A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. The office of bishop is one of the three ministerial offices within
Christianity, the other two being those of priestand deacon. Within the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian Church of the Eastand Anglicanchurches, bishops claim Apostolic Succession, a direct historical lineage dating back to the original Twelve Apostles. Within these churches, bishops can ordain clergy including other bishops. Some Protestantchurches including the Lutheranand Methodistchurches have bishops serving similar functions as well, though not understood to be within Apostolic Successionin the same sense. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints church also has bishops, who serve as spiritual leaders of local congregations (wards). Bishops are of a higher rank than priests.
The office of bishop was already quite distinct from that of priest in the writings of
Ignatius of Antioch(died c. 107), and by the middle of the second century all the chief centres of Christianity were headed by bishops, a form of organization that remained universal until the Protestant Reformation."bishop." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005]
"Bishop" comes from the Greek word "episkopos" (ἐπίσκοπος, from ἐπί "over" and σκοπός "seeing") which can be translated "overseer", "superintendent", "supervisor", "the first", "leader" or "foreman". From the word "episkopos" are derived the English words "episcopacy", "episcopate" and "episcopal". The system of church government by bishops is called "episcopacy."
Bishops in the New Testament
New Testamentuses the word "episkopos" five times.
Acts of the Apostlesniv|Acts|20:28|20:28
Epistle to the Philippiansniv|Philippians|1:1|1:1
First Epistle to Timothy[http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1%20Timothy%203:1-7;&version=31; 3:2]
Epistle to Titusniv|Titus|1:7|1:7
First Epistle of Peter[http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1%20Peter%202:25;&version=31; 2:25] Words related to "episkopos" are used in two other verses. Some English Bibles transliterate this word as "bishop" (KJV, RSV, NRSV, etc.), while others use a more basic translation such as "overseer" (NIV, ESV, etc.). Biblical scholars differ on which, if any, of these verses refer specifically to ordained bishops as we understand them, and which simply refer to a generic "overseer" capacity.
The ministry of these
New Testament"episkopoi", according to some writers, was not explicitly commissioned by Jesus Christas far as the Gospels tell, but appears to be a natural, practical development of the church of the apostles during the first and second centuries AD. Others maintain that the episcopal structure of the Church was present from the beginning, being a direct institution by Jesus, referring to the apostles who clearly led the first local churches, governed and laid hands on the clergy and faithful. Supporting this latter view, the portions of the New Testament that mention "episkopoi" do not appear to be ordering a new type of ministry, but giving instructions for an already existing position within the early Church. In places (particularly in the verses from the Epistle to Titus) it appears that the position of "episkopos" is often similar or the same as that of " presbyter" ("πρεσβυτερος"), or elder and (or) priest. The Epistle to Timothy mentions deacons ("διακονοι") in a manner that suggests that the office of deacon differs from the office of the bishop, and is subordinate to it, though it carries similar qualifications. Some references indicate that a congregation might have multiple "episkopoi", which is different than the bishop's role as it came to be established in the 2nd century.
Acts of the Apostles, episkopoi are mentioned as being "shepherds" of the "flock", imagery that is still in use today. The other passages from the New Testamentdescribe them as stewards, leaders or administrators, and teachers. In 1 Timothy episkopoi are required to be 'the husband of but one wife'. Thus, it is clear that the New Testament has no prohibition against bishops being married and already having children. The most famous example of this is the Apostle Peter himself, who was married and had children. It remains unclear however, whether a kind of celibacyor abstinence had to be practiced by these first bishops and apostles after their appointment or episcopal consecration (see also clerical celibacy).
It is interesting to note that in the second chapter of 1 Peter,
Jesusis described as 'the Shepherd and "Episkopos" of your souls' ("τον ποιμενα και επισκοπον των ψυχων υμων").
Bishops in the Apostolic Fathers
Around the end of the first century AD, the church's organization becomes clearer in historical documents. In the works of the
Apostolic Fathers, and Ignatius of Antiochin particular, the role of the episkopos, or bishop, became more important or, rather, already was very important and being clearly defined.
"Plainly therefore we ought to regard the bishop as the Lord Himself" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 6:1.
"your godly bishop" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 2:1.
"the bishop presiding after the likeness of God and the presbyters after the likeness of the council of the Apostles, with the deacons also who are most dear to me, having been entrusted with the diaconate of Jesus Christ" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 6:1.
"Therefore as the Lord did nothing without the Father, [being united with Him] , either by Himself or by the Apostles, so neither do ye anything without the bishop and the presbyters." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 7:1.
"Be obedient to the bishop and to one another, as Jesus Christ was to the Father [according to the flesh] , and as the Apostles were to Christ and to the Father, that there may be union both of flesh and of spirit." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 13:2.
"In like manner let all men respect the deacons as Jesus Christ, even as they should respect the bishop as being a type of the Father and the presbyters as the council of God and as the college of Apostles. Apart from these there is not even the name of a church." —
Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallesians3:1.
"follow your bishop, as Jesus Christ followed the Father, and the presbytery as the Apostles; and to the deacons pay respect, as to God's commandment" —
Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnans8:1.
"He that honoureth the bishop is honoured of God; he that doeth aught without the knowledge of the bishop rendereth service to the devil" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnans 9:1.— Lightfoot translation.
It is clear that, by this period, a single bishop was expected to lead the church in each centre of Christian mission, supported by a council of
presbyters (a distinct and subordinate position at least by this time) with a pool of deacons. As the Church continued to expand, new churches in important cities gained their own bishop, but churches in the regions around an important city were served by presbyters and deacons from the bishop's city church. Thus, in time, the bishop changed from being the leader of a single church confined to an urban area to being the leader of the churches of a given geographical area. Clement of Alexandria(end of the 2nd century) writes about the ordination of a certain Zachæus as bishop by the imposition of Simon Peter Bar-Jonah's hands. The words bishop and ordination are used in their technical meaning by the same Clement of Alexandria. [Clem., "Hom.", III, lxxii; cfr. "Strom.", VI, xiii, cvi; cf. "Const. Apost.", II, viii, 36] The bishops in the 2nd century are defined also as the only clergy to whom the ordination to priesthood ( presbyterate) and diaconate is entrusted: "a priest (presbyter) lays on hands, but does not ordain." ("cheirothetei ou cheirotonei" ["Didascalia Syr.", IV; III, 10, 11, 20; Cornelius, "Ad Fabianum" in Eusebius, "Historia Ecclesiastica", VI, xliii.] )
At the end of the 2nd century and the beginning of the 3rd century,
Hippolytus of Romedescribes another feature of the ministry of a bishop, which is that of the "Spiritum primatus sacerdotii habere potestatem dimittere peccata": the primate of sacrificial priesthood and the power to forgive sins. [ [http://www.sspx.ca/Angelus/2006_January/New_Rite_Episcopal_Consecration_Pt2.htm Bernard Botte, O.S.B., La Tradition apostolique de saint Hippolyte: Essai de reconstitution, LQF 39 (Munster-Westfalen, 1963). English Translation added at website.] ]
Bishops and civil government
The efficient infrastructure of the
Roman Empirebecame the template for the organization of the church in the fourth century, particularly after the Edict of Milan. As the church moved from the shadows of privacy into the public forum it acquired land for churches, burials and clergy. In 391, Theodosius Idecreed that any land that had been confiscated from the church by Roman authorities be returned.
The most usual term for the geographic area of a bishop's authority and ministry, the
diocese, began as part of the structure of the Roman Empireunder Diocletian. As Roman authority began to fail in the western portion of the empire, the church took over much of the civil administration. This can be clearly seen in the ministry of two popes: Pope Leo Iin the fifth century, and Pope Gregory Iin the sixth century. Both of these men were statesmen and public administrators in addition to their role as Christian pastors, teachers and leaders. In the Eastern churches, latifundiaentailed to a bishop's seewere much less common, the state power did not collapse the way it did in the West, and thus the tendency of bishops acquiring secular power was much weaker than in the West. However, the role of Western bishops as civil authorities, often called prince bishops, continued throughout much of the Middle Ages.
Bishops ruling temporal states
The most important of these prince bishops was the
Pope, who ruled as monarch of the Papal Statesby virtue of his title as Bishop of Rome. His claim to this fiefrested on the forged Donation of Constantine, but in fact his authority over this kingdom in central Italy grew slowly after the collapse of Roman and Byzantine authority in the area. The Papal States were abolished when King Victor Emmanuel II took possession of Rome in 1870 and completed the reunification of Italy. This became a perennial source of tension between the Papacy and the government of Italy. In 1929, a representative of Pope Pius XIsigned a concordat with the Fascist government of Benito Mussoliniand the Pope became the independent sovereign of the Vatican, while giving up any rights to the rest of the former Papal States. He was recognised as an independent, non-hereditary, elected monarchby the Lateran Treaties, a position the current Pope continues to hold. The only other bishop who currently is a head of stateis the Bishop of Urgell, a Co-Prince of Andorra.
Three senior bishops served as Electors in the
Holy Roman Empire. By the terms of the Golden Bull of 1356, the Archbishops of Mainz, Trier, and Cologne were made permanent electors, who chose the next Holy Roman Emperorupon the death of his predecessor. The Archbishop of Mainz was President of the Electors and Archchancellor of Germany. Likewise, the Archbishop of Cologne was Archchancellor of Italy, and the Archbishop of Trier was Archchancellor of Burgundy. A number of other bishops within the Holy Roman Empire, although not being Electors, were sovereign prince-bishops in their own lands.
Bishops holding political office
As well as the Archchancellors of the
Holy Roman Empire, bishops generally served as chancellors to medieval monarchs, serving as head of the justiciaryand chief chaplain. The Lord Chancellorof Englandwas almost always a bishop up until the dismissal of Thomas Cardinal Wolseyby Henry VIII. Likewise, the position of Kanclerzin the Polish kingdom was always a bishop until the sixteenth century.
Francebefore the French Revolution, representatives of the clergy — in practice, bishops and abbots of the largest monasteries — comprised the First Estateof the Estates-General, until their role was abolished during the French Revolution.
The more senior bishops of the
Church of Englandcontinue to sit in the House of Lordsof the Parliament of the United Kingdom, as representatives of the established church, and are known as Lords Spiritual. The Bishop of Sodor and Man, whose dioceselies outside of the United Kingdom, is "ex officio" a member of the Legislative Council of the Isle of Man. In the past, the Bishop of Durham, known as a prince bishop, had extensive viceregal powers within his northern diocese — the power to mint money, collect taxes and raise an army to defend against the Scots.
Eastern Orthodox bishops, along with all other members of the clergy, are canonically forbidden to hold political office. Occasional exceptions to this rule are tolerated when the alternative is political chaos. In the Ottoman Empire, the Patriarch of Constantinople, for example, had de facto administrative, fiscal, cultural and legal jurisdiction, as well as spiritual, over all the Christians of the empire. A recent prominent example of this was Archbishop
Makarios IIIof Cyprus, who served as President of the Republic of Cyprus from 1960 to 1977.
Episcopacy during the English Civil War
During the period of the
English Civil War, the role of bishops as wielders of political power and as upholders of the established churchbecame a matter of heated political controversy. John Calvinformulated a doctrine of Presbyterianism, which held that in the New Testament the offices of "presbyter" and "episkopos" were identical; he rejected the doctrine of apostolic succession. Calvin's follower John Knoxbrought Presbyterianism to Scotlandwhen the Scottish church was reformed in 1560. In practice, Presbyterianism meant that committees of lay elders had a substantial voice in church government, as opposed to merely being subjects to a ruling hierarchy. This vision of at least partial democracyin ecclesiologyparalleled the struggles between Parliament and the King. A body within the Puritan movement in the Church of Englandsought to abolish the office of bishop and remake the Church of England along Presbyterian lines. The Martin Marprelatetracts, applying the pejorativename of "prelacy" to the church hierarchy, attacked the office of bishop with satire that deeply offended Elizabeth I and her Archbishop of Canterbury John Whitgift. The vestments controversyalso related to this movement, seeking further reductions in church ceremony, and labelling the use of elaborate vestments as "unedifying" and even idolatrous.
King James I, reacting against the perceived contumacy of his Presbyterian Scottish subjects, adopted "No Bishop, no King" as a slogan; he tied the hierarchical authority of the bishop to the absolute authority he sought as king, and viewed attacks on the authority of the bishops as attacks on his own authority. Matters came to a head when King Charles I appointed
William Laudas the Archbishop of Canterbury; Laud aggressively attacked the Presbyterian movement and sought to impose the full Anglican liturgy. The controversy eventually led to Laud's impeachmentfor treasonby a bill of attainderin 1645, and subsequent execution. Charles also attempted to impose episcopacy on Scotland; the Scots' violent rejection of bishops and liturgical worship sparked the Bishops' Warsin 1639-1640.
During the height of Puritan power in the Commonwealth and
the Protectorate, episcopacy was abolished in the Church of England in 1649. The Church of England remained Presbyterian until the Restoration of the monarchy with Charles II in 1660.
Catholic, Orthodox and Anglican churches
Bishop (Catholic Church)"
Bishops form the leadership in the
Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Anglican Communion, the larger branches of the LutheranChurch, the Independent Catholic Churches, the Independent Anglican Churches, and certain other, smaller, denominations.
The traditional role of a bishop is as pastor of a
diocese(also called a bishopric, synod, eparchyor see), and so to serve as a "diocesan bishop," or "eparch" as it is called in many Eastern Christian churches . Dioceses vary considerably in their size of area and population. Some dioceses around the Mediterranean Seawhich were Christianized early are rather compact; whereas dioceses in areas of rapid modern growth in Christian commitment, as in some parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, South Americaand the Far East, are much larger and more populous.
As well as traditional diocesan bishops, many churches have a well-developed structure of church leadership that involves a number of layers of authority and responsibility.
Patriarch:Patriarchs are the bishops who head certain ancient autocephalousor sui jurischurches, which are a collection of metropolitan sees or provinces. Some of these churches call their leaders "Catholicos"; the Patriarch of the Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Egypt, is called "Pope", meaning 'Father'. While most patriarchs in the Eastern Catholic Churcheshave jurisdiction over a "ritual church" (a group or diocese of a particular Eastern tradition), all Latin Ritepatriarchs, except for the Pope, have only honorary titles. In 2006, Pope Benedict XVIgave up the title of Patriarch of the West. The first recorded use of the title by a Roman Pope was by Theodore I in 620. However, early church documents, such as those of the First Ecumenical Council( 325) had always listed the Pope of Rome first among the Ancient Patriarchs (first four, and later five: Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem—collectively referred to as the "Pentarchy"). Later, the heads of various national churches became Patriarchs, but they are ranked below the Pentarchy.
Catholicos:Catholicoi are the heads of some of the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodoxand Eastern Rite Catholic sui jurischurches (notably the Armenian), roughly similar to a Patriarch (see above).;Primate:A primate is usually the bishop of the oldest church of a nation. Sometimes this carries jurisdiction over metropolitan bishops, but usually it is purely honorific. The primate of the Scottish Episcopal Churchis chosen from among the diocesan bishops, and, while retaining diocesan responsibility, is called "Primus".
Presiding Bishopor President Bishop: These titles are often used for the head of a national Anglican church, but the title is not usually associated with a particular episcopal seelike the title of a primate.
Major archbishop:Major archbishops are the heads of some of the Eastern Catholic Churches. Their authority within their "sui juris" church is equal to that of a patriarch, but they receive fewer ceremonial honors.
Metropolitan bishop:A metropolitan bishopis an archbishop in charge of an ecclesiastical province, or group of dioceses, and in addition to having immediate jurisdiction over his own archdiocese, also exercises some oversight over the other dioceses within that province. Sometimes a metropolitan may also be the head of an autocephalous, " sui juris", or autonomous church when the number of adherents of that tradition are small. In the Latin Rite, metropolitans are always archbishops; in many Eastern churches, the title is "metropolitan," with some of these churches using "archbishop" as a separate office.
Archbishop:An archbishop is the bishop of an archdiocese. This is usually a prestigious diocese with an important place in local church history. In the Roman Catholic Church, the title is purely honorific and carries no extra jurisdiction, though most archbishops are also metropolitan bishops, as above. In most provinces of the Anglican Communion, however, an archbishop has metropolitical and primatial power.
Suffragan bishop: A suffragan bishopis a bishop subordinate to a Metropolitan. In the Roman Catholic Churchthis term is applied to all non-metropolitan bishops (that is, diocesan bishops of dioceses within a metropolitan's province, and auxiliary bishops). In the Anglican Communion, the term applies to a bishop who is a full-time assistant to a diocesan bishop: the Bishop of Warwickis suffragan to the Bishop of Coventry(the diocesan), though both live in Coventry. Some Anglican suffragans are given the responsibility for a geographical area within the diocese (for example, the Bishop of Stepneyis an "area bishop" within the Diocese of London).
Titular bishop:A titular bishopis a bishop without a diocese. Rather, the bishop is head of a titular see, which is usually an ancient city that used to have a bishop, but, for some reason or other, does not have one now. Titular bishops often serve as auxiliary bishops. In the Ecumenical Patriarchate, bishops of modern dioceses are often given a titular see alongside their modern one (for example, the Archbishop of Thyateira and Great Britain).
Auxiliary bishop:An auxiliary bishopis a full-time assistant to a diocesan bishop (the Roman Catholic equivalent of an Anglican suffragan bishop). Auxiliaries are titular bishops, and are often appointed as the vicar generalor at least as episcopal vicarof the diocese in which they serve. [http://www.ourladyswarriors.org/canon/c0330-0572.htm#par829 Source] .
Coadjutor bishop:A coadjutor bishopis an auxiliary bishop who is given almost equal authority in a diocese with the diocesan bishop, and the automatic right to succeed the incumbent diocesan bishop. The appointment of coadjutors is often seen as a means of providing for continuity of church leadership.
;Honorary Assistant bishop or Bishop Emeritus: This title is usually applied to retired bishops who are given a general licence to minister as episcopal pastors under a diocesan's oversight. The title, in this meaning, is not used by the Catholic Church.
Chorbishop:A chorbishop is an official of a diocese in some Eastern Christian churches. Chorbishops are not generally ordained bishops – they are not given the sacrament of Holy Orders in that degree – but function as assistants to the diocesan bishop with certain honorary privileges.
;Cardinal:A cardinal is a member of the clergy appointed by the pope to serve in the
College of Cardinals, the body empowered to elect the pope; however, on turning 80 a cardinal loses this right of election. Cardinals also serve as advisors to the pope and hold positions of authority with the structure of the Catholic Church. Under modern canon law, a man who is appointed a cardinal must accept ordination as a bishop, unless he already is one, or seek special permission from the pope to decline such ordination. Most cardinals are already bishops at the time of their appointment, the majority being archbishops of important archdioceses or patriarchs, and a substantial portion of the rest already titular archbishops serving in the Vatican. Recent popes have appointed a few priests, most of them influential theologians, to the College of Cardinals without requiring them to be ordained as bishops; invariably, these men are over the age of 80, which means they are not permitted to take part in a conclave. The purpose of these appointments is to recognise their tremendous contribution to the life of the Church.
Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy,and Anglicanismonly a bishop can ordain other bishops, priests, and deacons.
In the Eastern liturgical tradition, a priest can celebrate the
Divine Liturgyonly with the blessing of a bishop. In Byzantine usage, an antimensionsigned by the bishop is kept on the altar partly as a reminder of whose altar it is and under whose omophorionthe priest at a local parish is serving. In Syriac Church usage, a consecrated wooden block called a tablithois kept for the same reasons.
pope, in addition to being the Bishop of Romeand spiritual head of the Roman Catholic Church, is also the Patriarch of the Latin Rite. Each bishop within the Latin Riteis answerable directly to the Pope and not any other bishop except to metropolitans in certain oversight instances. The pope previously used the title "Patriarch of the West", but this title was dropped from use in 2006.
In the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches and the Anglican Communion, the
cathedralof a diocese will have a special chair set aside for the exclusive use of the bishop. This is the bishop's " cathedra", which is often called the bishop's throne. In some Christian denominations, other churches besides the cathedral will maintain a chair for the use of the bishop when he visits their parish; this is to signify the parish's union with the bishop.
The bishop is also the proper minister of the sacrament of
confirmation. However, in the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox churches bishops usually delegate this power to priests. Among Anglicans, only bishops can administer confirmation.
Ordination of Catholic, Orthodox and Anglican Bishops
Bishops in all of these communions are ordained by other bishops through the
laying on of hands. While traditional teaching maintains that any bishop with Apostolic Successioncan validly perform the ordination of another bishop, some churches require two or three bishops participate, either to insure sacramental validity or to conform with church law. Roman Catholicdoctrine holds that one bishop can validly ordain another male (priest) as a bishop. Though a minimum of three bishops participating is desirable (there are usually several more) in order to demonstrate collegiality, canonically only one bishop is necessary. The practice of only one bishop ordaining was normal in countries where the Church was persecuted under Communist rule.
Apart from the ordination, which is always done by other bishops, there are different methods as to the actual "choosing" of a candidate for ordination as bishop. In the
Roman Catholic Churchtoday, the Congregation for Bishopsoversees the selection of new bishops with the approval of the pope. The papal nuncio usually solicits names from the bishops of a country, and then selects three to be forwarded to Rome. Most Eastern Orthodox churches allow varying amounts of more or less formalised laity and/or lower clergy influence on the choice of bishops. This also applies in those Eastern churches which are in union with the pope, though he is required to give assent.
Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican, and some Lutheran bishops (e.g. Sweden) claim to be part of the continuous sequence of ordained bishops since the days of the apostles referred to as
Apostolic Succession. Since Pope Leo XIIIissued the bull " Apostolicae Curae" in 1896, the Catholic Church has insisted that Anglican orders are invalid because of changes in the Anglican ordination rites of the 16th century and divergence in understanding of the theology of priesthood, episcopacy and Eucharist. However, since the 1930s, Utrecht Old Catholic bishops (recognised by the Holy See as validily ordained) have sometimes taken part in the ordination of Anglican bishops. According to the writer Timothy Dufort, by 1969, all Church of England bishops had acquired Old Catholic lines of apostolic successionrecognised by the Holy See. [Timothy Dufort, "The Tablet", May 29, 1982, pp. 536–538.] This development has muddied the waters somewhat as it could be argued that the strain of Apostolic Succession has been re-introduced into Anglicanism.
The Catholic Church does recognise as valid (though illicit) ordinations done by breakaway Catholic, Old Catholic, or Oriental bishops, and groups descended from them; it also regards as both valid and licit those ordinations done by bishops of the Eastern churches, ["
Unitatis Redintegratio" 16: "To remove, then, all shadow of doubt, this holy Council solemnly declares that the Churches of the East, while remembering the necessary unity of the whole Church, have the power to govern themselves according to the disciplines proper to them, since these are better suited to the character of their faithful, and more for the good of their souls."] so long as those receiving the ordination conform to other canonical requirements (e.g. is an adult male) and an orthodox rite of episcopal ordination, expressing the proper functions and sacramental status of a bishop, is used; this has given rise to the phenomenon of " episcopi vagantes" (e.g. clergy of the Independent Catholic groups which claim Apostolic Succession, though this claim is rejected by both Orthodoxy and Catholicism).
The Orthodox Churches would not accept the validity of any ordinations performed by the Independent Catholic groups, as Orthodoxy considers to be spurious any consecration outside of the Church as a whole. Orthodoxy considers
Apostolic Successionto exist only within the Church as a whole, and not through any authority held by individual bishops; thus, if a bishop ordains someone to serve outside of the (Orthodox) Church, the ceremony is ineffectual, and no ordination has taken place regardless of the ritual used or ordaining prelate's position within the Orthodox Churches.The position of Catholicism is slightly different. Whilst it does recognise the validity of the orders of certain groups which separated from communion with Holy See: the Old Catholics in communion with Utrecht, as well as the Polish National Catholic Church(which received its orders directly from Utrecht, and was - until recently - part of that communion), it refuses to recognise the orders of any group whose teaching is at variance with core tenets of Christianity e.g. The Liberal Catholic Churchwhich has a strong theosophist tendency and permits belief in reincarnation even though they may use the proper ordination ritual. There are other reasons why the Holy See does not recognise the validity of the orders of the Independent clergy: (a) the continuing practice among many Independent clergy of one person receiving multiple ordinations in order to secure apostolic succession, betrays an incorrect and mechanistic theology of ordination as far as the Holy See is concerned (b) the practice within Independent groups of ordaining women demonstrates an understanding of Priesthood which is totally unacceptable to the Catholic and Orthodox churches as they believe that the Universal Church does not possess this authority; thus, any ceremonies performed by these women are considered to be sacramantally invalid. (c) the theology of male clergy within the Independent movement is also suspect as they presumably approve of the ordination of females, and may have even undergone an (invalid) ordination ceremony conducted by a woman.
Whilst members of the
Independent Catholicmovement take seriously the issue of valid orders, it is highly significant that the relevant Vatican Congregations do not to respond to petitions from Independent Catholic bishops and clergy who seek to be received into communion with the Holy See, hoping to continue in some sacramental role. In those instances where the pope does grant reconciliation, those deemed to be clerics within the Independent Old Catholic movement are invariably admitted as laity and not priests or bishops.
Some provinces of the
Anglican Communionhave begun ordaining women as bishops in recent decades e.g. the United States, Aotearoa New Zealand, Canada and Cuba. The first woman bishop within Anglicanism was Barbara Clementine Harris, who was ordained in the United States in 1989.
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the largest Lutheran denomination in the United States, and based largely on the Nordic Lutheran state churches (similar to that of the Church of England), bishops are elected by Synod Assemblies, consisting of both lay members and clergy, for a term of 6 years, which can be renewed, depending upon the local synod's "constitution" (which usually mirrors that of the national ELCA constitution). Since a 1999 Concordat with the Episcopal Church, they have been ordained in the historic episcopate of apostolic succession, by the laying on of hands of other bishops whose line passes back to the apostles, including Episcopal bishops and Lutheran bishops from church branches in apostolic succession. [ [http://www.elca.org/ecumenical/fullcommunion/episcopal/ccmresources/text.html] "Called to Common Mission," 1999. viewed 9/29/2006] [ [http://www.elca.org/lutheranpartners/archives/histepi.html] Wright, J. Robert, "The Historic Episcopate: An Episcopalian Viewpoint," Lutheran Partners, March / April 1999 — Volume 15, Number 2, viewed 9/29/2006] Currently, they are responsible for, since going into ecumenical communion with the Episcopal Church in the United States, ordaining of all pastors, consecrating of all diaconal ministers, giving approvals to "roster" all current pastors (pastors are called by local congregations, like that of the Episcopal Church), and upholding the teachings of Luther, the ELCA and synod constitutions. The Presiding Bishop of the ELCA, the national bishop, is elected for a single 6-year term and is limited to 2 terms, and handles all episcopal consecrations, as well as presiding at the Churchwide Assembly, which is held every 2 years. A similar structure exists with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada(ELCIC). It should be noted that although ELCA agreed with the Episcopal Church to limit ordination to the bishop "ordinarily", ELCA pastor-"ordinators" are given permission to perform the rites in "extraordinary" circumstance. In practice, "extraordinary" circumstance have included disagreeing with Episcopalian views of the episcopate.
United Methodist Church
In The United Methodist Church, bishops serve as administrative and pastoral superintendents of the church. They are elected for life from among the ordained elders (Presbyters) by vote of the delegates in regional (called Jurisdictional) conferences, and are consecrated by the other bishops present at the conference through the laying on of hands. In The United Methodist Church bishops are not ordained in the traditional sense (i.e. belonging to the threefold ministry of bishop, presbyter, deacon) but remain members of the "Order of Elders" while being consecrated to the "Office of the Episcopacy." Within The United Methodist Church only bishops are empowered to consecrate bishops and ordain clergy. Among their most critical duties is the ordination and appointment of clergy to serve local churches as pastor, presiding at sessions of the Annual, Jurisdictional, and General Conferences, providing pastoral ministry for the clergy under their charge, and safeguarding the doctrine and discipline of the Church. Furthermore, individual bishops, or the Council of Bishops as a whole, often serve a prophetic role, making statements on important social issues and setting forth a vision for the denomination, though they have no legislative authority of their own. In all of these areas, bishops of United Methodist Church function very much in the historic meaning of the term. According to the "
Book of Discipline of the United Methodist Church", a bishop's responsibilities are cquote
"Leadership.—Spiritual and Temporal."—1. To lead and oversee the spiritual and temporal affairs of The United Methodist Church, which confesses Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior, and particularly to lead the Church in its mission of witness and service in the world.2. To travel through the connection at large as the Council of Bishops (¶ 526) to implement stategy for the concern of the Church.3. To provide liaison and leadership in the quest for Christian unity in ministry, mission, and structure and in the search for strengthened relationships with other living faith communities.4. To organize such Missions as shall have been authorized by the
General Conference.5. To promote and support the evangelistic vision of the whole Church. 6. To discharge such other duties as the Discipline may direct.
"Presidential Duties."—1. To preside in the General, Jurisdictional, Central, and Annual Conferences. 2. To form the districts after consultation with the district superintendents and after the number of the same has been determined by vote of the Annual Conference. 3. To appoint the district superintendents annually (¶¶ 517-518). 4. To consecrate bishops, to ordain elders and deacons, to consecrate diaconal ministers, to commission
deaconessesand home missionaries, and to see that the names of the persons commissioned and consecrated are entered on the journals of the conference and that proper credentials are funised to these persons.
"Working with Ministers."—1. To make and fix the appointments in the Annual Conferences, Provisional Annual Conferences, and Missions as the Discipline may direct (¶¶ 529-533).2. To divide or to unite a circuit(s), stations(s), or mission(s) as judged necessary for missionary strategy and then to make appropriate appointments. 3. To read the appointments of deaconesses, diaconal ministers, lay persons in service under the World Division of the General Board of Global Ministries, and home missionaries. 4. To fix the Charge Conference membership of all ordained ministers appointed to ministries other than the local church in keeping with ¶443.3. 5. To transfer, upon the request of the receiving bishop, minsterial member(s) of one Annual Conference to another, "provided" said member(s) agrees to transfer; and to send immediately to the secretaries of both conferences involved , to the conference Boards of Ordained Ministry, and to the clearing house of the General Board of Pensions written notices of the transfer of members and of their standing in the course of study if they are undergraduates. "The Book of Discipline of the United Methodist Church: Specific Responsibilities of Bishops — ¶ 514-516" (retrieved 27 May 2007).]
In each Annual Conference, United Methodist bishops serve for four year terms, and may serve up to three terms before either retirement or appointment to a new Conference. United Methodist bishops may be male or female, with the Rev.
Marjorie Matthewsbeing the first woman to be consecrated a bishop in 1980.
The collegial expression of episcopal leadership in the
United Methodist Churchis known is the "Council of Bishops". The "Council of Bishops" speaks to the Church and through the Church into the world and gives leadership in the quest for Christian unity and interreligious relationships. "The Book of Discipline of the United Methodist Church: Council of Bishops — ¶ 526" (retrieved 27 May 2007).] The "Conference of Methodist Bishops" includes the United Methodist "Council of Bishops" plus bishops from affiliated autonomous Methodistor United Churches. John Wesleyconsecrated Thomas Coke a "General Superintendent," and directed that Francis Asburyalso be consecrated for the United States of America in 1784, where the Methodist Episcopal Churchfirst became a separate denomination apart from the Church of England. Coke soon returned to England, but Asbury was the primary builder of the new church. At first he did not call himself bishop, but eventually submitted to the usage by the denomination.
Notable bishops in United Methodist history include Coke,
Asbury, Richard Whatcoat, Philip William Otterbein, Martin Boehm, Jacob Albright, John Seybert, Matthew Simpson, John S. Stamm, William Ragsdale Cannon, Marjorie Matthews, Leontine T. Kelly, William B. Oden, Ntambo Nkulu Ntanda, Joseph Sprague, William Willimon, and Thomas Bickerton.
Methodists in the
United Kingdomacquired their own bishops early in the nineteenth century, after the Methodist movement in Britain formally parted company with the Church of England. The position no longer exists in British Methodism.
Christian Methodist Episcopal Church
Christian Methodist Episcopal Church, bishops are administrative superintendents of the church; they are elected by "delegate" votes for as many years deemed until the age of 74, then he/she must retire. Among their duties, are responsibility for appointing clergy to serve local churches as pastor, for performing ordinations, and for safeguarding the doctrine and discipline of the Church. The General Conference, a meeting every four years, has an equal number of clergy and lay delegates. In each Annual Conference, CME bishops serve for four year terms. CME Church bishops may be male or female.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Bishop is the leader of a local congregation, called a ward. As with most Mormon priesthood, the Bishop is a part-time lay minister and earns a living through other employment; in all cases, he is a married man. As such, it is his duty to preside at services, call local leaders, and judge the worthiness of members for service. The bishop does not deliver sermons at every service (generally asking members to do so), but is expected to be a spiritual guide for his congregation. It is therefore believed that he has both the right and ability to receive divine inspiration (through the Holy Ghost) for the ward under his direction. Because it is a part-time position, all able members are expected to assist in the management of the ward by holding delegated lay positions (e.g. women's' and youth leaders, teachers) referred to as "callings." Although members are asked to confess serious sins to him, unlike the Roman Catholic Church, he is not the instrument of divine forgiveness, merely a guide through the repentance process (and a judge in case transgressions warrant excommunication or other official discipline). The bishop is also responsible for the physical welfare of the ward, and thus collects tithingand fast offerings and distributes financial assistance where needed.
A bishop is the president of the
Aaronic Priesthoodin his ward (and is thus a form of Mormon Kohen; in fact, the church's Doctrine and Covenantsstates that any "descendant of Aaron" who converts to Mormonism has a right to be a bishop). A bishop is also a High priest in the Melchizedek Priesthood. Each bishop is selected from resident members of the ward by the stake presidency with approval of the First Presidency, and chooses two "counselors" to form a "bishopric". In special circumstances (such as a ward consisting entirely of young university students), a bishop may be chosen from outside the ward. A bishop is typically released after about five years and a new bishop is called to the position. Although the former bishop is released from his duties, he continues to hold the priesthood office of bishop, and is usually still referred to by the title "Bishop" as a term of respect.
Latter-Day Saint bishops do not wear any special clothing or insignia the way clergy in many other churches do, but are expected to dress and groom themselves neatly and conservatively per their local culture, especially when performing official duties. Bishops (as well as other members of the priesthood) can trace their line of authority back to
Joseph Smith, who, according to church doctrine, was ordained to lead the Church in modern times by the ancient apostles Peter, James, and John, who were ordained to lead the Church by Jesus Christ.
The Presiding Bishop oversees the temporal affairs (buildings, properties, commercial corporations, etc.) of the entire Latter Day Saints Church, including the Church's massive global humanitarian aid and social welfare programs. The Presiding Bishop has two counselors; the three together form the Presiding Bishopric.
New Apostolic Church
New Apostolic Church(NAC) knows 3 classes of ministries: Deacons, Priests and Apostles. The Apostles, who are all included in the apostolate with the Chief Apostleas head, are the highest ministries.
Of the several kinds of priest-ministries, the bishop is the highest. Nearly all bishops are set in line directly from the chief apostle. They support and help their superior apostle.
Pentecostal Church of God
In 2002, the general convention of the
Pentecostal Church of Godcame to a consensus to change the title of their overseer from General Superintendent to Bishop. The change was brought on because internationally, the term Bishop is more commonly related to religious leaders than the previous title. Although called "bishops", they are not validly ordained in apostolic succession, and as such, have no traceable ordinational connection to the Apostlesof Christ, as the Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Orthodox Churches do.
The title Bishop is used for both the General (International leader) and the district (state) leaders. The title is sometimes used in conjunction with the previous thus becoming General (District) Superintendent/Bishop.
Some Baptists have begun taking on the title of Bishop. [http://atheism.about.com/b/2003/10/04/baptist-bishops-bucking-tradition.htm]
In some smaller Protestant denominations and independent churches the term bishop is used in the same way as pastor, to refer to the leader of the local congregation, and may be male or female. This usage is especially common in African American churches in the USA. In the
Church of Scotland, which has a Presbyterian church structure, the word "bishop" refers to an ordained person, usually a normal parish minister, who has temporary oversight of a trainee minister.
While not Christian,
Ecclesia Gnostica Catholicauses roles and titles derived from Christianity for its clerical hierarchy, including Bishops who have much the same authority and responsibilities as in Roman Catholicism.
The Salvation Army does not have bishops but have appointed leaders of geographical areas known as Divisional Commanders. Larger geographical areas, called Territories, are lead by a Territorial Commander, who is the highest ranking officer in that Territory.
Dress and Insignia
Traditionally, a number of items are associated with the office of a bishop, most notably the
mitre, crosier, and episcopal ring. Other vestments and insignia vary between Eastern and Western Christianity.
Roman Catholic Church, the choir dressof a bishop includes the purple cassockwith amaranth trim, rochet, purple zuchetto(skull cap), purple biretta, and pectoral cross. The vestments of a bishop include the pontifical glovesand pontifical sandals, but these items are rarely seen today except within the context of the Tridentine Mass. The cappa magna, which was once used as choir dress for bishops on solemn occasions, is also rarely seen today although its use continues to be permitted. The coat of arms of a Roman Catholic bishop will usually display a mitre (or galero) and crozier behind the escutcheon; however, the specifics will differ by location and ecclesiastical rank (see Ecclesiastical heraldry). Anglicanbishops generally make use of the mitre, crosier, episcopal ring, purple cassock, purple zuchetto, and pectoral cross. However, the traditional choir dressof Anglican bishops is quite different as a very long rochetis worn with a chimere.
Eastern Churches( Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Rite Catholic) a bishop will wear the Mandyas, Panagia(and perhaps an Enkolpion), Sakkos, Omophorionand an Eastern-style mitre. Eastern bishops do not normally wear an episcopal ring—the faithful will kiss the bishop's hand rather than a ring. To seal official documents, he will usually use an inked stamp. An Eastern bishop's coat of arms will usually display an Eastern-style mitre, cross, eastern crozier and a red and white (or red and gold) mantle. The arms of Oriental Orthodoxbishops will display the episcopal insignia (mitre or turban) specific to their own liturgical traditions. Variations will occur based upon jurisdiction and national customs.
Ecclesiastical polity(church governance)
Lists of patriarchs, archbishops, and bishops
Bishops in the Church of Scotland
Church of England
Ignatius of Antioch, "Epistles of to the Ephesians, Magnesians, Trallesians, and Smyrnans", Lightfoot, trans., Harmer, ed. (Kessinger, 1891/2003). ISBN 0-7661-6498-5
* Mathews, James, "Set Apart To Serve: The Role of the Episcopacy in the Wesleyan Tradition" (Nashville: Abingdon, 1985).
* Moede, Gerald, "The Office of Bishop in Methodism: Its History and Development" (Nashville: Abingdon, 1965).
* [http://biblestudytools.net/OnlineStudyBible/bible.cgi?word=1+Timothy+3%3A1-7§ion=0&version=nrs&new=1&oq=&NavBook=1ti&NavGo=3&NavCurrentChapter=3 1 Timothy 3:1-7] ("
* [http://biblestudytools.net/OnlineStudyBible/bible.cgi?word=Titus+1%3A7-9§ion=0&version=nrs&new=1&oq=&NavBook=tit&NavGo=1&NavCurrentChapter=1 Titus 1:7-9] ("
* [http://www.revneal.org/Writings/apostoli.htm Methodist/Anglican Thoughts On Apostolic Succession] by Gregory Neal
* [http://www.revneal.org/Writings/methepisc.htm Methodist Episcopacy: In Search of Holy Orders] by Gregory Neal
* [http://bishops.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=21&mid=5855 The United Methodist Church: Council of Bishops]
* [http://ecumenical-catholic-communion.org/The Ecumenical Catholic Communion]
* [http://www.hbgdiocese.org/bishop/downloadables/What%20a%20Bishop%20Wears.pdf What a bishop wears] (Office of Worship of the Diocese of Harrisburg)
* [http://www.vatican.va/archive/cdc/index.htm Vatican Website with Canon Law of Roman Catholic Church]
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