- Top-down parsing
**Top-down parsing**is a strategy of analyzing unknown data relationships by hypothesizing generalparse tree structures and then considering whether the known fundamental structures are compatible with the hypothesis. It occurs in the analysis of both naturallanguage s andcomputer language s.Top-down parsing can be viewed as an attempt to find left-most derivations of an input-stream by searching for parse-trees using a top-down expansion of the given

formal grammar rules. Tokens are consumed from left to right. Inclusive choice is used to accommodateambiguity by expanding all alternative right-hand-sides of grammar rules. Aho, A.V., Sethi, R. and Ullman ,J.D. (1986) " Compilers: principles, techniques, and tools." " Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc. Boston, MA, USA. " ]Simple implementations of top-down parsing do not terminate for left-recursive grammars, and top-down parsing with backtracking may have

exponential time complexity with respect to the length of the input for ambiguous CFGs Aho, A.V and Ullman, J. D. (1972) " The Theory of Parsing, Translation, and Compiling, Volume 1: Parsing." "Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall." ] . However, more sophisticated top-down parsers have been created by Frost, Hafiz, and Callaghan Frost, R., Hafiz, R. and Callaghan, P. (2007) " Modular and Efficient Top-Down Parsing for Ambiguous Left-Recursive Grammars ." "10th International Workshop on Parsing Technologies (IWPT), ACL-SIGPARSE ", Pages: 109 - 120, June 2007, Prague.] Frost, R., Hafiz, R. and Callaghan, P. (2008) " Parser Combinators for Ambiguous Left-Recursive Grammars." " 10th International Symposium on Practical Aspects of Declarative Languages (PADL), ACM-SIGPLAN ", Volume 4902/2008, Pages: 167-181, January 2008, San Francisco.] which do accommodate ambiguity and left recursion in polynomial time and which generate polynomial-sized representations of the potentially-exponential number of parse trees.**Programming language application**A

compiler parses input from a programming language to assembly language or an internal representation by matching the incoming symbols toBackus-Naur form production rules. AnLL parser , also called a**top-bottom parser**or**top-down parser**, applies each production rule to the incoming symbols by working from the left-most symbol yielded on a production rule and then proceeding to the next production rule for each non-terminal symbol encountered. In this way the parsing starts on the Left of the result side (right side) of the production rule and evaluates non-terminals from the Left first and, thus, proceeds down the parse tree for each new non-terminal before continuing to the next symbol for a production rule.For example:

* $A\; ightarrow\; aBC$

* $B\; ightarrow\; c|cd$

* $C\; ightarrow\; df|eg$would match $A\; ightarrow\; aBC$ and attempt to match $B\; ightarrow\; c|cd$ next. Then $C\; ightarrow\; df|eg$ would be tried. As one may expect, some languages are more ambiguous than others. For a non-ambiguous language in which all productions for a non-terminal produce distinct strings: the string produced by one production will not start with the same symbol as the string produced by another production. A non-ambiguous language may be parsed by an LL(1) grammar where the (1) signifies the parser reads ahead one token at a time. For an ambiguous language to be parsed by an LL parser, the parser must lookahead more than 1 symbol, e.g. LL(3).

The common solution is to use an

LR parser (also known as bottom-up or shift-reduce parser).**Accommodating left recursion in top-down parsing**A

formal grammar that containsleft recursion cannot be parsed by a naiverecursive descent parser unless they are converted to a weakly equivalent right-recursive form. However, recent research demonstrates that it is possible to accommodate left-recursive grammars (along with all other forms of general CFGs) in a more sophisticated top-down parser by use of curtailment. A recognition algorithm which accommodates ambiguous grammars and curtails an ever-growing direct left-recursive parse by imposing depth restrictions w.r.t. input length and current input position, is described by Frost and Hafiz in 2006 Frost, R. and Hafiz, R. (2006) " A New Top-Down Parsing Algorithm to Accommodate Ambiguity and Left Recursion in Polynomial Time." "ACM SIGPLAN Notices", Volume 41 Issue 5, Pages: 46 - 54.] . That algorithm was extended to a completeparsing algorithm to accommodate indirect (by comparing previously-computed context with current context) as well as direct left-recursion inpolynomial time, and to generate compact polynomial-size representations of the potentially-exponential number of parse trees for highly-ambiguous grammars by Frost, Hafiz and Callaghan in 2007 Frost, R., Hafiz, R. and Callaghan, P. (2007) " Modular and Efficient Top-Down Parsing for Ambiguous Left-Recursive Grammars ." "10th International Workshop on Parsing Technologies (IWPT), ACL-SIGPARSE ", Pages: 109 - 120, June 2007, Prague.] . The algorithm has since been implemented as a set of parser combinators written in the Haskell programming language. The implementation details of these new set of combinators can be found in a paper Frost, R., Hafiz, R. and Callaghan, P. (2008) " Parser Combinators for Ambiguous Left-Recursive Grammars." " 10th International Symposium on Practical Aspects of Declarative Languages (PADL), ACM-SIGPLAN ", Volume 4902/2008, Pages: 167-181, January 2008, San Francisco.] by the above-mentioned authors, which was presented in PADL'08.The [*http://www.cs.uwindsor.ca/~hafiz/proHome.html X-SAIGA*] site has more about the algorithms and implementation details.**Time and space complexity of top-down parsing**When top-down parser tries to parse an

ambiguous input w.r.t. an ambiguous CFG, it may need exponential number of steps (w.r.t. the length of the input) to try all alternatives of the CFG in order to produce all possible parse trees, which eventually would require exponential memory space. The problem of exponential time complexity in top-down parsers constructed as sets of mutually-recursive functions has been solved by Norvig in 1991. Norvig, P. (1991) “Techniques for automatic memoisation with applications to context-free parsing.” "Journal - Computational Linguistics" Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages: 91 - 98. ] His technique is similar to the use of dynamic programming and state-sets in Earley's algorithm (1970), and tables in theCYK algorithm of Cocke, Younger and Kasami. The key idea is to store results of applying a parser`p`

at position`j`

in a memotable and to reuse results whenever the same situation arises. Frost, Hafiz and Callaghan Frost, R., Hafiz, R. and Callaghan, P. (2007) " Modular and Efficient Top-Down Parsing for Ambiguous Left-Recursive Grammars ." "10th International Workshop on Parsing Technologies (IWPT), ACL-SIGPARSE ", Pages: 109 - 120, June 2007, Prague.] Frost, R., Hafiz, R. and Callaghan, P. (2008) " Parser Combinators for Ambiguous Left-Recursive Grammars." " 10th International Symposium on Practical Aspects of Declarative Languages (PADL), ACM-SIGPLAN ", Volume 4902/2008, Pages: 167-181, January 2008, San Francisco.] also usememoization for refraining redundant computations to accommodate any form of CFG inpolynomial time (Θ(n^{4}) for left-recursive grammars and Θ(n^{3}) for non left-recursive grammars). Their top-down parsing algorithm also requires polynomial space for potentially exponential ambiguous parse trees by 'compact representation' and 'local ambiguities grouping'. Their compact representation is comparable with Tomita’s compact representation ofbottom-up parsing . Tomita, M. (1985) “Efficient Parsing for Natural Language.” "Kluwer, Boston, MA". ]**ee also***

Bottom-up parsing

*Parsing

*Recursive descent parser **References****External links*** [

*http://www.cs.uwindsor.ca/~hafiz/proHome.html X-SAIGA*] - eXecutable SpecificAtIons of GrAmmars

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