Timurid dynasty

Infobox Former Country
native_name = گوركانى
conventional_long_name = Timurid Empire
common_name = Timurid Empire
continent = Asia
region =
country = Iran
era = Medieval
status =
status_text =
empire =
government_type = Monarchy
year_start = 1370
year_end = 1506
event_start =
date_start =
event_end =
date_end =
p1 = Barlas
flag_p1 =
s1 = Uzbeks
flag_s1 =




flag_type =




image_map_caption = Timurid Dynasty at its greatest extent
capital =
common_languages = Persian
religion = Islam
currency =
leader1 = Timur
leader2 = Muzaffar Hussayn
year_leader1 = 1370-1405
year_leader2 = 1506-1507
title_leader = Ruler

The Timurids, self-designated "Gurkānī" cite book | title=The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor | publisher=Modern Library Classics | id=ISBN 0375761373 | year=2002 | date=2002-09-10 | author=Zahir ud-Din Mohammad | editor=Thackston, Wheeler M. | quote=Note: "Gurkānī" is the Persianized form of the Mongolian word "kürügän" ("son-in-law"), the title given to the dynasty's founder after his marriage into Genghis Khan's family.] [Note: "Gurgān", "Gurkhān", or "Kurkhān"; The meaning of "Kurkhan" is given in [http://www.gardenvisit.com/travel/clavijo/timurearlylife.htm Clements Markham's publication of the reports of the contemporary witness Ruy González de Clavijo] as "of the lineage of sovereign princes".] [Edward Balfour "The Encyclopaedia Asiatica, Comprising Indian Subcontinent, Eastern and Southern Asia", Cosmo Publications 1976, S. 460, S. 488, S. 897] (PerB|گوركانى), were a Persianate Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty of originally Turko-MongolEncyclopædia Britannica, " [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9072546/Timurid-Dynasty Timurid Dynasty] ", Online Academic Edition, 2007. (Quotation:..."Turkic dynasty descended from the conqueror Timur (Tamerlane), renowned for its brilliant revival of artistic and intellectual life in Iran and Central Asia."..."Trading and artistic communities were brought into the capital city of Herat, where a library was founded, and the capital became the centre of a renewed and artistically brilliant Persian culture."..)] B.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006] cite encyclopedia | encyclopedia = The Columbia Encyclopedia | title = Timurids | url = http://www.bartleby.com/65/ti/Timurids.html | edition = Sixth | publisher = Columbia University | location = New York City |accessdate=2006-11-08 ] [Encyclopaedia Britannica article: [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-26937/Islamic-world Consolidation & expansion of the Indo-Timurids] , Online Edition, 2007.] descent whose empire included the whole of Central Asia, Iran, modern Afghanistan and Pakistan, as well as large parts of India, Mesopotamia and Caucasus. It was founded by the legendary conqueror Timur ("Tamerlane") in the 14th century.

In the 16th century, Timurid prince Babur, the ruler of Ferghana, invaded India and founded the Mughal Empire, who ruled most of the Indian subcontinent until its decline after Aurangzeb in the early 18th century, and its eventual demise by the British Raj after the Indian rebellion of 1857.

Origins

The origin of the Timurid dynasty goes back to the Mongolian nomadic confederation known as Barlas, who were remnants of the original Mongol army of Genghis Khan.B.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006] ["Timur", The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001-05 Columbia University Press, ( [http://www.bartleby.com/65/ti/Timur.html LINK] )] ["Consolidation & expansion of the Indo-Timurids", in Encyclopaedia Britannica, ( [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-26937/Islamic-world LINK] )] After the Mongol conquest of Central Asia, the Barlas settled in Turkistan (which then became also known as "Moghulistan" - "Land of Mongols") and intermingled to a considerable degree with the local Turkic and Turkic-speaking population, so that at the time of Timur's reign the Barlas had become thoroughly Turkicized in terms of language and habits. Additionally, by adopting Islam, the Central Asian Turks and Mongols also adopted the Persian literary and high cultureB. Spuler, "Central Asia in the Mongol and Timurid periods", published in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2006/7, ( [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/search/searchpdf.isc?ReqStrPDFPath=/home/iranica/public_html/newsite/pdfarticles/v5_articles/central_asia/mongol_and_timurid_periods&OptStrLogFile=/home/iranica/public_html/newsite/logs/pdfdownload.html LINK] ): "... Like his father, Olōğ Beg was entirely integrated into the Persian Islamic cultural circles, and during his reign Persian predominated as the language of high culture, a status that it retained in the region of Samarqand until the Russian revolution 1917 [...] Ḥoseyn Bāyqarā encouraged the developement of Persian literature and literary talent in every way possible ..."] which has dominated Central Asia since the early days of Islamic influence. Persian literature was instrumental in the assimilation of the Timurid elite to the Perso-Islamic courtly culture. [David J. Roxburgh. The Persian Album, 1400-1600: From Dispersal to Collection. Yale University Press, 2005. pg 130: "Persian literature, especially poetry, occupied a central in the process of assimilation of Timurid elite to the Perso-Islamicate courtly culture, and so it is not suprising to find Baysanghur commissioned a new edition of Firdawsi's Shanama] Timur was also steeped in Persian culture [ Gérard Chaliand, Nomadic Empires: From Mongolia to the Danube translated by A. M. Berrett, Transaction Publishers, 2004. pg 75] and in most of the territories which he incorporated, Persian was the primary language of administration and literary culture. Thus the language of the settled "diwan" was Persian, and its scribes had to be thoroughly adept in Persian culture, whatever their ethnic origin. [Beatrice Forbes Manz. The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane. Cambridge University Press, 1999. pg 109: "..."In Temür's government, as in those of most nomad dynasties, it is impossible to find a clear distinction between civil and military affairs, or to identify the Persian bureaucracy solely civil, and the Turko-Mongolian solely with military government. It is in fact difficult to define the sphere of either side of the administration and we find Persians and Chaghatays sharing manys tasks. (In discussiong the settled bureaucracy and the people who worked within it I use the word Persian in a cultural rather than ethnological sense. In almost all the territories which Temür incorporated into his realm Persian was the primary language of administration and literary culture. Thus the language of the settled "diwan" was Persian, and its scribes had to be thoroughly adept in Persian culture, whatever their ethnic origin.) Temür's Chaghatay emirs were often involved in civil and provincial administration and even in financial affairs, traditionally the province of Persian bureaucracy."..."]

Founding the dynasty

Timur conquered large parts of Transoxiana (in modern day Central Asia) and Khorasan (parts of modern day Iran, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan) from 1363 onwards with various alliances (Samarkand in 1366, and Balkh in 1369), and was recognized as ruler over them in 1370. Acting officially in the name of the Mongolian Chagatai ulus, he subjugated Transoxania and Khwarazm in the years that followed and began a campaign westwards in 1380. By 1389 he had removed the Kartids from Herat and advanced into mainland Persia from 1382 (capture of Isfahan in 1387, removal of the Muzaffarids from Shiraz in 1393, and expulsion of the Jalayirids from Baghdad). In 1394/95 he triumphed over the Golden Horde and enforced his sovereignty in the Caucasus, in 1398 subjugated Multan and Dipalpur in modern day Pakistan and in modern day India left Delhi in such ruin that it is said for two months "not a bird moved wing in the city" [ [http://persian.packhum.org/persian/index.jsp?serv=pf&file=80201010&ct=0 Volume III: To the Year A.D. 1398, Chapter: XVIII. Malfúzát-i Tímúrí, or Túzak-i Tímúrí: The Autobiography of Tímúr. Page: 389 (please press next and read all pages in the online copy)] ( [http://persian.packhum.org/persian/pf?file=80201013&ct=97 1. Online copy] , [http://www.infinityfoundation.com/mandala/h_es/h_es_malfuzat_frameset.htm 2. Online copy] ) from: Elliot, Sir H. M., Edited by Dowson, John. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; published by London Trubner Company 1867–1877. (Online Copy: [http://persian.packhum.org/persian/index.jsp?serv=pf&file=80201010&ct=0 The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; by Sir H. M. Elliot; Edited by John Dowson; London Trubner Company 1867–1877] - This online Copy has been posted by: [http://persian.packhum.org/persian/index.jsp The Packard Humanities Institute; Persian Texts in Translation; Also find other historical books: Author List and Title List] )] .In 1400/01 conquered Aleppo, Damascus and eastern Anatolia, in 1401 destroyed Baghdad and in 1402 triumphed over the Ottomans at Ankara. In addition, he transformed Samarqand into the "Center of the World". An estimated 17 million people may have died from his conquests. [ [http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat0.htm#Timur Selected Death Tolls: Timur Lenk (1369–1405)] ]

After the end of the Timurid Empire in 1506, the Mughal Empire was later established in India by Babur in 1526, who was a descendant of Timur through his father and possibly a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother. The dynasty he established is commonly known as the Mughal Dynasty. By the 17th century, the Mughal Empire ruled most of India, but later declined during the 18th century. The Timurid Dynasty came to an end in 1857 after the Mughal Empire was dissolved by the British Empire and Bahadur Shah II was exiled to Burma.

Due to the fact that the Persian cities were desolated by previous wars, the seat of Persian culture was now in Samarkand and Herat. These cities became the center of the Timurid renaissancecite encyclopedia | encyclopedia = The Columbia Encyclopedia | title = Timurids | url = http://www.bartleby.com/65/ti/Timurids.html | edition = Sixth | publisher = Columbia University | location = New York City |accessdate=2006-11-08] .

Culture

Although the Timurids hailed from the Barlas tribe which was of Mongol origin, they had embraced Persian culturecite encyclopedia | last = Lehmann | first = F. | encyclopedia = Encyclopaedia Iranica | title = Zaher ud-Din Babor - Founder of Mughal empire | url = http://www.iranica.com/newsite/search/searchpdf.isc?ReqStrPDFPath=/home/iranica/public_html/newsite/pdfarticles/v3_articles/babor_zahir-al-din_mohammad&OptStrLogFile=/home/iranica/public_html/newsite/logs/pdfdownload.html
accessdate = 2006-11-07 | accessyear = 2006 | accessmonth = November | edition = Online | publisher = Columbia University Center for Iranian (Persian) Studies | location = New York City | pages = 320-323 | quote = "... "His origin, milieu, training, and culture were steeped in Persian culture and so Babor was largely responsible for the fostering of this culture by his descendants, the Mughals of India, and for the expansion of Persian cultural infleunce in the Indian subcontinent, with brilliant literary, artistic, and historiographical results" ..."
] and Persian art (distinguished by extensive adaptations from the Chinesecite encyclopedia | encyclopedia = The Columbia Encyclopedia | title = Timurids | url = http://www.bartleby.com/65/ti/Timurids.html | edition = Sixth | publisher = Columbia University | location = New York City |accessdate=2006-11-08] ), and also Chagatay Literature, converted to Islam and resided in Turkestan and Khorasan. Thus, the Timurid era had a dual character,cite encyclopedia | encyclopedia = The Columbia Encyclopedia | title = Timurids | url = http://www.bartleby.com/65/ti/Timurids.html | edition = Sixth | publisher = Columbia University | location = New York City |accessdate=2006-11-08] which reflected both the Turco-Mongol origins and the Persian culture as well the Persian language. The Persian language was also the state language (also known as Diwan language) [Robert Devereux (tr.), "Judgment of Two Languages; Muhakamat Al-Lughatain By Mir 'Ali Shir Nawāi"; Introduction, Translation and Notes: Leiden (E.J. Brill), 1966): Any linguist of today who reads the essay will inevitably conclude that Nawa'i argued his case poorly, for his principal argument is that the Turkic lexicon contained many words for which the Persian had no exact equivalents and that Persian-speakers had therefore to use the Turkic words. This is a weak reed on which to lean, for it is a rare language indeed that contains no loan words. In any case, the beauty of a language and its merits as a literary medium depend less on size of vocabulary and purity of etymology that on the euphony, expressiveness and malleability of those words its lexicon does include. Moreover, even if Nawa'i's thesis were to be accepted as valid, he destroyed his own case by the lavish use, no doubt unknowingly, of non-Turkic words even while ridiculing the Persians for their need to borrow Turkic words. The present writer has not made a word count of Nawa'i's text, but he would estimate conservatively that at least one half the words used by Nawa'i in the essay are Arabic or Persian in origin. To support his claim of the superiority of the Turkic language, Nawa'i also employs the curious argument that most Turks also spoke Persian but only a few Persians ever achieved fluency in Turkic. It is difficult to understand why he was impressed by this phenomenon, since the most obvious explanation is that Turks found it necessary, or at least advisable, to learn Persian - it was, after all, the official state language - while Persians saw no reason to bother learning Turkic which was, in their eyes, merely the uncivilized tongue of uncivilized nomadic tribesmen] of the dynasty.

Literature

Timurid Literature in Persian Language

Persian literature, especially Persian poetry occupied a central place in the process of assimilation of the Timurid elite to the Perso-Islamic courtly culture. [David J. Roxburgh. The Persian Album, 1400-1600: From Dispersal to Collection. Yale University Press, 2005. pg 130: "Persian literature, especially poetry, occupied a central in the process of assimilation of Timurid elite to the Perso-Islamicate courtly culture, and so it is not suprising to find Baysanghur commissioned a new edition of Firdawsi's Shanama] The Timurid sultans, especially Šāhrukh Mīrzā and his son Mohammad Taragai Oloğ Beg, patronized Persian culture.B. Spuler, "Central Asia in the Mongol and Timurid periods", published in Encyclopaedia Iranica. ( [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/search/searchpdf.isc?ReqStrPDFPath=/home/iranica/public_html/newsite/pdfarticles/v5_articles/central_asia/mongol_and_timurid_periods&OptStrLogFile=/home/iranica/public_html/newsite/logs/pdfdownload.html pdf] ) Note:"... Like his father, Olōğ Beg was entirely integrated into the Persian Islamic cultural circles, and during his reign Persian predominated as the language of high culture, a status that it retained in the region of Samarqand until the Russian revolution 1917 [...] Ḥoseyn Bāyqarā encouraged the developement of Persian literature and literary talent in every way possible ..."] Among the most important literary works of the Timurid era is the Persian biography of Timur, known as "Zafarnāma" (PerB|ظفرنامه), written by Sharaf ud-Dīn Alī Yazdī, which itself is based on an older "Zafarnāma" by Nizām al-Dīn Shāmī, the official biographer of Timur during his lifetime. The most famous poet of the Timurid era was Nūr ud-Dīn Jāmī, the last great medieval Sufi mystic of Persia and one of the greatest in Persian poetry. The most famous painter of the Timurid court, as well as the most famous of the Persian miniature painters in general, was Ustād Kamāl ud-Dīin Behzād. In addition, the Timurid sultan Ulugh Beg is known as a great astronomer.

BaySanghur Shahnameh

Baysanghur commissioned a new edition of the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi and wrote an introduction to it. According to T. Lenz [" [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v4f1/v4f1a008.html Baysonghori Shahnameh] " in Encyclopedia Iranica by T. Lenz ] :cquote|It can be viewed as a specific reaction in the wake of Timur's death in 807/1405 to the new cultural demands facing Shahhrokh and his sons, a Turkic military elite no longer deriving their power and influence solely from a charis­matic steppe leader with a carefully cultivated linkage to Mongol aristocracy. Now centered in Khorasan, the ruling house regarded the increased assimilation and patronage of Persian culture as an integral component of efforts to secure the legitimacy and authority of the dynasty within the context of the Islamic Iranian monarchical tradition, and the Baysanghur Shahnameh, as much a precious object as it is a manuscript to be read, powerfully symbolizes the Timurid conception of their own place in that tradition. A valuable documen­tary source for Timurid decorative arts that have all but disappeared for the period, the manuscript still awaits a comprehensive monographic study.

National Literature in Chagatay Language

The early Timurids played a very important role in the history of Turkic literature. Based on the established Persian literary tradition, a national Turkic literature was developed, written in the Chagatay language, the native tongue of the Timurid family. Chagatay poets such as Mīr Alī Sher Nawā'ī, Sultan Husayn Bāyqarā, and Zāher ud-Dīn Bābur encouraged other Turkic-speaking poets to write in their own vernacular in addition to Arabic and Persian.

The Bāburnāma, the autobiography of Bābur, as well as Mīr Alī Sher Nawā'ī's Chagatay poetry are among the best-known Turkic literary works and have fascinated and influenced many others world wide. The Baburnama was highly Persianized in its sentence structure, morphology or word formation and vocabulary [ Stephen Frederic DaleThe Garden of the Eight Paradises: Babur and the Culture of Empire. BRILL, 2004. pg 150] .

Art

During the reign of Timurid rule, the golden age of Persian painting was ushered. [ New Orient, By Czechoslovak Society for Eastern Studies, Czechoslovak Society for Eastern Studies, 1968. pg 139.] During this period as well as the Safavid dynasty, Chinese art and artists had a significant influence on Persian art. [ [http://www.persianpaintings.com/history.html Persian Paintings] ] [ [http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761577725_5/Islamic_Art_and_Architecture.html "MSN Encarta". Islamic Art and Architecture.] ] [ [http://www.art-arena.com/safavidart2.htm Art Arena. Persian art - the Safavids] ] Timurid artists refined the Persian art of the book, which combines paper, calligraphy, illumination, illustration and binding in a brilliant and colourful whole. [ John Onians, Atlas of World Art, Laurence King Publishing, 2004. pg 132.] It was the Mongol ethnicity of the Chaghatayid and Timurid Khans that is the source of the stylistic depiction Persian art during the Middle Ages. These same Mongols intermarried with the Persians and Turks of Central Asia, even adopting their religion and languages. Yet their simple control of the world at that time, particularly in the 13-15th Centuries, reflected itself in the idealised appearance of Persians as Mongols. Though the ethnic make-up gradually blended into the Iranian and Mesopotamian local populations, the Mongol stylism continued well after, and crossed into Asia Minor and even North Africa.

Architecture

Timurid architecture

In the realm of architecture, the Timurids drew on and developed many Seljuq traditions. Turquoise and blue tiles forming intricate linear and geometric patterns decorated the facades of buildings. Sometimes the interior was decorated similarly, with painting and stucco relief further enriching the effect. Timurid architecture is the pinnacle of Islamic art in Central Asia. Spectacular and stately edifices erected by Timur and his successors in Samarkand and Herat helped to disseminate the influence of the Ilkhanid school of art in India, thus giving rise to the celebrated "Mughal" (or "Mongol") school of architecture. Timurid architecture started with the sanctuary of Ahmed Yasawi in present-day Kazakhstan and culminated in Timur's mausoleum Gur-e Amir in Samarkand. Timur’s Gur-I Mir, the 14th century mausoleum of the conqueror is covered with ‘’turquoise Persian tiles’’ [John Julius Norwich, Great Architecture of the World, Da Capo Press, 2001. pg 278.] Nearby, in the center of the ancient town, a "Persian style Madrassa (religious school)" [John Julius Norwich, Great Architecture of the World, Da Capo Press, 2001. pg 278.] and a "Persian style Mosque" [John Julius Norwich, Great Architecture of the World, Da Capo Press, 2001. pg 278.] by Ulugh Beg is observed. The mausoleum of Timurid princes, with their turquoise and blue-tiled domes remain among the most refined and exquisite "Persian architecture" [Hugh Kennedy, “The Great Arab Conquests: How the Spread of Islam Changed the World We Live In”, Da Capo Press, 2007. pg 237] . Axial symmetry is a characteristic of all major Timurid structures, notably the Shāh-e Zenda in Samarkand, the "Musallah" complex in Herat, and the mosque of Gowhar Shād in Mashhad. Double domes of various shapes abound, and the outsides are perfused with brilliantly colors. Timurs dominance of the region strengthened the influence of his capital and Persian architecture upon India. [Banister Fletcher, Dan Cruickshan, "Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture ",Architectural Press, 1996. pg 606]

Mughal architecture

After the foundation of the Mughal Empire, the Timurids successfully expanded the Persian cultural influence from Khorasan to India, where the Persian language, literature, architecture, and art dominated the Indian subcontinent until the British conquest.. The Mughals, Persianized Turks who invaded from Central Asia and claimed descent from both Timur and Genghis - strengthened the Persianate culture of Muslim India [Robert L. Canfield, Turko-Persia in historical perspective, Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 20] .

The Mughal period marked a striking revival of Islamic architecture in northern India. Under the patronage of the Mughal emperors, Indian, Persian, and various provincial styles were fused to produce works of unusual quality and refinement. [ [http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9054154 Mughal architecture] Encyclopædia Britannica]

The Mughal emperor Akbar constructed the royal city of Fatehpur Sikri, located 26 miles west of Agra, in the late 1500s. The most famous example of Mughal architecture is the Taj Mahal, the "teardrop on eternity," completed in 1648 by the emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal who died while giving birth to their 14th child. The extensive use of precious and semiprecious stones as inlay and the vast quantity of white marble required nearly bankrupted the empire. The Taj Mahal is completely symmetric other than the sarcophagus of Shah Jahan which is placed off center in the crypt room below the main floor. This symmetry extended to the building of an entire mirror mosque in red sandstone to complement the Mecca-facing mosque place to the west of the main structure. Another structure built that showed great depth of Mughal influence was the Shalimar Gardens.

Rulers of the Timurid Empire

*Timur (Tamerlane) 1370 - 1405 (771-807 AH) - with Suyurghitmiš Chaghtay as nominal overlord followed by Mahmūd Chaghtay as overlord and finally Muhammad Sultān as heir
*Pir Muhammad bin Jahāngīr 1405 - 1407 (807-808 AH)

Rulers of Herat

*Shāhrukh 1405 - 1447 (807-50 AH) (overall ruler of the Timurid Empire 1409 - 1447)
*Abu'l-Qasim Bābar 1447 - 1457 (850-61 AH)
*Shāh Mahmūd 1457 (861 AH)
*Ibrāhim 1457 - 1459 (861-863 AH)
*Sultān Abu Sa’id Gūrgān 1459 - 1469 (863-73 AH) (in Transoxiana 1451-1469)
*Yādgār Muhammad 1470 (873 AH)
*Sultān Hussayn 1470 - 1506 (874-911 AH)
*Badi ul-Zamān 1506 - 1507 (911-912 AH) and
*Muzaffar Hussayn 1506 - 1507 (911-912 AH)"Herat is conquered by the Uzbeks under Muhammad Shaybani"

Rulers of Samarkand

*Khalīl Sultān 1405 - 1409 (807-11 AH)
*Mohammad Taragai bin Shāhrukh-I 1409 - 1449 (811-53 AH) (overall ruler of the Timurid Empire 1447 - 1449)
*'Abd al-Latif 1449 - 1450 (853-854 AH)
*‘Abdullah 1450 - 1451 (854-55 AH)
*Sultān Abu Sa’id Gūrgān 1451 - 1469 (855-73 AH) (in Herat 1459-1469)"Abu Sa'id's sons divided his territories upon his death, into Samarkand, Badakhshan and Farghana"
*Sultān ibn Abu Sa’id 1469 - 1494 (873-899 AH)
*Sultān Mahmūd ibn Abu Sa’id 1494 - 1495 (899-900 AH)
*Sultān Baysunqur 1495 - 1497 (900-902 AH) and
*Mas’ūd 1495 (900 AH) and
*Sultān Alī Mīrzā 1495 - 1500 (900-905 AH)"Samarkand is conquered by the Uzbeks under Muhammad Shaybani"

Other rulers

*Qaidu bin Pir Muhammad bin Jahāngīr 808-811 AH
*Abu Bakr bin Mīrān Shāh 1405 - 1407 (807-809 AH)
*Pir Muhammad bin Umar Sheikh 807-812 AH
*Rustam 812-817 AH
*Sikandar 812-17 AH
*Alaudaullah 851 AH
*Abu Bakr bin Muhammad 851 AH
*Sultān Muhammad 850-55 AH
*Muhammad bin Hussayn 903-906 AH
*Abul A'la Fereydūn Hussayn 911-912 AH
*Muhammad Mohsin Khān 911-912 AH
*Muhammad Zamān Khān 920-923 AH
*Shāhrukh II bin Abu Sa’id 896-897 AH
*Ulugh Beg Kābulī 873-907 AH
*Sultān Uways 1508 - 1522 (913-927 AH)

Rulers of Mughal Empire

*Zahiruddin Babur Mirza 1526 - 1530 (933-937 AH) - established Mughal Dynasty in India (Mughal Empire)
*Nasiruddin Humayun Mirza 1530 - 1556 (937-963 AH) - ruler of Mughal Empire, son of Babur
*Kamran Mirza 1530 - 1557 (937-962 AH) - ruler of Kabul and Lahore, son of Babur
*Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar Mirza (Akbar the Great) 1556-1605 (963-1014 AH) - greatest ruler of Mughal Empire, son of Humayun
*Abul Qasim Muhammad bin Kamran 968 AH
*Suleiman Mirza 936-92 AH
*Shahrukh III 983-87 AH - son of Ibrahim
*Nuruddin Muhammad Jahangir 1605 - 1627 (1014-1036 AH) - ruler of Mughal Empire, son of Akbar and Rajput Princess Mariam Zamani
*Shahbuddin Muhammad Shah Jahan (Shah Jahan I) 1627 - 1658 - ruler of Mughal Empire, son of Jahangir and Rajput Princess Manmati
*Mohiuddin Mohammed Aurangzeb (Aurangzeb Alamgir I) 1658-1707 - ruler of Mughal Empire, son of Shah Jahan
*Bahadur Shah I (Shah Alam I) 1707 - 1712 - son of Aurangzeb
*Jahandar Shah, b. 1664, ruler from 1712 - 1713 -
*Furrukhsiyar, b. 1683, ruler from 1713-1719
*Rafi Ul-Darjat, ruler 1719
*Rafi Ud-Daulat (Shah Jahan II), ruler 1719
*Nikusiyar, ruler 1719
*Muhammad Ibrahim, ruler 1720
*Muhammad Shah, b. 1702, ruler from 1719–1720, 1720-1748
*Ahmad Shah Bahadur, b. 1725, ruler from 1748-1754
*Alamgir II, b. 1699, ruler from 1754-1759 - son of Jahandar Shah
*Shah Jahan III, ruler 1759
*Shah Alam II, b. 1728, ruler from 1759-1806
*Akbar Shah II, b. 1760, ruler from 1806-1837
*Bahadur Shah II (Bahadur Shah Zafar) 1837-1857 - last ruler of the Timurid Dynasty

Heads of the Timurid Dynasty

*Bahadur Shah II (1857–1862)
*Shahzada Muhammad Hidayat Afshar, Ilahi Bakhsh Bahadur (1862–1878)
*Shahzada Muhammad Sulaiman Shah Bahadur (1878–1890)
*Shahzada Muhammad Kaiwan Shah Gorkwani, Suraya Jah Bahadur (1890–1913)
*Mirza Salim Muhammad Shah Bahadur (1913–1925)
*No recognised head of the family (1925–1931)
*Shahzada Muhammad Khair ud-din Mirza, Khurshid Jah Bahadur (1931–1975)
*Mirza Ghulam Moinuddin Muhammad, Javaid Jah Bahadur (1975-Present)

References and notes

Further reading

* [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v4f1/v4f1a008.html Baysonghori Shahnameh in Encyclopedia Iranica]
* Elliot, Sir H. M., Edited by Dowson, John. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; published by London Trubner Company 1867–1877. (Online Copy: [http://persian.packhum.org/persian/index.jsp?serv=pf&file=80201010&ct=0 The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; by Sir H. M. Elliot; Edited by John Dowson; London Trubner Company 1867–1877] - This online Copy has been posted by: [http://persian.packhum.org/persian/index.jsp The Packard Humanities Institute; Persian Texts in Translation; Also find other historical books: Author List and Title List] )

External links

* [http://www.islamicarchitecture.org/dynasties/timurids.html Timurids Dynasty]
* [http://www.art-arena.com/timurid.htm Timurids Art]
* [http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/exhibit/timurids/timurids.html Virtual Art Exhibit]
* [http://www.hostkingdom.net/centasia.html#Samarkand Chronology of Samarkand rulers]
* [http://www.hostkingdom.net/Centasia3.html#Herat Chronology of Herat rulers]
* [http://www.4dw.net/royalark/India4/delhi.htm royalark]
* [http://pagesperso-orange.fr/steppeasia/genealogie_tamerlan.htm Timurid genealogy]


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