Boeing 767

Infobox Aircraft
subtemplate=Infobox Boeing Aircraft
name=Boeing 767
type=Airliner
national origin = United States
manufacturer=Boeing Commercial Airplanes


caption=Delta Air Lines Boeing 767-300ER
designer=
first flight=September 26 1981
introduction=September 8 1982 with United Airlines
retired=
status=Active
primary user= Delta Air Lines
more users= American Airlines All Nippon Airways Japan Airlines
produced=1982–present
number built=967 as of September 2008 [http://active.boeing.com/commercial/orders/displaystandardreport.cfm?cboCurrentModel=767&optReportType=AllModels&cboAllModel=767&ViewReportF=View+Report 767 Model Orders and Deliveries summary] , Boeing. September 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2008.]
unit cost=767-200ER: US$124.5-135.5 million [http://www.atwonline.com/news/story.html?storyID=9337 "Boeing boosts aircraft prices 5.5% on rising cost of labor, materials"] , Air Transport World, June 26, 2007.] [ [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/prices/ Boeing Commercial Airplanes prices] , retrieved June 26, 2007.]
767-300ER: $141-157.5 million
767-300F: $151-162 million
767-400ER: $154-169 million
variants with their own articles=Boeing E-767
Boeing KC-767
E-10 MC2A

The Boeing 767 is a mid-size, wide-body twinjet airliner produced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Passenger versions of the 767 can carry between 181 and 375 passengers, and have a range of 5,200 to 6,590 nautical miles (9,400 to 12,200 km) depending on variant and seating configuration. [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/airports/acaps/767.pdf "767 Airplane Characteristics for Airport Planning"] , Boeing, September 2005.] The 767 entered into airline service in 1982.

Development

The Boeing 767 was first offered for sale in July 1978 with an order for 30 airliners by United Airlines. It was developed at the same time as the 757, its narrowbody sister.Shaw, Robbie. "Boeing 757 & 767, Medium Twins". Osprey Publishing, 1999, ISBN 1-85532-903-4.] Prior to its public offering, it was referred to as the 7X7. [ [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/news/2005/q1/nr_050128g.html "Boeing Gives the 7E7 Dreamliner a Model Designation"] , Boeing, January 28, 2005.] With the 707 aging, Boeing decided to offer a mid-size wide-body aircraft to fit in between the 727/737/757 and the 747. The 767 has a fuselage width of 15 ft 6 in (472.44 cm) that is midway between the two other aircraft.

The first 767, a -200 was rolled out 4 August 1981 and first flew on 26 September 1981. Boeing planned to offer a shorter 767-100 with seating for 180 passengers, [Donald, David ed. "The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft", Barnes & Nobel Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5.] but was never offered for sale as the capacity was too close to the 757's. [ [http://www.airliners.net/aircraft-data/stats.main?id=103 The Boeing 767-200] , airliners.net.]

The 767 was designed using engines used on the 747 with wings sized to match. The wings were larger and provided longer range than the initial customers wanted. However, the larger wings only increased fuel usage slightly and provided better takeoff and landing performance. Boeing designed the 767 with enough range to fly across North America and across the northern Atlantic.Sutter 2006, p. 241-246.]

The flight decks of the Boeing 757 and 767 are very similar and as a result, after a short conversion course, pilots rated in the 757 are also qualified to fly the 767 and vice versa. The 767 was approved for U.S. CAT IIIb operation in March 1984. This revision permitted operations with minimums as low as RVR 300 (Runway Visual Range 300 feet). It was the first aircraft certificated for CAT IIIb by the U.S. [ [http://www.faa.gov/library/manuals/examiners_inspectors/8400/media/volume4/4_002_01.pdf FAA Air Transportation Operations Inspector's Handbook, Order 8400.10] ]

In the late 1980s, Boeing proposed a stretched version of the 767, and then a partial double deck version with parts of a 757 fuselage built over the aft (rear) fuselage. [ [http://www.aiaa.org/sections/cl/what/mckinzie.htm "How United Airlines Helped Design The World's Most Remarkable Airliner"] ] [Norris, Guy and Wagner, Mark. "Boeing 777, The Technological Marvel". Zenith Press, 2001. (Proposal was referred to by at least one airline as the "Hunchback of Mukilteo", after a town neighboring the Everett assembly plant.)] These concepts were not accepted and Boeing shifted to an all new airliner that would become the 777.cite book| last = Birtles | first = Philip | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Boeing 777, Jetliner for New Century | publisher = MBI Publishing| date = 1998 | location = | id = ISBN 0-7603-0581-1 ] Boeing would later develop a stretched 767 version in the form of the 767-400ER in the late 1990s.

The 767 sold very well from the late 1980s to the late 1990s, with a decrease during the recession in the early 1990s. After strong sales in 1997, sales have declined significantly, due to the economic recession of the early 2000s, increased competition from Airbus, and the recent emergence of a direct replacement program, the Boeing 787. In early 2007, United Parcel Service and DHL prolonged the 767's production with orders for 767-300 freighters of 27 and 6, respectively. [ [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/767family/news/2007/q1/070215c_nr.html Boeing and UPS Finalize Major 767 Freighter Order] ] [ [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/767family/news/2007/q1/070308a_nr.html Boeing to Supply Six 767 Freighters to Re-fleet DHL U.S. Operations] ] As of August 2008, Boeing has received two orders in 2008 for the 767-300ER, [ [http://active.boeing.com/commercial/orders/index.cfm Boeing Orders and Deliveries Chart] , August 9, 2008] but Boeing has been offering versions of the 767 to tide customers affected by the 787 launch delays, specifically to Japanese carriers All Nippon Airways & Japan Air Lines, who are said to be in serious talks for new build passenger airframes. Boeing has also kept the line open in hopes of winning the US Air Force's competition for a tanker (the KC-767 tanker program, which uses the 767 airframe).

The renewed interest in the 767-300 freighter has Boeing considering enhanced versions of the 767-200 and 767-300 freighter, with increased gross weights, 767-400ER wing technology, and 777-200 avionics. [ [http://www.atwonline.com/news/story.html?storyID=8092 Boeing considering new 767 freighter to counter A330-200F] ] Boeing sees the advanced 767-200F and 767-300F as complementing the 777F, and allowing Boeing to compete more effectively against the A330-200F, which is larger than the proposed 767-200F and 767-300F, but smaller than the 777F.

The Boeing 767 has 1031 orders, with 967 of those delivered as of August 2008. Delta Air Lines is currently the world's largest 767 operator, with 103 airplanes as of 2008, consisting of 767-300, 767-300ER, and 767-400ER variants."World Airliner Census", "Flight International", 19-25 August 2008.] Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, their hub, has the highest number of Boeing 767 operations in the world.

Design

The Boeing 767 is a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a conventional tail unit with a single fin and rudder. It has a retractable tricycle landing gear and is powered by two wing mounted turbofan engines.

The 767 offers a twin aisle configuration of 2+3+2 in economy with the most common business configuration of 2+2+2. It is possible to squeeze an extra seat for a 2+4+2 configuration, as done by Skymark Airlines and Martinair.Fact|date=July 2008 However, the seats are very narrow and this is not common. The 767 has a seat-to-aisle ratio in economy class of an efficient 3.5 seats per aisle, allowing for quicker food service and quicker exit of the airplane than many other jetliners, which typically have four to six seats per aisle in economy class.

It can carry freight in Unit Load Devices such as LD2s and LD8s. Its fuselage width does not allow larger ULDs such as LD6s, LD11s, and LD3s. One of the design requirements of the 767's replacement, the Boeing 787, was for it to use the LD3/6/11 family of ULDs to solve the wasted volume issue.

Newer 767-200s and 767-300s, as well as all 767-400ERs, feature a 777-style cabin interior, also known as the "Boeing Signature Interior". The 767-400ER also features larger windows exactly like those found on the 777. All new 767s built feature the Signature Interior, and it is also available as a retrofit for older 767s. In addition to the Boeing Signature Interior retrofit option, a simpler mod known as the "Boeing 767 Enhanced Interior" is available. This retrofit borrows styling elements from the Boeing Signature Interior; however, the outer section overhead bins are traditional-style shelf bins rather than the 777-style pivot bins.

Variants

There are three variants of the 767, which were launched on three separate occasions. Although there are a total of three variants, several versions have been produced.

767-200

The first model of the 767, and was launched in 1978 and entered service with United Airlines in 1982. This model is used mainly for continental routes such as New York City to Los Angeles. The 767-200 typically is outfitted with 181 seats in a 3-class layout or 224 in a 2-class layout. All -200 models have a capacity limit of 255 due to exit-door limitations. An additional exit door can be specified when the aircraft is ordered to allow for up to 290 seats in a high-capacity, all-coach (30 in pitch 2+4+2) layout.

The 767-200ER extended-range variant was first delivered to El Al in 1984. It became the first 767 to complete a nonstop transatlantic journey, and broke the flying distance record for twinjet airliners several times.

767-200s flown by American Airlines burn an average of 15,982 gallons of jet fuel flying round-trip between New York City and Los Angeles, resulting in a fuel tab of $488 per passenger (in 2008), assuming an aircraft with 79% of seats filled. [http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121304736426558641.html "Flying Stinks - Especially for airlines"] , Wall Street Journal, June 10, 2008, p. D3] Another source puts the cost of fuel of one cross country flight at $27,495 in 2008, up from $7,781 in 2004. ["$3.3 Million a Day - That's How Much American Airlines is Losing In the Era of Insane Fuel Prices", Fortune, May 12, 2008, p.94.] The 787 is expected to be 20% more fuel efficient per passenger. [ [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/787family/background.html Boeing 787 Dreamliner background] , Boeing.]

Although the 767-200ER has no direct replacement, it is expected to be replaced indirectly in Boeing's lineup by the 787-8. A total of 128 767-200s and 121 -200ERs had been delivered with no unfilled orders remaining as of 2008.

767-300

The 767-300 is a lengthened 767 ordered by Japan Airlines in 1983. It first flew on January 14, 1986, and was delivered to JAL on September 25.

The 767-300ER is the extended-range version of the -300. It first flew in 1986 and received its first commercial orders when American Airlines purchased several in 1987. The aircraft entered service with AA in 1988. In 1995, EVA Air used a 767-300ER to inaugurate the first transpacific 767 service. The -300ER has a minimum takeoff run of around 6,000 ft (1,825 m), and a maximum of 7,900 ft (2,400 m). The 767-300ER can be retrofitted with blended winglets from Aviation Partners Boeing. [http://biz.yahoo.com/prnews/070425/daw021.html?.v=95] These winglets are 11 ft (3.4 m) long and will decrease fuel consumption an estimated 6.5 % on the -300ER. [Ranson, Lori. [http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2008/07/22/225951/blended-winglets-debut-on-boeing-767.html "Blended winglets debut on Boeing 767"] , Flight International, 22 July 2008.]

The 767-300F is the air freight version of the 767-300ER, first ordered by United Parcel Service in 1993 and delivered in 1995. Due to its unique fuselage width of 15 ft 6 in, it is unable to carry ordinary Unit Load Devices, and instead has to use specially designed air freight containers and pallets. This model has three doors on the main deck plus two on the lower deck. Of the three doors on top, two are at the front, and one is at the rear right side. The two lower doors comprise of one at the right front and one at the rear left.

In October 2007, All Nippon Airways (ANA) sent one of its Boeing 767-300 (JA8286) to ST Aviation Services Co., in Paya Lebar, Singapore, to undergo the world's first 767 PTF (Passenger To Freighter) program. The conversion was completed, on schedule, in June 2008 and designated as a Boeing 767-300BCF, or "Boeing Converted Freighter". [ [http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/2007/q4/071128c_nr.html "Boeing and ST Aerospace Complete Door Cutting For First 767-300 Boeing Converted Freighter"] , Boeing ] [ [http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/2008/q2/080616a_nr.html "World's First 767-300 Boeing Converted Freighter Goes to ANA"] , Boeing ]

The 767-300's direct competitor from Airbus is the A330-200. The 767-300 is expected to be replaced by the 787-8 in Boeing's lineup. As of September 2008, total orders for the 767-300/300ER/300F stand at 744 with 680 delivered. This includes 104 orders (all delivered) for the -300, 558 orders for the -300ER (528 delivered), and 82 orders for the -300F (49 delivered).

767-400ER

This final extended variant was launched in 1997 on an order for Delta Air Lines and Continental Airlines to replace their aging Lockheed L-1011 and McDonnell Douglas DC-10 fleets. Orders were also placed by others including Kenya Airways and ILFC but these were eventually canceled. Kenya Airways and ILFC converted their orders to the Boeing 777. The -400ER was stretched convert|21.1|ft|m|abbr=on|sigfig=3 from the -300 for a total of convert|201.4|ft|m|abbr=on|sigfig=3. It also saw a wingspan increase of convert|14.3|ft|m|abbr=on|sigfig=3 over the previous two variants. The -400ER is the only 767 variant to also feature "raked" wingtips for increased fuel efficiency. Its first flight was on 9 October 1999,Frawley, Gerald. "Boeing 767-400ER". "The International Directory of Civil Aircraft, 2003/2004". Aerospace Publications, 2003. ISBN 1-875671-58-7.] and entered into service with Continental Airlines on 14 September 2000. This variant is only available as the 767-400ER, as there was no 767-400 variant. However it has less range than the other two ER variants.

Boeing offered a longer range version, named 767-400ERX for sale in 2000. It was introduced along with the Boeing 747X and was to be powered by 747X engines (Engine Alliance GP7172 and Rolls Royce plc Trent 600). The -400ERX offered an increased maximum takeoff weight of convert|465000|lb|kg|abbr=on|sigfig=3 and range of convert|6150|nmi|km|abbr=on|sigfig=3. [cite web| url=http://www.boeing.com/commercial/767family/news/2000/news_release_000726b.html|title= The Newest Boeing 767 Is Inspired by the Future |author=Boeing |publisher=Boeing |date=2000-07-26 |accessdate=2006-08-06] Kenya Airways provisionally ordered three -400ERXs to supplement their 767 fleet. However, in 2001 Boeing canceled -400ERX development. Kenya Airways converted their order to the 777-200ER. [Wallace, James. [http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/business/62830_kenya19.shtml "Kenya Airways sticks to Boeing"] , "Seattle Post-Intelligencer", 19 March 2002.]

The 767-400ER's direct Airbus equivalent is the Airbus A330-300. The 767-400ER is expected to be replaced by the 787-9 in Boeing's lineup. A total of 38 767-400ERs had been delivered, with 16 to Continental Airlines and 21 to Delta Air Lines as of 2008. The most recent -400ER was to be the prototype for the E-10 program and is in storage pending a decision on its disposition since the program was canceled.

Military

Versions of the 767 serve prominently in a number of military applications. Most military 767s are derived from the 767-200ER.

Airborne Surveillance Testbed

The Airborne Optical Adjunct (AOA) was built from the prototype 767-200. The aircraft was later renamed the Airborne Surveillance Testbed (AST). Modifications to the aircraft included a large "cupola" or hump which ran along the top of the aircraft from above the cockpit to just behind the trailing edge of the wings. Inside the cupola was a suite of infrared seekers that were used to track theater ballistic missile launches in a series of tests. [ [http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/1998/news_release_981124a.html Boeing new release: "Boeing Airborne Surveillance Testbed Tracks Missiles With New Seeker"] ] The aircraft remained in storage at the Victorville Airport in California for a number of years before being scrapped in July 2007.

E-767

The E-767 AWACS platform is used by the Japan Self-Defense Forces; it is essentially the E-3 Sentry mission package on a 767-200ER platform. Japan operates four E-767s.

KC-767

The KC-767 was developed from the -200ER for the USAF to replace some of its oldest KC-135E tankers. Boeing won the competition in 2002 [http://www.military-aerospace-technology.com/article.cfm?DocID=335 "Boeing Given Nod on Tanker Lease"] , Military-Aerospace Technology Magazine; volume: 1, issue: 2, 2002-05-01.] and the aircraft was later designated KC-767A. [http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/html/412015l.htm DoD 4120.15L, Model Designation of Military Aerospace Vehicles] , 2004-05-12.] However the Pentagon suspended the contract due to a conflict of interest scandal and later canceled it.

The KC-767 Tanker Transport, a 767-200ER-based aerial refueling platform has been ordered by the Italian Air Force and the Japan Self-Defense Forces, which have designated it KC-767J. For the USAF KC-X Tanker competition, Boeing offered the KC-767 Advanced Tanker, which was based on the in-development 767-200LRF (Long Range Freighter), rather than the -200ER.Borak, Donna. [http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/businesstechnology/2003568484_webtanker12.html "Boeing Unveils Air Force Tanker in $40 Billion Contract Competition"] . Associated Press. February 12, 2007.] [http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/2007/q1/070212b_nr.html "Boeing Offers KC-767 Advanced Tanker to U.S. Air Force"] , Boeing, 2007-02-12.]

E-10

The E-10 MC2A is a 767-400ER-based replacement for the Boeing 707-based E-3 Sentry AWACS, the E-8 Joint STARS aircraft, and EC-135 ELINT aircraft. This is an all-new system, with a powerful Active Electronically Scanned Array and not based upon the Japanese AWACS aircraft. One 767-400ER aircraft has been produced as a testbed for systems integration and is in storage pending a decision on its final disposition since the E-10 program has been terminated.

Incidents and accidents

As of 2008, the 767 has been in 40 incidents, [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/dblist.php?Type=106 Boeing 767 incidents] , Aviation-Safety.net, 14 August 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2008.] including 11 hull-loss accidents, [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/dblist.php?field=typecode&var=106%&cat=%1&sorteer=datekey&page=1resulting Boeing 767 hull-losses] , Aviation-Safety.net, 14 August 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2008.] resulting in a total of 569 fatalities. The 767 has been in six hijackings involving 282 fatalities. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/type/type-stat.php?type=106 "Boeing 767 Accident Statistics"] , Aviation-Safety.net, 3 December 2007. Retrieved 16 February 2008.]

;Notable incidents:
*On July 23, 1983, Air Canada Flight 143, a Boeing 767-200, ran out of fuel in flight and had to glide to an emergency landing. The pilots used the aircraft's ram air turbine to power the aircraft's hydraulic systems for control. There were no fatalities. This aircraft was nicknamed "Gimli Glider". The aircraft (C-GAUN) continued service within Air Canada until its retirement in January 2008. [http://www.yyznews.com/767.html "Air Canada Boeing 767 Fleet List"] , yyznews.com, accessed 2008-02-16.]

*On May 26, 1991, Lauda Air Flight 004 crashed following the in-flight deployment of the left engine thrust reverser. None of the 223 aboard survived. As a result of this incident engine thrust reversers on all 767s were ordered to be deactivated until the system was redesigned. [citation|last=James |first=Barry |author-link=Barry James |title=U.S. Orders Thrust Reversers Deactivated on 767s |newspaper=International Herald Tribune |date=August 17, 1991 |year=1991| month=August |url=http://www.iht.com/articles/1991/08/17/thru.php]
*On November 23, 1996, Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961 was hijacked, ran out of fuel, and crashed in the Indian Ocean near Comoros. The pilots used the aircraft's ram air turbine as an emergency power source. Of the 175 aboard, 123 died. Still, the incident is one of the few instances of a plane landing on water with survivors.

*On October 31, 1999, EgyptAir Flight 990, a scheduled Los Angeles-New York-Cairo flight, in a Boeing 767-366ER, crashed off Nantucket Island, Massachusetts in international waters killing all 217 people on board. The cause, while disputed by the Egyptian government, is stated by the NTSB as, "a result of the relief first officer's flight control inputs."
*Two Boeing 767 aircraft were involved in the September 11, 2001 attacks, and both crashed into the two towers of the World Trade Center. In addition to those on board the planes, 2602 people perished on the ground, mostly in the two towers.
**American Airlines Flight 11, a 767-223ER, crashed into the north tower, with 92 fatalities on board.
**United Airlines Flight 175, a 767-200, crashed into the south tower, with the loss of all 65 on board.

*On December 22, 2001 Richard Colvin Reid tried to bomb American Airlines Flight 63, a flight from Paris to Miami using a Boeing 767. Passengers and crew prevented him from bombing the aircraft and he was arrested, convicted, and imprisoned.
*On April 15, 2002, Air China Flight 129 a Boeing 767-200ER from Beijing to Busan, South Korea, crashed into a hill while trying to land at Gimhae International Airport during inclement weather, killing 128 of the 166 people on board.

pecifications

* Data through August 2008. Updated on 18 September, 2008. [http://active.boeing.com/commercial/orders/index.cfm?content=userdefinedselection.cfm&pageid=m15527 Orders and Deliveries search page] , Boeing. Retrieved 18 September, 2008.]

ee also

aircontent
related=
* Boeing 757
* Boeing KC-767
similar aircraft=
* Airbus A300
* Airbus A310
* Airbus A330
* Boeing 787
lists=
* List of airliners
* List of Boeing 767 operators
see also=
* Competition between Airbus and Boeing

References

* Sutter, Joe. "747: Creating the World's First Jumbo Jet and Other Adventures from a Life in Aviation". Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books, 2006, ISBN 0-06-088241-9.

External links

* [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/767family/ Boeing 767 family page]
* [http://www.janes.com/aerospace/civil/news/jawa/boeing_767.shtml Boeing 767 page on Janes.com]
* [http://www.zap16.com/civ%20fact/civ%20Boeing%20767-200.htm Boeing 767-200] , [http://www.zap16.com/civ%20fact/civ%20Boeing%20767-300.htm Boeing 767-300] , and [http://www.zap16.com/civ%20fact/civ%20Boeing%20767-400.htm Boeing 767-400 on zap16.com]
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=86Tq6pQ0xf8C&pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=hunchback+mukilteo+757&source=web&ots=P4j1OS3O9_&sig=iwxued6iMJ-CEtU4KeITSIQVXGk photo of proposed version informally called the Hunchback of Mukilteo]


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