Wrocław

Wrocław

Infobox Settlement
Unreferencedsection|date=May 2008
name = Wrocław
motto = "Miasto spotkań / Meeting Place"



imagesize = 250px
image_caption = Main Square



image_shield = Herb wroclaw.svg
pushpin_

pushpin_label_position = bottom
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = POL
subdivision_type1 = Voivodeship
subdivision_name1 = Lower Silesian
subdivision_type2 = County
subdivision_name2 = "city county"
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Rafał Dutkiewicz
established_title = Established
established_date = 10th century
established_title3 = City rights
established_date3 = 1262
area_total_km2 = 292.82
population_as_of = 2007
population_total = 689280
population_density_km2 = auto
population_metro = 1030000
timezone = CET
utc_offset = +1
timezone_DST = CEST
utc_offset_DST = +2
latd = 51 | latm = 6 |lats = 28 |latNS = N
longd = 17 | longm = 2 |longs = 18 |longEW = E
elevation_m = 111
postal_code_type = Postal code
postal_code = 50-041 to 54-612
area_code = +48 71
website = http://www.wroclaw.pl
blank_name = Car plates
blank_info = DW

Wrocław Audio-IPA-pl|Wroclaw.ogg|'|w|r|o|c|ł|a|f ( _de. BreslauAudlisten|DE-Breslau.ogg; _cz. Vratislav; _la. Vratislavia or Wratislavia; Yiddish: "ברעסלוי") is the chief city of the historical region of Lower Silesia in south-western Poland, situated on the Oder ( _pl. Odra) river. Over the centuries the city has been part of Poland, Bohemia, Austria, Prussia, and Germany. In 1945, the Potsdam Agreement returned the city to Poland after many centuries. Since 1999 it has been the capital of Lower Silesian Voivodeship. According to official population figures for 2006, its population is 635,280, making it the fourth largest city in Poland.

Etymology

The city's name was first recorded in the year 1000 by Thietmar's Latin chronicle called "Thietmari Merseburgensis episcopi Chronicon" as Wrotizlawa. The first municipal seal stated "Sigillum civitatis Wratislavie". Simplified name is given in 1175 as Wrezlaw, Prezla or Breslaw.The Czech spelling was used in Latin documents as "Wratislavia" or "Vratislavia". At that time, "Prezla" was used in Middle High German, which became "Preßlau". In the middle of the 14th century the Early New High German (and later New High German) form of the name Breslau began to replace its earlier versions.

The city is traditionally believed to be named after Wrocisław or Vratislav, often believed to be Duke Vratislaus I of Bohemia. It is also possible that the city was named after the tribal duke of the Silesians or after an early ruler of the city called Vratislav.

The city's name in various foreign languages include in _en. Wroclaw, _hu. Boroszló, _it. Breslavia, _la. Vratislavia or "Wratislavia", Hebrew: ורוצלב (Vrotsláv), _sk. Vratislav or "Vroclav", _be. Уроцлаў ("Vrotslai"), _el. Βρότσλαβ ("Vrotslav"), _ru. Вроцлав ("Vrotslav"); also Бреславль ("Breslavl"), _sr. Вроцлав or "Vroclav" and _uk. Вроцлав ("Vrotslav"). are also available.

History

The city of Wrocław originated in Lower Silesia as a Bohemian stronghold at the intersection of two trade routes, the Via Regia and the Amber Road. The city was first recorded in the 10th century as "Vratislavia", possibly derived from the name of a Bohemian duke Vratislav I. Its initial extent was limited to district of Ostrów Tumski (the Cathedral Island).

Infobox World Heritage Site
WHS = Centennial Hall in Wrocław


State Party = POL
Type = Cultural
Criteria = i, ii, iv
ID = 1165
Region = Europe and North America
Year = 2006
Session = 30th
Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1165

Middle Ages

During Wrocław's early history, its control changed hands between Bohemia (till 992 and than 1038-1050), Kingdom of Poland (992-1138), and an (Piast) duchy of Silesia - part of the divided Kingdom of Poland. In the first half of the 13th century Wrocław even became the center of the divided state. [prof. Benedykt Zientara, Henryk Brodaty i jego czasy, Warszawa 1997, s. 317-320.]

The city became a commercial center and expanded to Wyspa Piaskowa (Sand Island), then to the left bank of the Oder River. Around 1000 the town had 1000 inhabitants [Weczerka, p. 39] . By 1139 a settlement belonging to Governor Piotr Włostowic (a.k.a Piotr Włast Dunin) was built, and another was founded on the left bank of the Oder River, near the present seat of the university. While the city was Polish, there were also communities of Bohemians, Jews, Walloons [Norman Davies "Mikrokosmos" page 110-115] and Germans [Weczerka, p. 41] .

The city was devastated in 1241 during the Mongol invasion of Europe. The inhabitants burned the city to force the Mongols to a quick withdrawal.

The population was replenished by Germans [Thum, p. 316] who settled there and became the dominant ethnic group, though the city remained multi-ethnic [Norman Davies "Mikrokosmos" page 110] . Breslau, the Germanised name of the city, appeared for the first time in written records, and the city council used only Latin and Germanfrom the beginning. [Thum, p. 316]

Breslau was expanded by adopting a German town law. The expanded town was around 60 hectares and the new Main Market Square (Rynek), which was covered with timber framed houses, became the new center of the town. The original foundation, Ostrów Tumski, became the religious center. Breslau adopted Magdeburg rights in 1262 and, at the end of the 13th century joined the Hanseatic League. The Polish Piast dynasty Encyklopedia Powszechna PWN Warsaw 1975 vol. III page 505 ] remained in control of the region, however the self-administration rights of the city council increased.

In 1335, Breslau was incorporated with almost all of Silesia into the Kingdom of Bohemia. Between 1342 and 1344 two fires destroyed large parts of the city.

Renaissance, Reformation and Counter-Reformation

The Protestant Reformation reached Breslau in 1518 and the city became Protestant. Breslau supported the Bohemian revolt in fear of losing the right to freedom of religious expression. In the following Thirty Years' War the city was occupied by Saxon and Swedish troops and lost 18.000 of 40.000 citizens to plague.

The emperor brought in the Counter-Reformation by encouraging Catholic orders to settle in Breslau, starting in 1610 with the Minorites, followed by Jesuits, Capucins, Franciscans, and finally Ursulines in 1687. These orders erected buildings which shaped the Breslau's appearance until 1945. At the end of the Thirty Years' War, however, Breslau was one of only a few Silesian cities to stay Protestant.

During the Counter-Reformation the intellectual life of the city, shaped by Protestantism and Humanism, flourished, even as the Protestant bourgeoisie lost its role as the patron of the arts to the Catholic orders. Breslau became the center of German Baroque literature and was home to the First and Second Silesian school of poets.

The age of Enlightment

The Kingdom of Prussia annexed Breslau and most of Silesia during the War of the Austrian Succession in the 1740s. Habsburg empress Maria Theresa renounced the territory in 1763.

Before and after World War I

During the Napoleonic Wars Breslau was occupied by an army of the Confederation of the Rhine. The fortifications of the city were leveled and monasteries and cloisters were secularized. The Protestant Viadrina university of Frankfurt (Oder) was relocated to Breslau in 1811, and united with the local Jesuit University to create the new Schlesische Friedrich-Wilhelm-Universität (Wrocław University). The city became the center of the Liberation movement against Napoleon Bonaparte; volunteers from all over Germany gathered there.

Prussian reforms increased prosperity in Silesia and Breslau. The leveled fortifications opened space for Breslau to grow beyond her old borders. Breslau became an important railway hub and industrial centre, notably of linen and cotton manufacture and metal industry. The unified university resulted in the city becoming a major Prussian center of sciences, and the secularization laid the base for a rich museum landscape.

German unification in 1871 left Breslau the sixth-largest city in the German Empire. Its population more than tripled to over half a million between 1860 and 1910. The 1905 census lists 470,904 residents, including 20,536 Jews, 6,020 Poles and 3,752 others.In 1919, Breslau became the capital of the newly created Province of Lower Silesia. Due to increased ethnic tensions, in August 1920 during the pro-Polish Silesian Uprising in neighbouring Upper Silesia, local Polish institutions were devastated. The number of Poles in Breslau dropped from 2 percent before World War I to 0.5 percent after the reconstitution of Poland [Harasimowicz, p. 466f] . Antisemitic riots occurred in 1923Davies, Moorhouse, p. 396; van Rahden, Juden, p. 323-26] .

The city boundaries were expanded between 1925 and 1930 to include an area of 175 km² with a population of 600.000. In 1929 the Werkbund opened "WuWa" (German: Wohnungs- und Werkraumausstellung) in Breslau-Scheitnig, a international showcase of modern architecture by architects of the Silesian branch of the Werkbund. In June 1930 Breslau hosted the "Deutsche Kampfspiele", a sporting event for German athletes after Germany was excluded from the Olympic Games after World War I.

The city became one of the largest support bases of Nazis, who in the 1932 elections received 43,5 % of Breslau's votes, their third largest total in the entire country [Norman Davies "Mikrokosmos" page 369] .

After Hitler's Putsch, the Gestapo began actions against Polish and Jewish studentsDavies, Moorhouse, p. 395] , Communists, Social Democrats, and trade unionists. Arrests were even made for using Polish in public.Kulak, p. 252] In 1938 the police destroyed Polish cultural centre.Davies, Moorhouse, p. 395] Many of the city's 10,000 Jews were sent to concentration camps; those who remained were killed during the Nazi Holocaust. Most of the Polish elites also left during 1920s and 1930s; leaders who remained were sent to campsDavies, Moorhouse, p. 395] . A network of concentration camps and forced labour camps was established around Breslau, to serve industrial concerns, including FAMO, Junkers and Krupp. Tens of thousands were imprisoned there. [http://www.rogermoorhouse.com/article1.html]

World War II and afterwards

For most of World War II the fighting was not close to Breslau. Refugees swelled the population to nearly one million [ [http://www.wroclaw.pl/m6852/ History of Wrocław] ] .

In February 1945 the Soviet Red Army approached the city. Gauleiter Karl Hanke declared the city a "Festung" (fortress) to be held at all costs. Hanke finally lifted a ban on the evacuation of women and children when it was almost too late. During his poorly organised evacuation in early March 1945, 18,000 people froze to death in icy snowstorms and -20°C weather. By the end of the Siege of Breslau, half the city had been destroyed. 40,000 inhabitants lay dead in the ruins of homes and factories. After a siege of nearly three months, "Fortress Breslau" surrendered on May 7 1945, just before the end of the war. [ [http://www.wratislavia.net/festung.htm Festung Breslau (Wrocław Fortress) siege by the Soviet Army - photo gallery] ]

After World War II Wrocław became part of Poland under the terms of the Potsdam Conference. Most remaining German inhabitants fled or were expelled. The population of Wrocław was increased by resettlement of Poles.

Wrocław is now a European city with a Polish population and a mixed architectural heritage, influenced by Bohemian, Austrian, and Prussian traditions, as well as a number of buildings by eminent German modernist architects.

In July 1997, the city was heavily affected by a flood of the Oder River, the worst flooding in post-war Poland, Germany, and the Czech Republic. Around one third of the city's area stood under water. [ [http://miasta.gazeta.pl/wroclaw/5,44548,1501462.html 1997 great flood of Oder River - photo gallery] ] An earlier equally devastating flood of the river took place in 1903. [ [http://www.breslau-wroclaw.de/de/breslau/postcard/projektor/print.php?showId=1000 1903 great flood of the Oder river - photo gallery] ]

Climate

Wrocław has been historically considered one of the warmest cities in Poland. Lying in the Lower-Silesian region, one of the warmest in Poland, the mean annual temperature is 8.5 °C.

Infobox Weather
metric_first=yes
single_line=yes
location=Tarnów
Jan_Hi_°F = 34 |Jan_Hi_°C = 2
Feb_Hi_°F = 37 |Feb_Hi_°C = 3
Mar_Hi_°F = 46 |Mar_Hi_°C = 8
Apr_Hi_°F = 56 |Apr_Hi_°C = 13
May_Hi_°F = 65 |May_Hi_°C = 18
Jun_Hi_°F = 81 |Jun_Hi_°C = 27
Jul_Hi_°F = 84 |Jul_Hi_°C = 29
Aug_Hi_°F = 83 |Aug_Hi_°C = 28
Sep_Hi_°F = 76 |Sep_Hi_°C = 24
Oct_Hi_°F = 57 |Oct_Hi_°C = 14
Nov_Hi_°F = 45 |Nov_Hi_°C = 7
Dec_Hi_°F = 37 |Dec_Hi_°C = 3
Year_Hi_°F = 55 |Year_Hi_°C = 13
Jan_Lo_°F = 22 |Jan_Lo_°C = -6
Feb_Lo_°F = 24 |Feb_Lo_°C = -4
Mar_Lo_°F = 30 |Mar_Lo_°C = -1
Apr_Lo_°F = 41 |Apr_Lo_°C = 5
May_Lo_°F = 54 |May_Lo_°C = 12
Jun_Lo_°F = 61 |Jun_Lo_°C = 16
Jul_Lo_°F = 63 |Jul_Lo_°C = 17
Aug_Lo_°F = 62 |Aug_Lo_°C = 17
Sep_Lo_°F = 47 |Sep_Lo_°C = 8
Oct_Lo_°F = 40 |Oct_Lo_°C = 5
Nov_Lo_°F = 33 |Nov_Lo_°C = 1
Dec_Lo_°F = 26 |Dec_Lo_°C = -3
Year_Lo_°F = 40 |Year_Lo_°C = 5
Jan_Precip_inch = 1 |Jan_Precip_cm = 2.8 |Jan_Precip_mm =
Feb_Precip_inch = 1 |Feb_Precip_cm = 2.6 |Feb_Precip_mm =
Mar_Precip_inch = 1 |Mar_Precip_cm = 3 |Mar_Precip_mm =
Apr_Precip_inch = 1.1 |Apr_Precip_cm = 3.8 |Apr_Precip_mm =
May_Precip_inch = 2 |May_Precip_cm = 5 |May_Precip_mm =
Jun_Precip_inch = 2.1 |Jun_Precip_cm = 6.6 |Jun_Precip_mm =
Jul_Precip_inch = 2.4 |Jul_Precip_cm = 7.6 |Jul_Precip_mm =
Aug_Precip_inch = 2.2 |Aug_Precip_cm = 7.1 |Aug_Precip_mm =
Sep_Precip_inch = 1.5 |Sep_Precip_cm = 4.6 |Sep_Precip_mm =
Oct_Precip_inch = 1.3 |Oct_Precip_cm = 4 |Oct_Precip_mm =
Nov_Precip_inch = 1.3 |Nov_Precip_cm = 3.8 |Nov_Precip_mm =
Dec_Precip_inch = 1.2 |Dec_Precip_cm = 3.6 |Dec_Precip_mm =
Year_Precip_inch = 20.3 |Year_Precip_cm = 54.9 |Year_Precip_mm =
source =Weatherbasecite web
url=http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=57321&refer= |title=Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Wrocław, Poland | accessmonthday = July 30 |accessyear=2008
language=English
]
accessdate=2008-07-30

Administration

Wrocław is the capital city of Lower Silesian Voivodeship, a province (voivodeship) created in 1999. It was previously the seat of Wrocław Voivodeship. The city is a separate urban gmina and city county (powiat). It is also the seat of Wrocław County, which adjoins but does not include the city.

Wrocław is subdivided into five boroughs (dzielnicas):
* Fabryczna ("Factory Quarter")
* Krzyki ( _de. Krietern)
* Psie Pole ( _de. Hundsfeld, "Dogs' Field", named so after the Battle of Hundsfeld)
* Stare Miasto (Old Town)
* Śródmieście (City Centre)

Main sights

* "Rynek" (market square) with the 14th century Town Hall
* Hala Ludowa ("Peoples' Hall", originally _de. Jahrhunderthalle, "Centennial Hall") by Max Berg — a World Heritage Site
* Ostrów Tumski ("Cathedral Island", _de. Dominsel) with Wrocław Cathedral
* Racławice Panorama
* Plac Grunwaldzki ("Grunwald Square", named for the Battle of Grunwald)
* St. Elisabeth's Church
* Wrocław Palace

Education

Today's Wrocław has ten state-run universities, including:
* Wrocław University ( [http://www.uni.wroc.pl/ "Uniwersytet Wrocławski"] ) - over 47,000 students
* Wrocław University of Technology ( [http://www.pwr.wroc.pl/ "Politechnika Wrocławska"] ) - over 40,000 students
* Wrocław Medical University ( [http://www.am.wroc.pl/ "Wrocławska Akademia Medyczna"] )
* University School of Physical Education. ( [http://www.awf.wroc.pl/ "Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego"] ),
* Wrocław University of Economics ( [http://www.ae.wroc.pl/ "Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny we Wrocławiu"] ) - over 18,000 students
* Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences ( [http://www.up.wroc.pl/ "Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wrocławiu"] ) - over 13,000 students
* Academy of Fine Arts in Wrocław ( [http://www.asp.wroc.pl/ "Akademia Sztuk Pięknych we Wrocławiu"] )
* The Karol Lipiński University of Music ( [http://www.amuz.wroc.pl/ "Akademia Muzyczna im. Karola Lipińskiego"] )
* University School of Theatre ("Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Teatralna")
* The Tadeusz Kościuszko Land Forces Military Academy ( [http://www.wso.wroc.pl/ "Wyższa Szkoła Oficerska Wojsk Lądowych"] )as well as numerous private institutions of higher education

Historic institutions

* Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau

Economy and transport

Wrocław's major industries were traditionally the manufacture of railroad cars and electronics. The city is served by Wrocław International Airport and a river port.

Major corporations

* Whirlpool Polar
* Volvo Polska sp. z o.o., Wrocław
* WABCO Polska, Wrocław
* Siemens, Wrocław
* Nokia Siemens Networks Sp z o.o
* Hewlett Packard, Wrocław
* Google, Wrocław
* Grupa Lukas, Wrocław
* AB SA, Wrocław
* Polifarb Cieszyn-Wrocław SA, Wrocław
* KOGENERACJA S.A., Wrocław
* Impel SA, Wrocław
* Europejski Fundusz Leasingowy SA, Wrocław
* Telefonia Dialog SA, Wrocław
* TietoEnator, Wrocław
* Wrozamet SA, Wrocław
* American Restaurants sp. z o.o., Wrocław
* Hutmen SA, Wrocław
* Fortum Wrocław S.A., Wrocław
* SAP Polska
* Hologram Industries Polska
* Zender sp. z o.o., Wrocław
* Swiftway / Eureka Solutions sp. z o.o., Wrocław
* MSI (Micro Star International) Polska Sp. z o. o.
* Cargill Poland

Religion

Like all of Poland, Wrocław's population is predominantly Roman Catholic; the city is the seat of an Archdiocese. However, post-war resettlements from Poland's ethnically and religiously more diverse former eastern territories ( _pl. Kresy) and the eastern parts of post-1945 Poland (see Operation Wisła) account for a comparatively large portion of Greek Catholics and Orthodox Christians of mostly Ukrainian (see Ukrainian minority in Poland) and Lemko descent.

Professional sports

The Wrocław area has many popular professional sports teams. The most popular sport today is probably basketball, thanks to Śląsk Wrocław, the award-winning men's basketball team (former Polish champions, 2nd-place in 2004). Some matches of the 2012 UEFA European Football Championships in Poland and Ukraine are scheduled to take place in Wrocław.

Men's sports

* ASCO Śląsk Wrocław - (previous names:ASCO Śląsk Wrocław, Bergson Śląsk Wrocław, Era Śląsk Wrocław, Deichmann Śląsk Wrocław, Idea Śląsk Wrocław, Zepter Idea Śląsk Wrocław, Zepter Śląsk Wrocław, Śląsk ESKA Wrocław, Śląsk Wrocław, CWKS Wrocław) men's basketball team, 17th Polish Champiion former Polish Champion, 3rd place 2008 in Dominet Basket Liga
* Śląsk Wrocław - men's football team (Polish Championship in Football 1977; Polish Cup winner 1976, 1987; Polish SuperCup winner 1987) (2nd league from 2005 to 2007)
* Śląsk Wrocław - men's handball team (1st league in season 2008/2009)
* Atlas volleyball team playing in Polish Volleyball League (Polska Liga Siatkówki, PLS: Seria A in 2006/2007, Seria B in 2008/2009 season).
* [http://www.thecrew.pl] The CREW - American Football Club - Champion of Polish American Football League 2007, First polish team played in Europen Competitions EFAF Cup in 2008.

Women's sports

* ZEC ESV Gwardia Wrocław- women's volleyball team playing in Polish Seria A Women's Volleyball League: 6th place in 2003/2004 season.
* AZS Wrocław - women's football team (1st league in season 2003/2004)
* AZS AWF Wrocław - women's handball team (1st league in season 2003/2004)
* AZS AE Wrocław - women table tennis team (1st league in season 2003/2004)

Twin towns and partnerships

Twin towns:
* Skopje, Macedonia.
* Breda, Netherlands.
* Dresden, Germany.
* Charlotte,North Carolina United States.
* Guadalajara, Mexico.
* Hradec Králové, Czech Republic.
* Kaunas, Lithuania.
* Lviv, Ukraine.
* Ramat Gan, Israel.
* Toronto, Canada.
* Izmir, Turkey.
* Wiesbaden, Germany.Partnership:
* Vienne "département".

See also

History of Wrocław

List of notable people from Breslau

List of notable people from Wrocław

Lower Silesia (region)

Lower Silesian Voivodeship (modern)

Province of Lower Silesia (historic 1919 - 1945)

Province of Silesia (historic, 1815 - 1919)

References

Further reading

English language

*cite book |title= Microcosm: Portrait of a Central European City |last= Davies |first= Norman |authorlink= Norman Davies |coauthors= Roger Moorhouse |year= 2002 |publisher= Jonathan Cape |location= London |isbn= 0224062433

Polish language

*cite book |title= Dzieje Wrocławia do roku 1807 |last= Długoborski |first= Wacław |authorlink= |coauthors= Józef Gierowski, Karol Maleczyński |year= 1958
publisher= PWN |location= Warszawa

*cite book |title= Encyklopedia Wrocławia |last= Harasimowicz |first= Jan |authorlink= |coauthors= Włodzimierz Suleja (eds.) |year= 2001 |publisher= Wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie |location= Wrocław |isbn= 83-7384-561-5
*cite book |title= Wrocław. Rozwój urbanistyczny |last= Maleczyński |first= Karol |authorlink= |coauthors= Marian Morelowski, Anna Ptaszycka |year= 1956 |publisher= Wydawnictwo Budownictwo i Architektura |location= Warszawa
*cite book | first = Teresa | last = Kulak |authorlink= Teresa Kulak | title = Wrocław. Przewodnik historyczny (A to Polska właśnie) | publisher = Wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie | isbn= 8373844724 | location = Wrocław | year = 2006
*cite book |title= Wrocław, jego dzieje i kultura |last= Świechowski |first= Zygmunt (ed.) |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 1978 |publisher= Arkady |location= Warszawa |isbn=
*cite book |title= Szkice z dziejów polonii wrocławskiej |last= Orzechowicz |first= Marian |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 1960 |publisher= Zakład Narodowy imienia Ossolinskick-Wydawnictwo, 1960|location= Wrocław |isbn= 83-7384-561-5

German language

*cite book |title= Das Breslau-Lexikon (2 vols.) |last= Scheuermann |first= Gerhard |authorlink= |year= 1994 |publisher= Laumann Verlagsgesellschaft |location= Dülmen |isbn= 978-3899601329
*cite book |title= Die fremde Stadt. Breslau 1945 |last= Thum |first= Gregor |authorlink= Gregor Thum |coauthors= |year= 2003 |publisher= Siedler |location= Berlin
isbn= 3-88680-795-9

*cite book |title= Juden und andere Breslauer: Die Beziehungen zwischen Juden, Protestanten und Katholiken in einer deutschen Großstadt von 1860 bis 1925 |last= van Rahden |first= Till |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 2000 |publisher= Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht |location= Göttingen |isbn= 3-525-35732-X
*cite book |title= Handbuch der historischen Stätten: Schlesien |last= Weczerka |first= Hugo |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 2003 |publisher= Alfred Kröner Verlag |location= Stuttgart |isbn= 3-520-31602-1
* [http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/dlibra/docmetadata?id=oai:www.wbc.poznan.pl:19139 Codex Diplomaticus Silesiae T.3: Henricus pauper] - account book of Wroclaw, 1299-1358 de icon la icon
* [http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/dlibra/docmetadata?id=19517 Codex Diplomaticus Silesiae T.11 Breslauer Stadtbuch] - liber civitatis (town book) of Wroclaw, containing the councilmen since 1287 and documents regarding the constitutional history de icon la icon
* [http://www.digitalsilesia.eu/dlibra/docmetadata?id=3930 Breslauer Urkundenbuch] - complete collection of all deeds of the city de icon la icon

External links

* [http://www.wroclaw.pl/ms/english/ Municipal website] pl icon en icon de icon fr icon
* [http://www.wroclaw-life.com Wroclaw Life. Travel, nightlife, photos.] en icon
* [http://www.wroclawweekly.pl Wroclaw Weekly] pl icon
* [http://www.rogermoorhouse.com/article1.html Concentration Camps in the Breslau district - 1940-1945 - by Roger Moorhouse] en icon
* [http://www.wirtualny.wroclaw.pl/ Virtual Wrocław] pl icon
* [http://wroclaw.hydral.com.pl/ Wratislaviae Amici] pl icon
* [http://breslau1930.net Postindustrial Wroclaw] pl icon
* [http://www.wroclawcitybreaks.com/ Wroclaw City Breaks - Tourist Information and Reviews] pl icon
* [http://eit.wroclaw.pl/img/81585bcac74145d787f6b5519f1401d4_EIT.swf Wroclaw Strategy (Flash file: 5.4 MB)] en icon
* [http://www.dobreinfo.pl Dobre Info.pl - all about Wroclaw.] pl icon


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  • Wrocław — [vrō̂ts′läf] city in Silesia, SW Poland, on the Oder River: pop. 644,000 * * * German Breslau City (pop., 2000 est.: 633,857), southwestern Poland. Located on the Oder River, it originated in the 10th century at the crossroads of the trade route …   Universalium

  • Wrocław — (Вроцлав,Польша) Категория отеля: Адрес: Кжики, 52 214 Вроцлав, Польша Оп …   Каталог отелей

  • WROCLAW — WROC face= EU Caron ゲAW, anc. BRESLAU Ville martyre détruite à 70 p. 100, aplanie sur plus de 800 hectares, Wroc face= EU Caron ゥaw (anciennement Breslau) est une des plus actives et des plus belles cités de Pologne. Située sur l’Oder, au centre… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Wrocław — [vrō̂ts′läf] city in Silesia, SW Poland, on the Oder River: pop. 644,000 …   English World dictionary

  • Wrocław — 51°07′N 17°02′E / 51.117, 17.033 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Wroclaw — Breslau …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Wrocław — Breslau …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Wrocław — Запрос «Бреслау» перенаправляется сюда. Cм. также другие значения. Город Вроцлав польск. Wrocław Флаг Герб …   Википедия

  • Wroclaw — noun a city in southwestern Poland on the Oder • Syn: ↑Breslau • Instance Hypernyms: ↑city, ↑metropolis, ↑urban center • Part Holonyms: ↑Poland, ↑Republic of Poland, ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

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