- Herod Antipas
calls Herodias' former husband Philip; either the author is confusing him with Philip the tetrarch, or both Herods shared the name Philip (Bruce 10 n. 16; Schürer 344 and n. 19).] On learning of this, Aretas' daughter travelled to the fortress of
Machaerus, from where Nabatean forces escorted her to her father. Relations between Antipas and Aretas soured and in time preparations began for war. [Josephus, "Antiquities" [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=J.+AJ+18.111 18.111–113] .]
Antipas faced more immediate problems in his own tetrarchy when
John the Baptist– in AD 28/29 according to the Gospel of Luke[; .]
Among those baptized by John was Jesus of Nazareth, who began his own ministry in Galilee – causing Antipas, according to Matthew and Mark, to fear that the Baptist had been raised from the dead. [.] Luke alone among the Gospels states that a group of
Phariseeswarned Jesus that Antipas was plotting his death, whereupon Jesus denounced the tetrarch as a " fox" and declared that he, Jesus, would not fall victim to such a plot because "it cannot be that a prophet should perish away from Jerusalem". [; Bruce 17; Hoehner 89–90.] thus allowing him to avoid responsibility for Jesus' execution. [Hoehner 90.]
Some scholars believe that Jesus' trial by Herod Antipas is unhistorical. [Jensen 121.]
Robin Lane Fox, for example, argues that the story was invented based on Psalm 2, in which "the kings of the earth" are described as opposing the Lord's "anointed", and also served to show that the authorities failed to find grounds for convicting Jesus. [). It has been conjectured that these were sources for early Christian knowledge of Antipas and his court. [; , , , .
*Dio [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/59*.html#8.2 59.8.2] , [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/59*.html#27.2 59.27.2–3] .
Josephus, "Antiquities" [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=J.+AJ+17.1 17–18] , "War" [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=J.+BJ+1.1 1–2] .
Gospel of Peter" [http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/gospelpeter.html 1] .
Philo, " [http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/text/philo/book40.html On the Embassy to Gaius] " 299–305.
Suetonius, "Caligula" [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Caligula*.html#14.3 14.3] .
*cite book |last=Bond |first=Helen K. |title=Pontius Pilate in History and Interpretation |series=Society for New Testament Studies monograph series |year=1998 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |location=Cambridge |isbn=0-521-63114-9 |pages=p. 149
*cite journal |last=Bruce |first=F. F. |authorlink=F. F. Bruce |year=1963/1965 |title=Herod Antipas, Tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea |journal=Annual of Leeds University Oriental Society |volume=5 |pages=6–23 |url=http://www.biblicalstudies.org.uk/pdf/herod_bruce.pdf |format=PDF |accessdate=2007-10-19
*cite web |last=Goodacre |first=Mark |url=http://ntgateway.com/weblog/2004/05/herod-antipas-in-passion-of-christ.html |title=Herod Antipas in The Passion of the Christ |accessdate=2007-10-19 |date=
*cite web |last=Gundry |first=Robert H. |authorlink=Robert H. Gundry |url=http://www.sbl-site.org/PDF/GundryLetter.pdf |title=The Burden of the Passion |accessdate=2007-10-19 |format=PDF |work=SBL Forum |publisher=
*cite book |last=Hoehner |first=Harold W. |editor=Ernst Bammel (ed.) |title=The Trial of Jesus: Cambridge Studies in Honour of
*cite book |last=Jensen |first=Morten Hørning |title=Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and its Socio-economic Impact on Galilee |series=Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament |year=2006 |publisher=Mohr Siebeck |location=Tübingen |isbn=3161489675 |pages=p. 121
*cite book |last=Lane Fox |first=Robin |authorlink=Robin Lane Fox |title=The Unauthorized Version: Truth and Fiction in the Bible |year=1991 |publisher=Viking |location=London |isbn=0-670-82412-7 |pages=p. 297
*cite encyclopedia|last=Milwitzky |first=William |editor=
*cite book |last=Schürer |first=Emil |authorlink=Emil Schürer |others=revised and edited by
*cite book |last=Sherwin-White |first=A. N. |authorlink=A. N. Sherwin-White |title=Roman Society and Roman Law in the New Testament |year=1963 |publisher=Clarendon Press |location=Oxford |isbn=0-19-825153-X |pages=pp. 28–31
* [http://virtualreligion.net/iho/antipas.html Galilee under Antipas] and [http://virtualreligion.net/iho/antipas_2.html Antipas] entries in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith
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