Millennium: 2nd millennium Centuries: 19th century – 20th century – 21st century Decades: 1880s 1890s 1900s – 1910s – 1920s 1930s 1940s Years: 1916 1917 1918 – 1919 – 1920 1921 1922 1919 by topic: Subject Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Aviation – Awards – Comics – Film – Literature (Poetry) – Meteorology – Music – Rail transport – Radio – Science – Sports – Television By country Australia – Canada – China – Ecuador – France – Germany – Greece – India – Ireland – Italy – Japan – Malaya – Mexico – New Zealand – Norway – Palestine (British administered) – Philippines – Russia – Singapore – South Africa – UK – USA Leaders Sovereign states – State leaders – Religious leaders – Law Birth and death categories Births – Deaths Establishments and disestablishments categories Establishments – Disestablishments Works and introductions categories Works – Introductions 1919 in other calendars Gregorian calendar 1919
Ab urbe condita 2672 Armenian calendar 1368
Assyrian calendar 6669 Bahá'í calendar 75 – 76 Bengali calendar 1326 Berber calendar 2869 British Regnal year 8 Geo. 5 – 9 Geo. 5 Buddhist calendar 2463 Burmese calendar 1281 Byzantine calendar 7427 – 7428 Chinese calendar 戊午年十一月三十日
(4555/4615-11-30)— to —己未年十一月初十日
Coptic calendar 1635 – 1636 Ethiopian calendar 1911 – 1912 Hebrew calendar 5679 – 5680 Hindu calendars - Bikram Samwat 1975 – 1976 - Shaka Samvat 1841 – 1842 - Kali Yuga 5020 – 5021 Holocene calendar 11919 Iranian calendar 1297 – 1298 Islamic calendar 1337 – 1338 Japanese calendar Taishō 8
Korean calendar 4252 Minguo calendar ROC 8
Thai solar calendar 2462
- January 1
- January 6 – Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th President of the United States, dies in his sleep at the age of 60.
- January 7
- January 9 – Friedrich Ebert orders the Freikorps into action in Berlin.
- January 10–January 12 – The Freikorps attacks Spartacist supporters around Berlin, Germany.
- January 11 – Romania annexes Transylvania.
- January 13 – Worker's councils in Berlin end the general strike; Spartacus Week is over.
- January 15
- January 16 – The 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution, authorizing Prohibition, is ratified.
- January 18
- January 21
- January 23 – The Uprising of Khotin breaks out in Khotyn, Ukraine.
- January 25 – The League of Nations is founded in Paris.
- January 31 – 1919 Battle of George Square: British police battle strikers in Glasgow, Scotland.
- Estonian Freedom War: The Red Army is expelled from the entire territory of Estonia.
- February 3 – Soviet troops occupy Ukraine.
- February 6 – The Seattle General Strike begins. Over 65,000 workers strike.
- February 11
- February 14 – The Polish-Soviet War begins.
- February 25 – Oregon places a one cent per US gallon (0.26¢/liter) tax on gasoline, becoming the first U.S. state to levy a gasoline tax.
- February 26 – An act of the United States Congress establishes most of the Grand Canyon as a United States National Park (see Grand Canyon National Park).
- February 28 – Amanullah Khan becomes King of Afghanistan.
- March 1 – The March 1st Movement against Japanese colonial rule in Korea is formed.
- March 2 – First Communist International meeting in Moscow.
- March 3 – The Supreme Court of the United States upholds the conviction of Charles Schenck.
- March 4 – Communist International (“Comintern”) founded.
- March 5 – A. Mitchell Palmer becomes Attorney General of the United States through recess appointment.
- March 9 – The Egyptian Revolution of 1919 breaks out.
- March 15 – The American Legion forms in Paris.
- March 21 – The Hungarian Soviet Republic is established by Béla Kun.
- March 23 – In Milan, Italy, Benito Mussolini founds his Fascist political movement.
- March 31 – A general strike begins in the Ruhr.
- April 6–April 7 – The Bavarian Soviet Republic is founded.
- April 12 – Murderer Henri Désiré Landru is arrested.
- April 13
- April 14 – The Emperor of Austria moves to exile in Switzerland.
- April 15 – Save the Children Fund set up in the UK to raise money for the relief of German and Austrian children.
- April 23 – The Constituent Assembly of Estonia convenes its first session.
- April 25
- April 30 – Several bombs are intercepted in the first wave of the 1919 United States anarchist bombings.
- May 1
- May 3
- May 4 – The May Fourth Movement opposes foreign colonizers in China.
- May 5 – The League of Red Cross Societies is founded in Paris.
- May 9 – In Belgium, a new electoral law introduces universal manhood suffrage and gives the franchise to certain classes of women.
- May 15 – Winnipeg workers launch a general strike for better wages and working conditions.
- May 16
- May 17 – The Committee of One Thousand forms to oppose the Winnipeg General Strike.
- May 19 – Mustafa Kemal Atatürk lands at Samsun on the Anatolian Black Sea coast, marking the start of the Turkish War of Independence. The anniversary of this event is also an official day of remembrance for Pontic Greeks.
- May 23 – The University of California opens its second campus in Los Angeles. Initially called Southern Branch of the University of California (SBUC), it is eventually renamed the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
- May 25 – Volcano Kelut erupts in Java, killing about 20,000.
- May 29
- May 30 – By agreement with the United Kingdom, later confirmed by the League of Nations, Belgium is given the mandate over part of German East Africa (Ruanda and Urundi).
- June 2 – Several mail bombs are sent to prominent figures as part of the 1919 United States anarchist bombings.
- June 4 – Women's rights: The United States Congress approves the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which would guarantee suffrage to women, and sends it to the U.S. states for ratification.
- June 6 – The Hungarian Red Army attacks the Prekmurian Republic.
- June 14 – Sir John William Alcock KBE DSC together with navigator Lieutenant Arthur Whitten Brown, piloted the first non-stop transatlantic flight from St. John's, Newfoundland to Clifden, Connemara, Ireland.
- June 15 – Pancho Villa attacks Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. When the bullets begin to fly to the American side of the border, two units of the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the U.S. Army crossed the border to repulse Villa's forces away from American territory.
- June 17 – British Police Sergeant Thomas Green killed during the Epsom Riot by Canadian troops
- June 21
- Winnipeg General Strike: Royal Northwest Mounted Police fire a volley of bullets into a crowd of unemployed war veterans, killing two of them.
- Admiral Ludwig von Reuter scuttles the German fleet in Scapa Flow, Scotland. Nine German sailors are killed.
- The airliner American Winged Foot Express catches fire over downtown Chicago. Two passengers, one aircrewman and 10 people on the ground are killed. However, two people parachute to the ground safely.
- June 23 – Estonian War of Independence – Battle of Cēsis: The Estonian army wins in Northern Latvia against the pro-German Baltische Landeswehr.
- June 28
- July 2 – Syrian National Congress in Damascus. Arab nationalist announce independence.
- July 6 – The British dirigible R34 lands in New York, completing the first crossing of the Atlantic by an airship.
- July 7 – The U.S. Army sends a convoy across the continental U.S., starting in Washington, D.C., to assess the possibility of crossing North America by road. This crossing took many months to complete, because the building of the U.S. Highway System had not even commenced.
- July 19 – The Foreign Ministry of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was established at the decree of the chancellory for foreign affairs.
- July 31 – Policemen in London and Liverpool strike for recognition of the National Union of Police and Prison Officers; over 2,000 strikers are dismissed.
- August 1 – Béla Kun's Soviet Republic collapses in Hungary.
- August 11
- August 18 – The Bolshevik fleet at Kronstadt, near Petrograd, Russia, on the Baltic Sea, is mostly destroyed by German warplanes and torpedo boats in a combined operation.
- August 19 – Afghanistan gains independence from the United Kingdom.
- August 16 – August 26 – First Silesian Uprising: The Poles in Upper Silesia rise against the Germans.
- August 31 – The American Communist Party is established.
- September 6 – The U.S. Army expedition across America, which started July 7, ends in San Francisco.
- September 10 – The Treaty of Saint-Germain is signed, ending World War I with Empire of Austria-Hungary.
- September 10 – September 15: The Florida Keys Hurricane kills 600 in the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and Texas.
- September 12
- September 22 – The Steel strike of 1919 begins across the United States.
- September 27 – The last British Army troops leave Archangel, Russia and leave the fighting to the Russians.
- October 2 – President of the United States Woodrow Wilson suffers a serious stroke, rendering him an invalid through the end of his life - in 1924.
- October 13 – The Convention relating to the Regulation of Aerial Navigation is signed.
- October 28 – Prohibition in the United States is authorized: The United States Congress passes the Volstead Act over President Woodrow Wilson's veto. Prohibition did not go into effect until January 19, 1920, under the provisions of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution.
- November 1 – The Coal Strike of 1919 begins. The United Mine Workers under John L. Lewis announce a strike for November 1, 1919. Final agreement comes on December 10.
- November 7 – The first Palmer Raid is conducted on the second anniversary of the Russian Revolution. Over 10,000 suspected communists and anarchists are arrested in twenty-three different U.S. cities.
- November 9 – Felix the Cat appears in Feline Follies, marking the first cartoon character to become popular.
- November 10 – The first national convention of the American Legion is held in Minneapolis, Minnesota (until November 12).
- November 11 – The Centralia Massacre in Centralia, Washington results in the deaths of four members of the American Legion, and the lynching of a local leader of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW).
- November 16 – After Entente pressure Romanian forces withdraw from Budapest and let Admiral Horthy to march in.
- November 19
- The confirmation is announced of Einstein's general relativity theory, tested by Arthur Eddington and Andrew Crommelin during a total solar eclipse on May 29, 1919 FirstScience.
- The Treaty of Versailles fails a critical ratification vote in the United States Senate. It will never be ratified by the US.
- November 27
- The Treaty of Neuilly is signed between the Allies and Bulgaria.
- Kappa Kappa Psi, National Honorary Band Fraternity, is established at Oklahoma A&M College (now named Oklahoma State University) in Stillwater, OK.
- November 30 – Health officials declare that the global Spanish Flu pandemic has ended.
- December 1 – The American-born Lady Astor, the second female elected to the British House of Commons (first was Constance Markievicz), became the first female MP to take her seat.
- December 5 – The Turkish Ministry of War releases Greeks, Armenians and Jews from military service.
- December 21 – United States deports 249 people, including Emma Goldman, to Russia on the USAT Buford.
- December 25 – Cliftonhill Stadium in Coatbridge opens (the home of the Albion Rovers F.C.) They lose the match 2–0 to St. Mirren.
- John Maynard Keynes' book The Economic Consequences of the Peace is published in the UK.
- Earl W. Bascom, rodeo cowboy and artist, along with his father John W. Bascom at Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, designs and makes rodeo's first reverse-opening side-delivery bucking chute, now the world standard.
- Les Champs Magnetiques, the first automatic book, is written by André Breton and Philippe Soupault.
- XWA (now CINW), in Montreal, Quebec, becomes the first public radio station in North America to go on the air.
- Various strikes occur in the United States: Strike of US railroad workers; The Longshoreman's strike; The Great Steel Strike; and a general strike in Seattle, Washington.
- Female suffrage is enacted in Germany and Luxembourg.
- The International Astronomical Union is founded in France.
- The World League Against Alcoholism is established by the Anti-Saloon League.
- The fictional character Ham Gravy debuts in Thimble Theatre Comics.
- US President Woodrow Wilson promises eventual independence for Philippines, though subsequent Republican administrations see it as a distant goal.
- John Moses Browning finalizes the design for the M1919 .30 (30-06) caliber medium machine gun, the first widely distributed and practical air cooled medium machine gun introduced to the US Military. It receives an official designation and production is started in the same year, a very uncommon happening. It is later reconfigured to shoot the .50 BMG (Browning Machine Gun) cartridge and is redesignated the M2 Browning .50 caliber heavy machine gun, which is still in use to this day after almost one hundred years of service, with no signs of being de-commissioned in even the far future.
- Severe inflation in Germany has seen the Papiermark rise to 47 marks next to a American dollar by December, compared to 12 marks in April.
- January 1 – J. D. Salinger, American novelist (The Catcher in the Rye) (d. 2010)
- January 5 – Hector Abhayavardhana, Sri Lankan political theorist
- January 10 – Amzie Strickland, American actress (d. 2006)
- January 13 – Robert Stack, American actor (The Untouchables) (d. 2003)
- January 14
- January 15 – George Cadle Price, first Prime Minister of Belize
- January 23
- January 24 – Leon Kirchner, American composer (d. 2009)
- January 25
- January 26 – Valentino Mazzola, Italian footballer (d. 1949)
- January 27 – Ross Bagdasarian, American musician and actor (Alvin and the Chipmunks) (d. 1972)
- January 30 – John C. Elliott, American politician and 39th Governor of American Samoa (d. 2001)
- January 31 – Jackie Robinson, African-American baseball player (d. 1972)
- February 5
- February 9 – Langdon Brown Gilkey, American Protestant ecumenical theologian (d. 2004)
- February 11
- February 12
- February 13 – Tennessee Ernie Ford, American musician (d. 1991)
- February 16 – Charlie Parlato, American musician (d. 2007)
- February 18 – Jack Palance, American actor (d. 2006)
- February 20
- February 24 – Árpád Bogsch, Hungarian international civil servant (d. 2004)
- February 26
- March 2 – Jennifer Jones, American actress (d. 2009)
- March 4 – Buck Baker, American racecar driver (d. 2002)
- March 7 – M. N. Nambiar, Indian film actor (d. 2008)
- March 15 – Lawrence Tierney, American actor (d. 2002)
- March 17 – Nat King Cole, African-American singer (Unforgettable) (d. 1965)
- March 24
- March 29 – Eileen Heckart, American actress (d. 2001)
- March 30 – McGeorge Bundy, U.S. National Security Advisor (d. 1996)
- April 1 – Joseph Murray, American surgeon, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
- April 8 – Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia (d. 2007)
- April 13
- April 16 – Merce Cunningham, American dancer and choreographer (d. 2009)
- April 20 – Richard Hillary, British pilot and author (d. 1943)
- April 22 – Donald J. Cram, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2001)
- April 24 – Glafkos Klerides, Cypriot president (1993–2003)
- May 1
- May 3
- May 4 – Dory Funk, American professional wrestler (d. 1973)
- May 7
- May 8 – Lex Barker, American actor (d. 1973)
- May 14 – Denis Cannan, British dramatist, playwright and scriptwriter
- May 16 – Liberace, American pianist (d. 1987)
- May 17
- May 18 – Margot Fonteyn, English ballet dancer (d. 1991)
- May 20 – George Gobel, American comedian (d. 1991)
- May 23
- June 4 – Robert Merrill, American baritone (d. 2004)
- June 11 – Richard Todd, Irish born British actor (d. 2009)
- June 12 – Ahmed Abdallah, former President of the Comoros (d. 1989)
- June 14 – Gene Barry, American actor (d. 2009)
- June 19 – Pauline Kael, American film critic (d. 2001)
- June 21 – Gérard Pelletier, Canadian journalist, politician, and diplomat (d. 1997)
- June 26 – Richard Neustadt, American political historian (d. 2003)
- June 30 – Ed Yost, American inventor (d. 2007)
- July 6 – Ernst Haefliger, Swiss tenor (d. 2007)
- July 7 – Jon Pertwee, British actor (d. 1996)
- July 8 – Walter Scheel, President of Germany
- July 13 – Grisha Filipov, leading member of the Bulgarian communist party (d. 1994)
- July 15 – Iris Murdoch, Irish novelist (d. 1999)
- July 19
- July 20 – Sir Edmund Hillary, New Zealand mountaineer, conqueror of Mount Everest (d. 2008)
- July 31 – Maurice Boitel, French painter (d. 2007)
- August 2 – Nehemiah Persoff, Israeli-American character actor
- August 8 – Dino De Laurentiis, Italian film producer (d. 2010)
- August 9 – Joop den Uyl, Dutch politician, Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1973 until 1977 (d. 1987)
- August 11 – Ginette Neveu, French violinist (d. 1949)
- August 13 –
- August 15 – Benedict Kiely, Irish author and broadcaster (d. 2007)
- August 18 – Walter Joseph Hickel, 2nd and 8th Governor of Alaska (d. 2010)
- August 21 – Dalmiro Finol, Venezuelan baseball player (d. 1994)
- August 25 – George Wallace, Governor of Alabama (d. 1998)
- August 28 – Godfrey Hounsfield, English electrical engineer and inventor, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2004)
- August 30 – Wolfgang Wagner, German opera director (d. 2010)
- August 31 – Amrita Preetam, Indian poetess and author (d. 2005)
- September 1 – Gladys Davis, Canadian professional baseball player
- September 4 – Howard Morris, American actor (d. 2005)
- September 11 – Ota Sik, Czech economist and politician (d. 2004)
- September 18 – Pal Losonczi, Hungarian politician (d. 2005)
- September 21 – Fazlur Rahman, Pakistani Islamic scholar (d. 1988)
- September 24 – Rick Vallin, Russian-American actor (d. 1977)
- September 26 – Matilde Camus, Spanish poet and researcher
- September 27 – James H. Wilkinson, English mathematician (d. 1986)
- October 3 – James M. Buchanan, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate
- October 4 – John Sawyer (Nancy Buckingham, Christina Abbey, Erica Quest, Nancy John, Hilary London), British romance novelist (d. 1994)
- October 5 – Donald Pleasence, English actor (d. 1995)
- October 6 – Mohamed Siad Barre, former President of Somalia (d. 1995)
- October 7 – Zelman Cowen, Governor-General of Australia
- October 9 – Jason Wingreen, American actor
- October 11 – Art Blakey, American jazz drummer (d. 1990)
- October 12
- October 16 – Kathleen Winsor, American writer (d. 2003)
- October 17 – Zhao Ziyang, prime minister of the People's Republic of China (d. 2005)
- October 18
- October 22 – Doris Lessing, British writer
- October 23 – Manolis Andronikos, Greek archaeologist (d 1992)
- October 26
- November 3
- November 5 – Myron Floren, American accordionist (The Lawrence Welk Show) (d. 2005)
- November 10 – Mikhail Kalashnikov, Russian firearms inventor
- November 14 – Lisa Otto, German soprano
- November 15 – Roy Burden, Canadian World War II pilot (d. 2005)
- November 18 – Andrée Borrel, French World War II heroine (d. 1944)
- November 19 – Alan Young, English-born character actor
- November 21 – Gert Fredriksson, Swedish canoer (d. 2006)
- November 26 – Frederik Pohl, American science fiction writer
- November 28 – Keith Miller, Australian sportsman (d. 2004)
- December 4 – I. K. Gujral, Indian politician, Prime Minister of India (1997–98)
- December 6 – Paul de Man, Belgian-born literary critic (d. 1983)
- December 7 – Lis Løwert, Danish actress (d. 2009)
- December 8 – Mieczyslaw Weinberg, Polish composer (d. 1996)
- December 9 – William Lipscomb, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2011)
- December 21 – Ove Sprogøe, Danish actor (d. 2004)
- December 31 – Tommy Byrne, baseball player (d. 2007)
- January 4 – Georg von Hertling, Chancellor of Germany (b. 1843)
- January 6
- January 7 – Henry Ware Eliot American industrialist and philanthropist (b. 1843)
- January 15
- January 18 – Prince John of the United Kingdom (b. 1905)
- January 27 – Endre Ady, Hungarian poet (b. 1877)
- February 2 – Julius Kuperjanov, Estonian military commander (b. 1894)
- February 17 – Wilfrid Laurier, seventh Prime Minister of Canada (b. 1841)
- March 2 – Melchora Aquino, Filipino revolutionary hero (b. 1812)
- April 4
- April 8 – Franklin Winfield Woolworth, American businessman (born 1852)
- April 9 – Sidney Drew, American actor (born 1863)
- April 10 – Emiliano Zapata, Mexican revolutionary (b. 1879)
- April 15 – Jane Delano, American nurse and founder or the American Red Cross Nursing Service (b. 1862)
- April 27 – Anton Irv, Estonian military officer (b. 1886)
- May 3 – Eugen Levine, German revolutionary (b. 1883)
- May 4 – Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Slovak general, politician, and astronomer (b. 1880)
- May 6 – L. Frank Baum, American author, poet, playwright, actor and independent filmmaker (The Wizard of Oz) (b. 1856)
- May 14 – Henry John Heinz, American businessman (b. 1844)
- May 21 – Lamar Johnstone, American silent film actor & director (b. 1885)
- June 29 – José Gregorio Hernández, Venezuelan medician and saint (b. 1864)
- June 30 – John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1842)
- July 15 – Hermann Emil Fischer, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1852)
- July 26 – Edward Poynter, British painter (b. 1836)
- August 1 – Oscar Hammerstein I, Polish-born theater impressario and composer (born 1847)
- August 9 – Ruggiero Leoncavallo, Italian composer (b. 1857)
- August 11 – Andrew Carnegie, Scottish-born businessman and philanthropist (b. 1835)
- August 21 – Laurie Doherty, British tennis champion (born 1875)
- September 27 – Adelina Patti, Italian opera singer (born 1843)
- October 7 – Alfred Deakin, second Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1856)
- October 13 – Karl Adolph Gjellerup, Danish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1857)
- October 18 – Viscount William Astor, American financier and statesman (b. 1848)
- November 9 – Eduard Müller, Swiss Federal Councillor (b. 1848)
- November 15 – Alfred Werner, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1866)
- November 24 – William Stowell, American silent film actor & director (b. 1885)
- December 2 – Henry C. Frick, American industrialist (born 1849)
- December 3 – Pierre-Auguste Renoir, French painter (b. 1841)
- December 19 – Martin Savage, IRA commander (b. 1898)
- Physics – Johannes Stark
- Chemistry – not awarded
- Physiology or Medicine – Jules Bordet
- Literature – Carl Friedrich Georg Spitteler
- Peace – Woodrow Wilson
- Margaret MacMillan, Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World, 2002, Random House.
- Paula Phelan, 1919 Misfortune's End, 2007, ZAPmedia.
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