The year 1000 of the
Gregorian Calendarwas the last year of the 10th centuryas well as the last year of the first millennium of the Christian era ending on December 31st. According to the then used Julian Calendar, AD1000 was a leap year starting on Monday. In the Gregorian Calendar (not invented at the time) the year would have been a common year starting on Wednesday.
In what is today China, the
Song Dynastyremained the world's most populous empire and continued to thrive under Emperor Zhenzong of Song China. By the late 11th century, the Song Dynasty had a total population of some 101 million people, an average annual ironoutput of 125,000 tons produced a year, and bolstered its enormous economy with the world's first known paper-printed money.
The Islamic world was experiencing a Golden Age around the year 1000 and continued to flourish under the
Arab Empire(including the Ummayad, Abbasidand Fatimid caliphates), which included what is now the Middle East, North Africa, Central Asiaand Iberian Peninsula. By 1000, Muslim traders and explorers had established a global economyacross the Old Worldleading to a Muslim Agricultural Revolution, establishing the Arab Empire as the world's leading extensive economic power.
The scientific achievements of the Islamic civilization also reaches its zenith during this time, with the emergence of the first
experimental scientists and the scientific method, which would form the basis of modern science.
Most of the leading scientists around the year 1000 were Muslim scientists, including
Ibn al-Haytham(Alhacen), Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, Avicenna, Abu al-Qasim(Abulcasis), Ibn Yunus, Abu Sahl al-Quhi (Kuhi), Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi, Abu Nasr Mansur, Abu al-Wafa, Ahmad ibn Fadlan, Al-Muqaddasi, Ali Ibn Isa, and al-Karaji(al-Karkhi), among others.
Ibn al-Haytham, Avicenna, Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, and Abu al-Qasim, who all flourished around the year 1000, are considered among the greatest scientists in history.
Hutuarrive in present-day Rwandaand Burundi, soon outnumbering the native Twa.
Leif Ericsonlands in North America, calling it Vinland.
Incasare one of many small groups fighting for land and water (approximate date).
Dhaka, Bangladesh, is founded.
September 9— Battle of Svolder: King Olaf Tryggvasonis defeated by an alliance of his enemies, in this notable naval battle of the Viking Age.
December 25- Stephen I becomes King of Hungary, which is established as a Christiankingdom.
Sancho III of Navarrebecomes King of Aragon and Navarre.
* Sweyn I establishes Danish control over part of
Oslo, Norwayis founded (the exact year is debatable, but the 1,000 year anniversary was held in the year 2000).
Emperor Otto IIImakes a pilgrimage from Rometo Aachenand Gniezno( Gnesen), stopping at Regensburg, Meissen, Magdeburg, and Gniezno. The Congress of Gniezno(with Bolesław I Chrobry) is part of his pilgrimage. In Rome, he builds the basilica of San Bartolomeo all'Isola, to host the relics of St. Bartholomew.
* The Château de Goulaine
vineyardis founded in France.
* The Islamic world expands.
Scandinaviaand Hungaryare Christianized.
Dioceseof Kołobrzegis founded.
archdiocesein Gnieznois founded; the first archibishop is Gaudentius (Radim), from Slavník's dynasty.
cience and Technology
* Scientific achievements in the Islamic civilization reach their zenith, with the emergence of the first
experimental scientists and the scientific method, which will form the basis of modern science.
Iraqi Muslim polymathand scientist, Ibn al-Haytham(Alhacen), who is considered the father of optics, the pioneer of the scientific method, and the "first scientist", moves to Egypt, where he invents the camera obscura, and writes his influential " Book of Optics", which introduces the scientific method, and drastically transforms the understanding of light, optics, vision, and sciencein general.
* Persian Muslim polymath and scientist, Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, who is considered the father of
geodesyand the "first anthropologist", writes books on many different topics, and rejects many theories which cannot be verified through experimentation.
* Persian Muslim scientist and physician,
Avicenna, who is considered the father of early modern medicine, publishes " The Canon of Medicine", an influential book which maintains that medicine should be known through either experimentation or reasoning. He also publishes " The Book of Healing", where he hypothesizes two causes of mountains: "Either they are the effects of upheavals of the crust of the earth, or they are the effect of water, which, cutting itself a new route, has denuded the valleys."
ArabAndalusian Muslim physician, Abu al-Qasim(Abulcasis), the "father of modern surgery", publishes his influential 30-volume medical encyclopedia, the " Al-Tasrif", which remains a standard textbook in the Islamic world and medieval Europe for centuries.
Egyptian Muslim mathematician and astronomer, Ibn Yunus, publishes his astronomical treatise "Al-Zij al-Hakimi al-Kabir", and invents the pendulum.
* Persian Muslim physicist and mathematician, Abu Sahl al-Quhi (Kuhi), hypothesizes that the heaviness of bodies vary with their distance from the center of the Earth, and solves
equations higher than the second degree.
* Persian Muslim astronomer and mathematician,
Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi, invents the astronomical sextant and first states a special case of Fermat's last theorem.
* The Bell
foundryis founded in Italyby Fonderia Pontificia Marinelli.
Gunpowderis invented in China.
World population: 310,000,000.
Adalbert, Duke of Lorraine(d. 1048)
Qawam al-Daula, ruler of Kerman(d. 1028)
* Ibn Rashiq, Arab rhetorician (d.
September 9— Olaf I of Norway(killed at the Battle of Svold) (b. 969)
Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi, Persian astronomer and mathematician
* Abu Sahl al-Quhi (Kuhi), Persian physicist, mathematician and astronomer
Ahmad ibn Fadlan, Arabwriter and traveller
Al-Muqaddasi, Arab geographerand social scientist
* Ælfthryth, second or third wife of
Edgar of England
Garcia IV of Pamplona
* Tlilcoatzin, Toltec ruler (approximate date)
* Topiltzin, Toltec ruler
David III of Tao(murdered by his nobles)
Huyan Zan, Chinese general
Hrosvit, Saxon nun
List of state leaders in 1000
* Robert Lacey and Danny Danziger "The Year 1000: What Life Was Like at the Turn of the First Millennium" (1999) ISBN 0-316-55840-0
* John Man "Atlas of the Year 1000" (1999) ISBN 0-14-051419-8
* [http://www.calendaryear.net/1000 1000 Calendar Year]
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