colouring and strength, but also basic human shape.
*Jean Jacquemonde from Spriggan has lycanthrope roots in his DNA. His estranged father, Rick Bordeau, is the carrier of the lycanthrope gene in his family. Later on, Jean's DNA is acquired by Trident as part of their biological weapons program.
*The Captain, a member of the Millennium organization in Kouta Hirano's manga Hellsing is a werewolf, possibly the last of his kind; and, ironically, a member of the German Werwolf.
*The criminal Megil the Pharmacist uses a lycanthropazine drug to transform himself into a werewolf in the Battle Angel Alita manga.
*In the manga "Tarot Cafe", a teenage boy named Aron is turned into a werewolf by accident. He does not remember anything while in wolf form and is locked up.
*"The Astounding Wolf-Man" is a comic book series published by Image Comics written by Robert Kirkman. It's the story of a man named Gary Hampton who tries to deal with his "were-wolfism" by becoming a superhero. Within his costume are devices that store up moonlight buying him time to hide before the sun causes him to transform back into human form.
* "High Moon" is a werewolf western webcomic by David Gallaher and Steve Ellis. It was the winning entry in November 2007 for DC's Zuda imprint.
*"Pac-Man" Pac-Man's form is that of a werewolf like creature and called is Pac-Werewolf
*The Marvel Comics character Jack Russell is a werewolf and at one point starred in his own comic series "Werewolf by Night".

Games

*In "Ninja Gaiden 2"", the Greater Fiend "Volf" and his underlings are werewolves
*In "Mortal Kombat 3", Nightwolf transform into a wolf for his "animality", a new feature that was introduced to the "Mortal Kombat" franchise in this game.
*L. Lee Cerny and Bradley K. McDevitt, "Night Life" (Stellar Games, 1990) has three editions to date, a few supplements.
*Mark Rein-Hagen, "" (White Wolf, Inc., 1992) has two editions, innumerable supplements, and a short story collection ("When Will You Rage?", edited by Stewart Wieck). Players roleplay various werewolf characters who work on behalf of Gaia against the destructive supernatural spirit named Wyrm, who represents the forces of destructive industrialization and pollution. Werewolves are born out of a union of werewolf and either human or wolf. They can change between 5 different shapes that range from human over monstrous-anthropomorphic states to lupine. In lupine shape they can be accepted by a wolf pack.
*In "Operation Darkness", 2 characters can transform into a werewolf
*"" is a new werewolf game created by White Wolf Studios as a successor to "Werewolf: The Apocalypse". Some concepts are similar, but the plot is much different. Although the werewolves played by the players are still (usually) the heroes, they no longer face the encroach of the Wyrm and now act more as secret defenders of the mortal world from encroaching spirits, and are often besieged by entirely different werewolf tribes called The Pure.
*Mike Tinney and Stewart Wieck, "Rage" (White Wolf, Inc., 1995). The card game inspired a couple of novels from White Wolf: "Breathe Deeply" by Don Bassingthwaite and "The Silver Crown" by Bill Bridges. "Rage" was based upon the tabletop RPG "".
*1995 Sierra On-Line game "The Beast Within: A Gabriel Knight Mystery" is an adventure game which has the lead character, Gabriel Knight, investigating murders around Munich, Germany that are purported to be the work of a werewolf.
* Werewolf: The Last Warrior (1990) by Data East was a side-scrolling NES game in which the main character is a werewolf with blades for arms.
* "" for the Nintendo 64 game system featured the werewolves Cornell and Ortega as central characters in 1999.
* "Killer Instinct", a Rare arcade fighting game, features a werewolf called Sabrewulf.
* "Darkstalkers" features a werewolf called Jon Talbain (also known as Gallon).
* "" allows the player to become a werewolf or wereboar. Lycanthropy was initially absent from Daggerfall's sequel, Morrowind, but was a central plot point of Morrowind's second expansion pack, .
* "Discworld Noir" features a protagonist who becomes a werewolf partway through the game.
* In "", Link transforms into a wolf in some parts of the game, when he enters the mysterious Twilight Realm. The transformation is involuntary, but unlike true lycanthropy, he retains his will and intellectual capacity. Halfway through the game the player gains the option to change Link into his wolf form and back again at will.
*In the upcoming Nintendo DS game, "Tales of the Tempest", a werewolf race, the Lycanth, named after the word "Lycanthropy" are apparently persecuted by a powerful theocracy.
*"" for the Game Boy Advance features a village of werewolves who are able to channel Wind Psynergy (Jupiter). The village is called Garoh. Also, across the world map are many enemies who resemble werewolves.
*Yugo Ogami, one of the playable characters in the "Bloody Roar" fighting series is a werewolf. In fact, the entire cast of fighters have various beast forms.
*"" uses the concept of the werewolf as an interest fighting unit, whose power increases dramatically during a 'night phase'.
*One of the main characters, Kevin is an unfortunate half-werewolf in "Seiken Densetsu 3".
* In the Xbox and personal computer game "Fable", a Balverine is like a werewolf, with a weakness towards silver and turning others by bites.
* In Konami's 2000 roleplaying game, Suikoden II, a recruitable character, Bob, has the ability to turn into a werewolf for three rounds.
* In Dungeons and Dragons, lycanthropy is an acquired character template.
* The Druid character class in can learn to become a Warewolf.
*In The Sims 2 Pets expansion pack, your sim can become a werewolf.
*In Lionhead's The Movies, werewolves can be featured as characters in your movies.
* In the Nintendo DS video game , a werewolf is one of the bosses that fights Jonathan and Charlotte.
* In the new Sonic game, Sonic Unleashed Sonic's new form is that of a "Werehog".
* In Darkstone, a mage may learn the Lychantropy talent.
* In Silverfall, a character focused on nature magic may acquire the ability to turn into a werewolf.
* In Fable, the balverines resemble werewolves. At least one person is turned into one through a bite.

References

Further reading

* Black, George Fraser. "A List of Works Relating to Lycanthropy". New York: New York Public Library Publications, 1919. (earliest published list of werewolf fiction)
* Du Coudray, Chantal Bourgault. "The Curse of the Werewolf". London : I. B. Tauris, 2006. ISBN 1-84511-158-3 (book on literary symbolism of the werewolf)
* Flores, Nona C. "Animals in the Middle Ages: A Book of Essays". New York: Garland, 1996. ISBN 0-8153-1315-2 (contains learned commentary on William of Palerne)
* Frost, Brian J. "The Essential Guide to Werewolf Literature". Madison: University of Wisconsin Press 2003. ISBN 0-87972-860-4 (contains long lists of novels and short stories, especially pre-1970s ones, with excerpts)
* Steiger, Brad. "The Werewolf Book: The Encyclopedia of Shape-Shifting Beings". Visible Ink Press, 1999. ISBN 1-57859-078-7 (contains long list of movies, medium list of novels)

External links

* [http://www.gwthomas.org/werewolfinliterature.htm The Werewolf in Literature]
* [http://www.nanopardus.freeserve.co.uk/books/index.html Therianthropic Resources List]
* [http://www.darkecho.com/darkecho/darkthot/were.html Dark Echo: the Archetype of the Werewolf]
* [http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/werewolf.html Werewolf legends from Germany]
* [http://dl.id.au/?c=pieces&f=2006-05-09_Werewolves A Brief History of Werewolves]
* [http://monsterlibrarian.com/werewolvesya.htm Reviews of Werewolf Fiction for Young Adults]


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