Margaret Stewart, Dauphine of France


Margaret Stewart, Dauphine of France
See also Margaret Stewart.
Margaret of Scotland
Dauphine of Viennois
Spouse Louis XI of France
House House of Stewart
Father James I of Scotland
Mother Joan Beaufort
Born 1424
Perth
Died 16 August 1445
Châlons-sur-Marne, France
Burial Saint-Laon church, Thouars, France

Margaret of Scotland (French: Marguerite d'Écosse) (25 December 1424 – 16 August 1445) was a Princess of Scotland and the Dauphine of France. She was the firstborn child of King James I of Scotland and Queen Joan Beaufort.

She married the eldest son of the king of France, Louis, 9th Dauphin, at eleven years old. Their marriage was unhappy, and she died childless aged 20 apparently of a fever.

Contents

Early life

She was born in Perth, Scotland to James I of Scotland and Joan Beaufort, a cousin of Henry VI of England. Margaret was the first of six daughters and twin sons born to her parents (her surviving brother, James, would become James II of Scotland at six years old).

Marriage

Margaret was Charles VII of France's diplomatic choice for daughter-in-law.[1] The marriage was forced upon Charles's thirteen-year-old son, Louis, which did not help their relationship. However, royal marriages in the 15th century were always political.[2] There are no direct accounts from Louis or Margaret of their first impressions of each other, and it is mere speculation to say whether or not they actually had negative feelings for each other. Several historians think that Louis had a predetermined attitude to hate his wife. But it is universally agreed upon that Louis entered the ceremony and the marriage itself dutifully, as evidenced by his formal embrace of Margaret upon their first meeting on 24 June 1436, the day before their wedding.

Margaret and Louis's marriage shows both the nature of medieval royal diplomacy and the precarious position of the French monarchy. The marriage took place 25 June 1436 in the afternoon in the chapel of the castle of Tours and was presided over the Archbishop of Reims. By the standards of the time, it was a very plain wedding.[3] Louis, thirteen, looked clearly more mature than his bride, eleven. Margaret looked like a beautiful “doll,” interesting because she was treated as such by her in-laws.[3] Charles wore “grey riding pants” and “did not even bother to remove his spurs.”[3] The Scottish guests were quickly hustled out after the wedding reception. This was seen as something of a scandal by the Scots. King Charles’ attire and the speed with which the guests were hustled out was considered an insult to their small but proud country. However, this spoke to the impoverished nature of the French court at this time. They simply could not afford an extravagant ceremony or to host their Scottish guests for any longer than they did.[2]

Following the ceremony, “doctors advised against consummation” because of the relative immaturity of the bride and bridegroom. Margaret continued her studies and Louis went on tour with Charles to loyal areas of the kingdom. Even at this time, Charles was taken aback by the intelligence and temper of his son. During this tour, Louis was named Dauphin by Charles, as is traditional for the eldest son of the king.[2]

Margaret was lovely, gracious and very beautiful (facie venusta valde, "a very lovely face," says the compiler of the Book of Pluscarden), with a certain ability to write poesy and rhymes (no example of her compositions survived destruction at her husband's hands after her death). She was also superficial and very interested in the French court's social and gallant life. She was a favourite of her father-in-law Charles VII of France and popular among the courtiers. However, she felt herself alien amongst the French court and became depressed.[citation needed]

She had a strained relationship with her husband, the future king of France, mainly because of Louis' hatred of his father. Charles VII ordered the marriage, and Margaret frequently supported the king against her husband. It is said that she wore a strongly-tied corset because of her fear of pregnancies, ate green apples and drank apple vinegar. Her unhappy marriage furthered her depression, as did the gossip spread regarding her by supporters of Louis.[citation needed]

Death

On 16 August 1445, between ten and eleven at night, she died in Châlons-sur-Marne, Marne, France at the age of 20. On Saturday, 7 August, she and her ladies had joined the court on a short pilgrimage. It was very hot, and when she returned, she undressed in her stone chamber. The next morning she was feverish, the doctor diagnosed the inflammation of the lungs. She died, raving against a Jamet de Tillay, a Breton soldier, in favour of her father-in-law, King Charles (James surprised Margaret at her habitual poetry reading, when there were no candles, only a good fire in the mantelpiece; he stuck a candle into her face, sniggered and afterwards went around, talking about "wanton princesses". Louis was cold to Margaret, and she attributed his coldness to the gossip spread by Jamet. She died, protesting her faithfulness to her husband, and accused Jamet of killing her with his words). 1 Melancholic and distressed by slander against her, she sank into a final languor before dying. Her last words, in response to others' urgings to rouse herself and live, were supposedly Fi de la vie! qu'on ne m'en parle plus ("Fie on life! Speak no more of it to me").

She was buried in the Saint-Laon church[4] in Thouars, in the Deux-Sèvres department of France.

Five and a half years after her death, her husband married Charlotte of Savoy, by whom he had three surviving children: Charles VIII of France, and two daughters, Anne of France and Jeanne.

Margaret is also famous for the legend that she was kissed or almost kissed by poet Alain Chartier while asleep in her own rooms (another variant of this legend has Anne of Brittany as its protagonist), though her age and location at the time of Chartier's death would have made that impossible.

Ancestry

References

  1. ^ Kendall,Paul Murray. Louis XI "...the universal spider...". New York: W. W. Norton & Company Inc., 1971.[page needed]
  2. ^ a b c Tyrell, Joseph M. Louis XI. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1980.[page needed]
  3. ^ a b c Cleugh,James. Chant Royal The Life of King Louis XI of France (1423-1483). Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1970.[page needed]
  4. ^ http://www.diocese-poitiers.com.fr/patrimoine/thouars-stlaon.html (French)
  5. ^ McAndrew, Scotland's Historic Heraldry, p 173
  6. ^ http://thepeerage.com/p10210.htm#i102098

Sources

  • Ruth Putnam, Charles the Bold
  • Kendall, P.M. Louis XI: The Universal Spider, London, 2001, pp. 66, 393-395
French royalty
Preceded by
Jacqueline of Hainaut
Dauphine of France
24 June 1436 – 16 August 1445
Succeeded by
Charlotte of Savoy
Scottish royalty
Preceded by
James II of Scotland
Heir of Scotland
as heiress presumptive
21 February 1437 – 16 August 1445
Succeeded by
Isabella Stewart, Duchess of Brittany

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Margaret Stewart — or Stuart may refer to: Margaret Stewart, Countess of Angus and Mar (died 1417), second wife of Thomas, Earl of Mar, and mother of George Douglas, 1st Earl of Angus Margaret Stewart, Dauphine of France (1424–1445), princess of the Kingdom of… …   Wikipedia

  • Dauphine of France — See also: Dauphin of France Contents 1 Dauphine of France 1.1 House of Valois 1.2 House of Bourbon 2 Notes …   Wikipedia

  • Margaret of Scotland — may refer to: Arguably, one Queen Regnant of Scotland: Margaret, Maid of Norway (1283–1290), Norwegian–Scottish princess Two Scottish princesses who married into foreign royalty: Margaret of Scotland, Queen of Norway (1261–1283), daughter of… …   Wikipedia

  • Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Stafford — For other people of the same name, see Margaret Beaufort (disambiguation). Margaret Beaufort Countess of Stafford Spouse(s) Humphrey Stafford, Earl of Stafford Sir Richard Dayrell Issue Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham Margaret Dayrell,… …   Wikipedia

  • France — /frans, frahns/; Fr. /frddahonns/, n. 1. Anatole /ann nann tawl /, (Jacques Anatole Thibault), 1844 1924, French novelist and essayist: Nobel prize 1921. 2. a republic in W Europe. 58,470,421; 212,736 sq. mi. (550,985 sq. km). Cap.: Paris. 3.… …   Universalium

  • Marie Thérèse of France — Marie Thérèse by Antoine Jean Gros Queen consort of France and Navarre (disputed) Tenure 2 August 1830 for 20 minutes …   Wikipedia

  • Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany — Robert Stewart Governor of Scotland Duke of Albany, Earl of Fife Menteith Reign 1406–1420 (Governor of Scotland) …   Wikipedia

  • Mary Stewart, Countess of Buchan — (before 1428 – 20 March 1465) was the fifth daughter of James I of Scotland and Lady Joan Beaufort. She married Wolfert VI of Borselen, a Zeelander nobleman and lived in the Netherlands until her death in 1465. She had two children who died young …   Wikipedia

  • David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay — David Stewart (24 October 1378 – 26 March 1402, at Falkland Palace, Fife, Scotland) was the heir to the throne of Scotland from 1390 and the first Duke of Rothesay from 1398. He also held the titles of Earl of Atholl (1398–1402) and Earl of… …   Wikipedia

  • David Stewart, Earl of Strathearn — David Stewart (1357 – c. 1386), Prince of Scotland, was a 14th century Scottish magnate. He was the eldest son of the second marriage of King Robert II of Scotland with Euphemia de Ross. King Robert, on 26 March 1371, the day of his coronation,… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.