- United Methodist Church
Infobox Christian denomination
name = United Methodist Church
imagewidth = 100px
caption = United Methodist Church logo
Cross and flame
orientation = Mainlinecite web|url = http://www.thearda.com/mapsReports/reports/mainline.asp| title = Mainline Denominations|publisher = The Association of Religion Data Archives|accessdate = 2007-08-01] cite web|url = http://www.umc.org/site/apps/ka/ct/contactcustom.asp?c=lwL4KnN1LtH&b=2068577#| title = Is the concept “saved, born-again” unique to evangelicals?|publisher = The United Methodist Church|accessdate = 2007-03-25] cite book|title=United Methodists are...|quote=The United Methodist Church continues its strong evangelical heritage. Within each congregation is a vital center of biblical study and evangelism - a blending of personal piety and discipleship.|publisher = United Methodist Communications|accessdate = 2008-04-20]
polity = Episcopal (
spiritual founder =
merger = The Methodist Church and the
Evangelical United Brethren Church
Churches Uniting in Christ, Christian Churches Together, National Council of Churches, World Council of Churches, World Methodist Council
area = Worldwide: divided into122 Annual/Central Conferences,cite web|url = http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=6&mid=2119| title = Quick Facts|publisher = The United Methodist Church|accessdate = 2007-08-01] and 69
congregations = 41,826
members = worldwide: 12 million (8.0 million in the
United States; 3.5 million in Africa, Asia, and Europe)
website = [http://www.umc.org umc.org]
website2 = [http://www.unitedmethodist.org unitedmethodist.org]
footnotes =The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination, and the second largest
Protestantdenomination, in the United States. Like all mainline denominations, it has evangelical elements.cite web|url = http://www.umc.org/site/apps/ka/ct/contactcustom.asp?c=lwL4KnN1LtH&b=2068577#| title = Is the concept “saved, born-again” unique to evangelicals? |publisher = The United Methodist Church|accessdate = 2007-08-01] cite web|url = http://www.eppc.org/publications/pubID.1943/pub_detail.asp| title = Understanding American Evangelicals|publisher = Ethics and Public Policy Center|accessdate = 2007-08-02] In the United States, it ranks as the largest mainline church, second largest Protestant church (after the Southern Baptist Convention), and third largest Christian Churchoverall. In 2007 worldwide membership was about 12 million members: 8.0 million in the United States,cite web|url = http://www.ncccusa.org/news/070305yearbook2007.html| title = 2007 Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches|publisher = The National Council of Churches|accessdate = 2007-08-07] 3.5 million in Africa, Asia and Europe.cite web|url = http://www.christianpost.com/article/20070424/27070_Boom_in_Christianity_Reshapes_United_Methodists.htm| title = Boom in Christianity Reshapes United Methodists |publisher = The Christian Post|accessdate = 2007-06-08] It is a member church of World Council of Churches, World Methodist Council, and other religious associations. It remains the only Christian denomination or body to have congregations in every county or parish in the United States.Fact|date=October 2008
The United Methodist Church traces its main root to the Methodist Movement of
John Wesleyin Englandin the 1700s.cite web|url = http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/methodist.html| title = The United Methodist Church |publisher = University of Virginia|accessdate = 2007-08-03] cite web|url = http://www.umcwfb.org/What_We_Believe.asp| title = What We Believe - Founder of the United Methodist Church |publisher = United Methodist Church of Whitefish Bay|accessdate = 2007-08-01] The first official organization in the United States occurred in Baltimore in 1784 with the formation of the Methodist Episcopal Churchat the Christmas Conference, with Francis Asburyand Thomas Cokeas the leaders.cite web|url = http://are.as.wvu.edu/christv.htm| title = Methodists|publisher = The American Religious Experience (West Virginia University) |accessdate = 2007-12-24] cite web|url = http://www.gborocollege.edu/prescorner/christmas.html| title = Origins: Christmas Conference|publisher = Greensboro College|accessdate = 2007-12-24]
Origins and history
The church traces its roots to "The Holy Club" at
Oxford Universityformed by Anglicanminister John Wesleyand Charles Wesleyin 1729. Members of the Society were said to have to lived by " method." [ [http://www.johnowensmith.co.uk/histdate/methdist.htm Methodist Origins -johnowensmith.co.uk - Retrieved February 3, 2008] ]
The church in its present form traces its roots to the founding of the
Methodist Episcopal Churchin Baltimore, Marylandin 1784. It grew rapidly in the young country as it employed circuit riders, many of whom were laymen, to travel the mostly rural nation by horseback to preach the Gospel and to establish churches until there was scarcely any village in the United Stateswithout a Methodist presence. The Methodist Episcopal Churchrapidly became the largest Protestant denomination in the country, with 4000 circuit riders by 1844.
In the more than 220 years since 1784, the
Methodist Episcopal Church, like many other Protestant denominations, has seen a number of divisions and mergers. In 1820, the Methodist Protestant Churchsplit from the Methodist Episcopal Churchover the issue of laity having a voice and vote in the administration of the church, insisting that clergy should not be the only ones to have any determination in how the church was to be operated. In 1844, the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Churchsplit into two conferences because of tensions over slavery and the power of bishops in the denomination.
The two General Conferences, Methodist Episcopal Church (or northern section) and
Methodist Episcopal Church, Southremained separate until the 1939 merger of these two denominations plus a third, the Methodist Protestant Church, the resulting church being known as The Methodist Church.
On April 23, 1968, The United Methodist Church was created when The
Evangelical United Brethren Church(represented by Bishop Reuben H. Mueller) and The Methodist Church (represented by Bishop Lloyd Christ Wicke) joined hands at the constituting General Conference in Dallas, Texas. With the words,
"Lord of the Church, we are united in Thee, in Thy Church and now in The United Methodist Church,""the new denomination was given birth by the two churches that had distinguished histories and influential ministries in various parts of the world.
Combining the personal holiness emphasis of the evangelical influence in the church with the outreach emphasis from the social gospel proponents has created a combination of practices within The United Methodist Church.
The church is decentralized with the
General Conferencebeing the official governing body. However, administratively the church has a governing structure that is similar to that of the United States government:
*General Conference - The
legislative branchthat makes all decisions.
Council of Bishops- The executive branchconsisting of all active and retired bishops that meets twice a year. According to the Book of Discipline 2000, "The Church expects the Council of Bishops to speak to the Church and from the Church to the world, and to give leadership in the quest for Christian unity and interreligious relationships." [ [http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?mid=258&GID=62&GMOD=VWD&GCAT=C Council of Bishops - umc.or - Retrieved February 3, 2008] ] The council is presided over by a President who serves a two-year term. The President has no official authority beyond presiding. Administrative work is handled by the secretary of the council. [ [http://bishops.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=21&mid=5856 Introduction to the Council of Bishops - umc.org - Retrieved February 3, 2008]
*Judicial Council - The
judicial branchconsisting of nine persons elected by the General Conference to rule on questions of constitutionality in church law and practice. [ [http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?mid=258&GID=80&GMOD=VWD&GCAT=J Judicial Council- umc.org - Retrieved February 3, 2008] ]
The United Methodist Church is organized into conferences. The highest level is called the "General Conference" and is the only organization which may speak officially for the church. The General Conference meets every four years (quadrennium). Legislative changes are recorded in "The Book of Discipline" which is revised after each General Conference. Non-legislative resolutions are recorded in the "Book of Resolutions", which is published after each General Conference, and expire after eight years unless passed again by a subsequent session of General Conference. The last General Conference was held in
Fort Worth, Texas, in 2008. The next General Conference will be April 25- May 4, 2012in Richmond, Virginia. [ [http://www.umc.org/site/c.gjJTJbMUIuE/b.1202353/k.4F87/2012_United_Methodist_General_Conference_to_be_in_Virginia.htm News Archives - UMC.org ] ] The event is currently rotated between the U.S. jurisdictions of the church. If the system is not changed beforehand, the 2016General Conference would be in the West, which has not hosted since Denver, Coloradoin 1996. Bishops, Councils, Committees, Boards, Elders, etc., are not permitted to speak on behalf of The United Methodist Church as this authority is reserved solely for the General Conference in accordance with the "Book of Discipline".
plenary sessionis presided over by an active bishop who has been selected by committee of delegates to the Conference. It is not uncommon for different bishops to preside on different days. The presiding officer usually is accompanied by parliamentarians. [ [http://www.umc.org/site/c.lwL4KnN1LtH/b.3082929/apps/nl/content3.asp?content_id=%7BB7B150CB-BD8C-4A1C-A78B-976C06ABF738%7D¬oc=1 General Conference 101: All you ever wanted to know - umc.org - Retrieved February 3, 2008] ]
Jurisdictional and Central Conferences
Subordinate to the General Conference are Jurisdictional and Central Conferences which also meet every four years. The United States is divided into five jurisdictions: Northeastern, Southeastern, North Central, South Central and Western. Outside the United States the church is divided into seven central conferences: Africa, Congo, West Africa, Central & Southern Europe, Germany, Northern Europe and Philippines. The main purpose of the jurisdictions and central conferences is to elect and appoint bishops, the chief administrators of the church. Bishops thus elected serve "
Episcopal Areas", which consist of one or more " Annual Conferences".
Decisions in between the four-year meetings are made by the Mission Council (usually consisting of church bishops). One of the most high profile decisions in recent years by one of the Councils was a decision by the Mission Council of the South Central Jurisdiction which in March 2007 approved a 99-year lease of 36 acres at
Southern Methodist Universityfor the George W. Bush Presidential Library. The decision generated controversy in light of the Bush's support of the Iraq Warwhich the church bishops have criticized. [ [http://bishops.umc.org/umns/intlnews_archive.asp?ptid=2&story=%7B9A8E4E8C-A22C-48CA-9C3E-BEEE4E42D4A4%7D&mid=881 Bishop criticizes press, White House on Iraq - bishops.umc.org - Retrieved February 3, 2008] ] A debate over whether the decision should or could be submitted for approval by the Southern Jurisdictional Conference at its July 2008 meeting in Dallas, Texasremains unresolved. [ [http://www.wfn.org/2008/02/msg00005.html Bush library opponents question process for approval - wfn.org - February 1, 2008] ]
The Judicial Council is the highest court in the denomination. It consists of nine members, both laity and clergy, elected by the General Conference for an eight year term. The ratio of laity to clergy alternates every four years. [ [http://www.firstumc.org/about_structure.asp First United Methodist Church ] ] The Judicial Council interprets the "Book of Discipline" between sessions of General Conference, and during General Conference, the Judicial Council rules on the constitutionality of laws passed by General Conference. The Council also determines whether actions of local churches, annual conferences, church agencies, and bishops are in accordance with church law. The Council reviews all decisions of law made by bishops [ [http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=1&mid=4217 Rules of Practice and Procedure ] ] The Judicial Council cannot create any legislation; it can only interpret existing legislation. The Council meets twice a year at various locations throughout the world. The Judicial Council also hears appeals from those who have been accused of chargeable offenses that can result in defrocking or revocation of membership.
Annual Conference", roughly the equivalent of a diocesein the Episcopal Church and the Roman Catholic Churchor a synod in some Lutherandenominations such as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, is the basic unit of organization within the UMC. The term "Annual Conference" is often used to refer to the geographical area it covers as well as the frequency of meeting. Clergyare members of their Annual Conference rather than of any local , and are appointed to a local church or other charge annually by the conference's Resident Bishop at the meeting of the Annual Conference. In many ways, the United Methodist Church operates as a confederation of the Annual Conferences, and interpretations of the "Book of Discipline" by one conference are not binding upon another.
Annual conferences are further divided into "Districts", each served by a "District Superintendent". The district superintendents are also appointed annually from the
ordainedelders of the Annual Conference by the bishop. District superintendents, upon completion of their service as superintendent, routinely return to serving local congregations. The Annual Conference cabinet is composed of the resident bishop and the district superintendents.
There is no official headquarters of church although many of its biggest administrative offices are in
Nashville, Tennesseeand are physically located near Vanderbilt University(which has historic Methodist ties but is no longer associated with the church).
General Conferenceis the only organization that can officially speak for The United Methodist Church as a whole, there are several councils, boards, commissions, and agencies that the church operates on the denominational level. These organizations address specific topic areas of denomination-wide concern with administrative offices throughout the United States. [ [http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=1&mid=2650 General Agencies - umc.org - Retrieved February 3, 2008] ]
General Council on Finance and Administration(Nashville) [http://www.gcfa.org (GCFA)]
General Boards of Pension and Health Benefits( Evanston, Illinois) [http://www.gbophb.org (GBOPHB)]
General Board of Church and Society( Washington, DC) [http://www.umc-gbcs.org (GBCS)]
General Board of Discipleship(Nashville) [http://www.gbod.org (GBOD)]
General Board of Global Ministries( New York City) [http://new.gbgm-umc.org (GBGM)]
General Board of Higher Education and Ministry(Nashville) [http://www.gbhem.org (GBHEM)]
General Commission on Archives and History( Madison, New Jersey) [http://www.gcah.org (GCAH)]
* General Commission on Christian Unity and Interreligious Concerns (New York City) [http://www.gccuic.org (GCCUIC)]
General Commission on Religion and Race(Washington, DC) [http://www.gcorr.org (GCORR)]
General Commission on the Status and Roleof Women ( Chicago) [http://www.gcsrw.org (GCSRW)]
General Commission on United Methodist Men(Nashville) [http://www.gcumm.org (GCUMM)]
United Methodist Publishing House(Nashville) [http://www.umph.org (UMPH)]
United Methodist Communications(Nashville) [http://www.umcom.org (UMCom)]
United Methodist Committee on Relief(New York City) [http://gbgm-umc.org/umcor (UMCOR)]
United Methodist Campus Ministers Association(Nashville) [http://www.umcma.org (UMCMA)]
The first Methodist clergy were ordained by
John Wesley, a minister in the Church of England, because of the crisis caused by the American Revolutionwhich isolated the Methodists in the States from the Church of England and its sacraments. Today, the clergy includes men and women who are ordainedby Bishops as Elders and Deacons and are appointed to various ministries. Elders in the United Methodist Church (UMC) are part of what is called the itinerating ministry and are subject to the authority and appointment of their bishops. They generally serve as pastors at local congregations. Deacons make up a serving ministry and may serve as musicians, liturgists, educators, business administrators, and a number of other ministries. Elders and deacons are generally required to obtain master's degrees ( M.Div.or Th.M.), or other appropriate degrees that are at a minimum at the baccalaureate level, before "commissioning" and then ultimately ordination. Elders in full connection are each a member of their Annual Conference Order of Elders. Likewise each Deacon in full connection is a member of their Annual Conference Order of Deacons (abbr. OD, for "Ordinarium Diaconates", lat.).
The main difference between elders and deacons is that elders, in a priestly function, connect the people to God, while deacons, in a servant leadership function, connect the people of God to service in the world. In the priestly function, the elder has the authority to preside over the two sacraments of Baptism and Holy communion, while deacons are to assist in the leadership of these sacraments. Elders itinerate: they are appointed to a place of leadership at the decision of their bishop. Deacons are also appointed to a place of service by the bishop, but they do not itinerate. Deacons choose a place of service and request appointment from the bishop. Deacons whose primary appointment is beyond the local church also have a secondary appointment to a worshiping congregation. (The United Methodist "Book of Discipline" spells out these distinctions.)
The Methodist Church has allowed
ordination of womenwith full rights since 1956,cite web|url = http://www.religioustolerance.org/femclrg13.htm| title = Women as clergy|publisher = Religious Tolerance|accessdate = 2007-03-19] based on Galatians 3:28 NRSV:cite web|url = http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?mid=1090| title = Why Do United Methodists Ordain Women When the Bible Specifically Prohibits it?|publisher = The United Methodist Church |accessdate = 2007-03-19] "There is no longer Jew or Greek, there is no longer slave or free, there is no longer male and female; for all of you are one in Christ Jesus."cite web|url = http://bible.oremus.org/?ql=72906292| title = Galatians 3:28|publisher = National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America|accessdate = 2007-06-24]
At the 1996 General Conference the ordination order of transitional deacon was abolished. This created a new order known as the "commissioned elder." The commissioned elder is a recent seminary graduate who serves three years in a full-time appointment. During this three-year probationary period, the commissioned elder is granted sacramental ministry in their local appointment. This was a change in its theology of ministry for the United Methodist Church in the ordering of its ministry. For the first time in its history non-ordained pastors became a normal expectation, rather than an extraordinary provision for ministry.
There is also another clerical classification called "the Fellowship of Local Pastors". Elders may minister and celebrate the sacraments in any church or any other setting (where invited), while local pastors may only serve in ministry and administer the
sacraments in the specific church to which they are appointed by their bishop; as such, their ministry is often understood as a direct extension of the ministry of the bishop, for its authority is directly and inseparably linked to it. Local pastors are not required to have advanced degrees but are required to pass licensing courses and examinations before the District Committee on Ministry, and are further required to take yearly classes, which if completed before retirement may also lead to ordination as an Elder. Local Pastors are not ordained. Local Pastors preside over the sacraments in their local appointments.
clergyappointments are made and fixed annually by the Resident Bishop on the advice of the Annual Conference Cabinet, which is composed of the Area Provost/Dean (if one is appointed) and the several District Superintendents of the Districts of the Annual Conference. Until the Bishop has read the appointments at the session of the Annual Conference, no appointments are officially fixed. Many Annual Conferences try to avoid making appointment changes between sessions of Annual Conference. While an appointment is made one year at a time, it is most common for an appointment to be continued for multiple years. One recent survey concluded that small church appointments currently average three to four years, while large church appointments average seven to nine years. Appointment tenures in extension ministries, such as Campus Ministry, Missions, Higher Education and other ministries beyond the local church are often even longer. Across the denomination, longer tenures are becoming more common.
Another position in the United Methodist Church is that of the
lay speaker. Although not considered clergy, lay speakers often preach during services of worship when an ordained elder or deaconis unavailable.cite web|url = http://www.layspeakingministries.org/BOD.html| title = Lay Speaking Ministries and The Book of Discipline |publisher = The United Methodist Church LSM|accessdate = 2007-08-01] cite web|url = http://www.gbod.org/laity/lay_speaking/history/lshist.pdf| title = A History of the Office of Lay Speaker in United Methodism|publisher = The United Methodist Church GBOD|accessdate = 2007-08-01] There are two categories of lay speakers: "local church lay speakers",cite web|url = http://www.gbod.org/laity/lay_speaking/lsm03.pdf| title = Lay Speaking Ministry in the United Methodist Church |publisher = The United Methodist Church GBOD|accessdate = 2007-08-01] who serve in and through their local churches, and "certified lay speakers", who serve in their own churches, in other churches, and through district or conference projects and programs. To be recognized as local church lay speakers,they must be recommended by their pastor and Church Council or Charge Conference, and complete the basic course for lay speaking. Each year they must reapply, reporting how they have served and continued to learn during that year. To be recognized as certified lay speakers, they must be recommended by their pastor and Church Council or Charge Conference, complete the basic course and one advanced lay speaking course, and be interviewed by the District or Conference Committee on Lay Speaking. They must report and reapply annually; and they must complete at least one advanced course every three years.
The 2004 General Conference created another class of ministry, the Certified Lay Minister (CLM). CLMs are not considered clergy but instead remain lay members of the United Methodist Church. They must complete coursework beyond that of Certified Lay Speaker and then can be assigned to provide pastoral leadership to a church by the District Superintendent. They do not have sacramental authority; Certified Lay Ministers serve under the supervision of an ordained clergy person who is expected to provide the sacraments to those churches. [cite web|url=http://www.gbod.org/laity/certlaymin.pdf | title = The Certified Lay Minister |publisher = The United Methodist Church GBOD|accessdate = 2008-04-29]
There are two classes of lay membership in the UMC: "Baptized Members" and "Professing Members".
The United Methodist Church (UMC) practices infant and adult baptism. Baptized Members are those who have been baptized as an infant or child, but who have not subsequently professed their own faith. These "Baptized Members" become "Professing Members" through
confirmationand sometimes the profession of faith. Individuals who were not previously baptized are baptized as part of their profession of faith and thus become "Professing Members" in this manner. Individuals may also become a "Professing Member" through transfer from another Christian denomination. [ The United Methodist Book of Discipline, 2004 para. 225.] Baptismis a sacrament in the UMC, (while confirmationand profession of faith are not). The " Book of Discipline of the United Methodist Church" directs the local churchto offer membership preparation or confirmation classes to all people, including adults. [The United Methodist Book of Discipline, 2004 para. 216a&b. ] The term confirmationis generally reserved for youth, while some variation on "membership class" is generarlly used for adults wishing to join the church. The "Book of Discipline" normally allows any youth at least completing sixth grade to participate, although the pastor has discretionary authority to allow a younger person to participate. In confirmation and membership preparation classes, students learn about Church and the Methodist-Christian theological tradition in order to profess their ultimate faith in Christ.
The lay members of the church are extremely important in the UMC. The Professing Members are part of all major decisions in the church. General, Jurisdictional, Central, and Annual Conferences are all required to have an equal number of laity and clergy.
local church, many decisions are made by an administrative board or council. This council is made up of laity representing various other organizations within the local church. The elder or local pastor sits on the council as a voting member. [The United Methodist Book of Discipline, 2004, para. 252k.]
The United Methodist Church is a Protestant denomination which seeks to create disciples for Christ through outreach, evangelism, and through seeking holiness through the process of
sanctification. With a focus on triune worship, United Methodists seek to bring honor to God by following the model of Jesus Christ, which is made possible by the power of the Holy Spirit. The flame in the church logo represents the work of the Holy Spirit in the world, which is seen in believers through spiritual gifts. The two parts of the flame represent the predecessor denominations, the Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren, and are united at the base symbolizing the 1968 merger.
While many United Methodist congregations operate in the evangelical tradition, others are similar to many mainline Protestant denominations. Although United Methodist beliefs have evolved over time, these beliefs can be traced to the writings of the church's founders,
John Wesleyand Charles Wesley (Methodist), Philip William Otterbeinand Martin Boehm(United Brethren), and Jacob Albright(Evangelical). With the formation of The United Methodist Church in 1968, theologian Albert C. Outler led the team which systematized denominational doctrine. Outler's work proved pivotal in the work of union, and he is largely considered the first United Methodist theologian.
The officially established Doctrinal Standards of United Methodism are:
* the Articles of Religion of the Methodist Church;cite web|url = http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?mid=1647| title = Doctrinal Standards in The United Methodist Church|publisher = The United Methodist Church |accessdate = 2007-07-05]
Confession of Faith (United Methodist)of the Evangelical United Brethren Church;
* the "General Rules" of the Methodist Societies;cite web|url = http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?mid=1658| title = The General Rules of the Methodist Church|publisher = The United Methodist Church |accessdate = 2007-07-05]
* the Standard Sermons of John Wesley;
* and John Wesley's "Explanatory Notes on the New Testament".
These Doctrinal Standards are constitutionally protected and nearly impossible to change or remove. Other doctrines of the United Methodist Church are found in the "Book of Discipline of the United Methodist Church".
The basic beliefs of The United Methodist Church include:
God. God is one God in three persons: Father, Son and Holy Spirit(Holy Ghost).cite web|url = http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=1&mid=1817|title = The Articles of Religion of the Methodist Church: Article I—Of Faith in the Holy Trinity|publisher = The United Methodist Church |accessdate = 2007-08-31]
Scripture. The writings in the Old Testamentand New Testamentare the inspired word of God.
Sacraments. The UMC recognizes two sacraments: Holy Baptism and Holy Communion. The Church believes that "Baptism is not only a sign of profession and mark of difference whereby Christians are distinguished from others that are not baptized; but it is also a signof regeneration or the new birth.cite web|url = http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=1&mid=1651| title = The Articles of Religion of the Methodist Church: Article XVII—Of Baptism |publisher = The United Methodist Church |accessdate = 2007-08-15] It believes that Baptism is a sacrament in which God initiates a covenant with individuals,cite web|url = http://www.umc.org/site/c.lwL4KnN1LtH/b.1697379/k.9027/Baptism_Overview.htm| title = A United Methodist Understanding of Baptism|publisher = The United Methodist Church |accessdate = 2007-08-15] people become a part of the Church, is not to be repeated, and is a means of grace.cite web|url = http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=1&mid=1252| title = What does The United Methodist Church believe about baptism?|publisher = The United Methodist Church |accessdate = 2007-08-15] The United Methodist Church generally practices Baptism by sprinkling, pouring, or immersioncite web|url = http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?mid=258&GID=63&GMOD=VWD&GCAT=B| title = Baptism |publisher = The United Methodist Church|accessdate = 2007-06-08] and recognizes Trinitarian formulacite web|url = http://www.gbgm-umc.org/glfumc/worship.html| title = The Sacraments |publisher = Grand Ledge First United Methodist Church |accessdate = 2007-08-15] baptisms from other Christian denominationsin good standing.cite web|url = http://www.gbod.org/worship/articles/water_spirit/| title = By Water & The Spirit|publisher = The United Methodist Church GBOD |accessdate = 2007-08-15] The United Methodist Church affirms the real presenceof Christin Holy Communion,cite web|url = http://www.gbod.org/worship/thisholymystery/theologyofsacraments.html| title = This Holy Mystery |publisher = The United Methodist Church GBOD|accessdate = 2007-06-08] (the breadis an effectual sign of His body crucified on the cross and the cup is an effectual sign of His blood shed for humanity),cite web|url = http://bible.oremus.org/?ql=51484279| title = Luke 22:14-23 (The Institution of the Lord’s Supper) |publisher = National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America|accessdate = 2007-08-15] believes that the celebration is an anamnesisof Jesus’ deathcite web|url = http://www.umc.org/site/c.lwL4KnN1LtH/b.2247711/k.C611/Communion_Overview.htm| title = Communion: Overview |publisher = The United Methodist Church |accessdate = 2007-08-15] believes the sacrament to be a means of grace,cite web|url = http://gbgm-umc.org/umw/wesley/serm-016.stm| title = The Means of Grace by John Wesley |publisher = The United Methodist Church GBOD|accessdate = 2007-06-08] and practices open communion.cite web|url = http://www.umc.org/site/c.lwL4KnN1LtH/b.2299859/k.13B7/Our_Christian_Roots.htm| title = Our Christian Roots |publisher = The United Methodist Church |accessdate = 2007-06-08]
* Inclusivity. The UMC includes and welcomes people of all races,
cultures, and ages.
Free will. The UMC believes that people, while corrupted by sin, are free to make their own choices because of God's divine grace.
* Grace. The UMC believes that God gives unmerited favor freely to all people, though it may be resisted.
The United Methodist Church recognizes the historic
ecumenical creeds,cite web|url = http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?mid=1806| title = Our Common Heritage as Christians |publisher = The United Methodist Church |accessdate = 2007-06-24] the Apostle's Creedcite web|url = http://gbgm-umc.org/UMW/bible/apcreed.html| title = The Apostles' Creed |publisher = The United Methodist Church GBGM|accessdate = 2007-06-24] and the Nicene Creed;cite web|url = http://gbgm-umc.org/UMW/BIBLE/ncreed.html| title = The Nicene Creed |publisher = The United Methodist Church GBGM|accessdate = 2007-06-24] they are used frequently in services of worship.cite web|url = http://lamar.colostate.edu/~grjan/methodist_creedal_church.html| title = Is the United Methodist Church a Creedal Church? by G. Richard Jansen |publisher = Colorado State University |accessdate = 2007-06-24] The Book of Discipline also recognizes the importance of the Chalcedonian Creedof the Council of Chalcedon.
Distinctive Wesleyan emphases
The key emphasis of Wesley's theology relates to how
Divine graceoperates within the individual. Wesley defined the Way of Salvation as the operation of grace in at least three parts: Prevenient Grace, Justifying Grace, and Sanctifying Grace. Prevenient grace, or the grace that "goes before" us, is given to all people. It is that power which enables us to love and motivates us to seek a relationship with God through Jesus Christ.cite web|url = http://gbgm-umc.org/umw/wesley/walk.stm| title = God's Preparing, Accepting, and Sustaining Grace|publisher = The United Methodist Church GBGM|accessdate = 2007-08-02] This grace is the present work of God to turn us from our sin-corrupted human will to the loving will of the Father. In this work, God desires that we might sense both our sinfulness before God and God’s offer of salvation. Prevenient grace allows those tainted by sin to nevertheless make a truly free choice to accept or reject God's salvation in Christ.
Justifying Grace or Accepting Gracecite web|url = http://gbgm-umc.org/umw/wesley/walk.stm| title = God's Preparing, Accepting, and Sustaining Grace|publisher = The United Methodist Church GBGM|accessdate = 2007-08-02] is that grace, offered by God to all people, that we receive by faith and trust in Christ, through which God pardons the believer of
sin. It is in justifying grace we are received by God, in spite of our sin. In this reception, we are forgiven through the atoning work of Jesus Christon the cross. The justifying grace cancels our guilt and empowers us to resist the power of sin and to fully love God and neighbor. Today, justifying grace is also known as conversion, "accepting Jesus as your personal Lord and Savior," or being "born again."cite web|url = http://gbgm-umc.org/umw/wesley/walk.stm| title = God's Preparing, Accepting, and Sustaining Grace|publisher = The United Methodist Church GBGM|accessdate = 2007-08-02] cite web|url = http://www.cambridgechristumc.com/statementofbelief.htm| title = Statement of Belief|publisher = Cambridge Christ United Methodist Church|accessdate = 2007-08-02] John Wesley originally called this experience the New Birth.cite web|url = http://new.gbgm-umc.org/umhistory/wesley/sermons/45/| title = The New Birth by John Wesley (Sermon 45)|publisher = The United Methodist Church GBGM|accessdate = 2007-08-02] This experience can occur in different ways; it can be one transforming moment, such as an altar callexperience,cite web|url = http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?mid=258&GID=349&GMOD=VWD&GCAT=A| title = Altar Call|publisher = The United Methodist Church|accessdate = 2007-08-02] or it may involve a series of decisions across a period of time.cite web|url = http://www.imarc.cc/buletins/methodistq.html| title = Quotes by various Methodist Bishops and Leaders of the Past|publisher = The Independent Methodist Arminian Resource Center|accessdate = 2007-08-02]
Sanctifying Grace is that grace of God which sustains the believers in the journey toward "perfection of love": a genuine love of God with heart, soul, mind, and strength, and a genuine love of our neighbors as ourselves. Sanctifying grace enables us to respond to God by leading a Spirit-filled and Christ-like life aimed toward love.
Wesleyan theology maintains that salvation is the act of God's grace entirely, from invitation, to pardon, to growth in holiness. Furthermore, God's prevenient, justifying, and sanctifying grace interact dynamically in the lives of Christians from birth to death.
For Wesley, good works were the fruit of one's salvation, not the way in which that salvation was earned. Faith and good works go hand in hand in Methodist theology: a living tree naturally and inevitably bears fruit. Wesleyan theology rejects the doctrine of eternal security, believing that salvation can possibly, in extreme cases, be lost. Wesley emphasized that believers must continue in their relationship with Christ, preferably improving this relationship, throughout their lifetime in order to remain in grace with God.
A key outgrowth of this theology is the United Methodist dedication not only to the Evangelical Gospel of repentance and a personal relationship with God, but also to the
Social Gospeland a commitment to social justice issues that have included abolition, women's suffrage, labor rights, civil rights, and ministry to the poor. Thus, Wesleyan theology is sometimes characterized as "progressive evangelical."
Characterization of Wesleyan theology
Wesleyan theology stands at a unique cross-roads between evangelical and sacramental, between liturgical and charismatic, and between
Anglo-Catholicand Reformed theology and practice. It has been characterized by Arminiantheology with an emphasis on the work of the Holy Spirit to bring holiness into the life of the participating believer. The United Methodist Church believes in " prima scriptura", seeing the Holy Bibleas the primary authority in the Church and using tradition, reason, and experience to interpret it, with the aid of the Holy Spirit(see Wesleyan Quadrilateral).cite web|url = http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?mid=258&GID=312&GMOD=VWD&GCAT=W| title = Wesleyan Quadrilateral |publisher = The United Methodist Church|accessdate = 2007-06-24] Today, the UMC is generally considered one of the more moderateand tolerant denominations with respect to race, gender, and ideologythough the denomination itself actually includes a very wide spectrum of attitudes.
Diversity within Methodist beliefs
In making an appeal to a toleration of diversity of theological opinion, John Wesley said, "Though we may not think alike, may we not all love alike?" The phrase "In essentials, unity; in non-essentials, liberty; in all things, charity" has also become a maxim among Methodists, who have always maintained a great diversity of opinion on many matters within the Church.
The United Methodist Church allows for a wide range of theological and political beliefs. For example, Republican President
George W. Bushis United Methodist and Republican Vice President Dick Cheneyattends a United Methodist Church. In addition, Democratic Senator Hillary Clintonand former Senator Max Clelandare also United Methodists. Many practicing United Methodists believe this flexibility is one of the UMC's strongest qualities.
The United Methodist Church upholds the sanctity of unborn life but states that situations do arise which may justify abortion, such as when the life or health of the mother is risked by the continuance of a medically risky pregnancy. The Church encourages people to seek alternatives to elective abortion, such as the use of family-planning devices and adoption services. The United Methodist Church has publicly denounced late-term abortions, such as the Dilation and Extraction abortive procedures, commonly and collectively referred to as "partial-birth abortion."
Historically, the Methodist Church has supported the
temperance movement.cite web|url = http://oldwww.drew.edu/books/200Years/part2/033.htm| title = 200 Years of United Methodism: An Illustrated History |publisher = Drew University |accessdate = 2007-07-07] John Wesleywarned against the dangers of drinking in his famous sermon "The Use of Money"cite web|url = http://new.gbgm-umc.org/umhistory/wesley/sermons/50/| title = The Use of Money by John Wesley |publisher = The United Methodist Church GBGM|accessdate = 2007-07-07] and in his letter to an alcoholic.cite web|url = http://www.wesleyheritagefoundation.org/articles/Alcoholism.pdf| title = John Wesley and His Challenge to Alcoholism |publisher = Wesley Heritage Foundation|accessdate = 2007-07-07] At one time, Methodist ministers had to take a pledge not to drink and encouraged their congregations to do the same.cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity/subdivisions/methodist_3.shtml|title = The Methodist Church: Alcohol and gambling |publisher = British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)|accessdate = 2007-07-07] Today, the United Methodist Church states that it "affirms our long-standing support of abstinence from alcohol as a faithful witness to God's liberating and redeeming love for persons."cite web|url = http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?mid=1755| title = Alcohol and Other Drugs |publisher = The United Methodist Church|accessdate = 2007-07-07] In fact, the United Methodist Church uses unfermented grape juicein the sacrament of Holy Communion, thus "expressing pastoral concern for recovering alcoholics, enabling the participation of children and youth, and supporting the church's witness of abstinence."cite web|url = http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=1&mid=1339| title = Why do most Methodist churches serve grape juice instead of wine for Holy Communion? |publisher = The United Methodist Church|accessdate = 2007-07-07]
The United Methodist Church, along with other
Methodistchurches, also condemns capital punishment, saying that it cannot accept retribution or social vengeance as a reason for taking human life.cite web|url = http://archives.umc.org/interior_print.asp?ptid=4&mid=1070| title = Capital Punishment |publisher = The United Methodist Church|accessdate = 2007-06-08] The Church also holds that the death penalty falls unfairly and unequally upon marginalized persons including the poor, the uneducated, ethnic and religious minorities, and persons with mental and emotional illnesses.cite web|url = http://archives.umc.org/umns/news_archive2003.asp?story=%7B6C69E3F8-5173-4737-A8D2-AC0EF8564777%7D&mid=2406| title = Official church statements on capital punishment |publisher = The United Methodist Church|accessdate = 2007-06-08] The United Methodist Church also believes that Jesus explicitly repudiated the lex talionisin "Matthew 5:38-39" and abolished the death penalty in "John 8:31". The General Conference of the United Methodist Church calls for its bishops to uphold opposition to capital punishment and for governments to enact an immediate moratorium on carrying out the death penalty sentence.
The United Methodist Church opposes
gambling, believing that it feeds on human greedand invites people to place their trust in possessions, rather than in God, who Christians should "love ... with all your heart" ( [http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Mark%2012:29-30&version=31 Mark 12:29-30] ).cite web|url = http://www.umc.org/site/c.lwL4KnN1LtH/b.1691605/k.A8EB/Gambling_Overview.htm| title = Gambling |publisher = The United Methodist Church|accessdate = 2007-06-24] It quotes the Apostle Paul who states that:cquote|9But those who want to be rich fall into temptation and are trapped by many senseless and harmful desires that plunge people into ruin and destruction. 10For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil, and in their eagerness to be rich some have wandered away from the faith and pierced themselves with many pains. (1 Timothy 6:9-10a NRSV)cite web|url = http://bible.oremus.org/?ql=49718087| title = 1 Timothy 6:9-10a|publisher = National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America|accessdate = 2007-06-24] The United Methodist Church therefore holds that:
* Gambling is a menace to society, deadly to the best interests of moral, social, economic, and spiritual life, and destructive of good government. As an act of faith and concern, Christians should abstain from gambling and should strive to minister to those victimized by the practice.
* Where gambling has become addictive, the Church will encourage such individuals to receive therapeutic assistance so that the individual's energies may be redirected into positive and constructive ends.
* The Church should promote standards and personal lifestyles that would make unnecessary and undesirable the resort to commercial gambling — including public lotteries — as a recreation, as an escape, or as a means of producing public revenue or funds for support of charities or government.
The United Methodist Church maintains that "all persons are individuals of sacred worth...," and encourages United Methodists to be in ministry with and for all people.cite web|url = http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?mid=1324| title = What is the denomination’s position on homosexuality?|publisher = The United Methodist Church|accessdate = 2007-06-24]
In accordance with its view of Scripture,cite web|url = http://bible.oremus.org/?ql=65483805| title = Romans 1:26-27|publisher = National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America|accessdate = 2007-12-24] the Church officially considers, "the practice of homosexuality (to be) incompatible with Christian teaching." It states that "self-avowed practicing homosexuals" cannot be ordained as ministers, and supports "…laws in civil society that define marriage as the union of one man and one woman.""Book of Discipline 2004", "Social Principles"]
In addition, the United Methodist Church prohibits the celebration of same-sex unions. Rev. Jimmy Creech was
defrockedafter a highly publicized church trial in 1999 in response to his participation in same-sex union ceremonies. [ [http://www.umaffirm.org/cornet/jcomaha.html Jimmy Creech and Covenant Services in the United Methodist Church] ] . It forbids any United Methodist board, agency, committee, commission, or council to give United Methodist funds to any gay organization or group, or otherwise use such funds to promote the acceptance of homosexuality.
1987, a United Methodist church court in New Hampshire defrockedMethodist minister Rose Mary Denman for being openly gay.cite web|url = http://www.nytimes.com/2004/12/03/national/03trial.html?ex=1259730000&en=2bf3ceb5ddafc10e&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland| title = United Methodists Move to Defrock Lesbian|publisher = New York Times|accessdate = 2007-07-12] In 2005, clergy credentials were removed from Irene Elizabeth Stroudafter she was convicted in a church trial of violating Church law by engaging in a lesbian relationship; this conviction was later upheld by the Church Judicial Council, the highest court in the denomination.cite web|url = http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_umc10.htm | title = United Methodist Church (UMC): The trial of Irene Elizabeth Stroud |publisher = Religious Tolerance|accessdate = 2007-06-24] The Judicial Council also affirmed that a Virginia pastor had the right to deny local church membership to an openly gay man.cite web|url = http://www.umc.org/site/c.gjJTJbMUIuE/b.1613597/k.C9D6/Judicial_Council_denies_reconsideration_of_two_decisions.htm| title = Judicial Council denies reconsideration of two decisions|publisher = The United Methodist News Service (UMNS) |accessdate = 2007-12-24]
According to "The Book of Resolutions of The United Methodist Church", cquote|"The United Methodist Church calls upon all who choose to take up arms or who order others to do so to evaluate their actions in accordance with historic church teaching limiting resort to war, including questions of proportionality, legal authority, discrimination between combatants and noncombatants, just cause, and probability of success....cite web|url = http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=1&mid=1410| title = What is The United Methodist Church's position on just war? |publisher = The United Methodist Church|accessdate = 2007-06-08] The United Methodist Church opposes
conscriptionas incompatible with the Gospelmessage.cite web|url = http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=1&mid=1830| title = Military Service |publisher = The United Methodist Church|accessdate = 2007-06-24] Therefore, the Church supports and extends its ministry to those persons who conscientiously oppose all war, or any particular war, and who therefore refuse to serve in the armed forces or to cooperate with systems of military conscription. However, the United Methodist Church also supports and extends its ministry to those persons who conscientiously choose to serve in the armed forces or to accept alternative service. This is because as Christians they are aware that neither the way of military action, nor the way of inaction is always righteous before God.
The United Methodist Church believes
waris incompatible with the teachings of Christ. Therefore, the Church rejects war as an instrument of national foreign policy, to be employed only as a last resort in the prevention of such evils as genocide, brutal suppression of human rights, and unprovoked international aggression.cite web|url = http://karchives.umc.org/interior.asp?mid=1834| title = War and Peace |publisher = The United Methodist Church|accessdate = 2007-06-24] It insists that the first moral duty of all nations is to resolve by peaceful means every dispute that arises between or among them; that human values must outweigh military claims as governments determine their priorities; that the militarization of society must be challenged and stopped; that the manufacture, sale, and deployment of armaments must be reduced and controlled; and that the production, possession, or use of nuclear weapons be condemned. Consequently, The United Methodist Church endorses general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control.
According to the "United Methodist Book of Discipline", The United Methodist Church is just one branch of the universal Christian church. Therefore, The United Methodist Church is active in ecumenical relations with other denominations, such as the
Roman Catholic Church. It is a member of both the National Council of Churches, the World Council of Churches, Churches Uniting in Christ, and Christian Churches Together.
In April 2005, the United Methodist Council of Bishops approved "A Proposal for Interim Eucharistic Sharing." This document is the first step toward
full communionwith the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America(ELCA), which the UMC bishops hope will happen by 2008. The ELCA approved this same document in August 2005.cite web|url = http://www.elca.org/ecumenical/ecumenicaldialogue/unitedmethodist/index.html| title = Lutheran - United Methodist Dialogue |publisher = Evangelical Lutheran Church in America|accessdate = 2007-06-08] At the 2008 General Conference, the United Methodist Church approved full communion with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.cite web|url = http://www.eni.ch/featured/article.php?id=1867| title = Methodists yes to full communion with Lutherans; no on gay change|publisher = Ecumenical News International|accessdate = 2007-05-16] The ELCA will vote on the issue in August 2009.cite web|url = http://www.umc.org/site/apps/nlnet/content3.aspx?c=lwL4KnN1LtH&b=2072519&ct=4945313| title = UMC, ELCA conclude dialogue, look toward votes|publisher = The United Methodist Church|accessdate = 2007-05-16]
The Church is also in dialogue with the Episcopal Church for full communion by
2012.cite web|url = http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=1&mid=7664| title = Council approves interim pacts with Episcopalians, Lutherans |publisher = The United Methodist Church|accessdate = 2007-06-08] The two denominations are working on a document called "Confessing Our Faith Together."
The United Methodist Church has since 1985 been exploring a possible merger with three historically African-American Methodist denominations: the
African Methodist Episcopal Church, the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, and the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church. A "Commission on Pan Methodist Cooperation and Union" formed in 2000 to carry out work on such a merger.cite web|url = http://www.panmethodist.org/panmeth/mission.htm| title = Mission |publisher = Commission on Pan-Methodist Cooperation & Union |accessdate = 2007-08-01]
There are also a number of churches such as the "Methodist Church in India" (MCI), that are "autonomous affiliated" churches in relation to the United Methodist Church.cite web|url = http://gbgm-umc.org/global_news/full_article.cfm?articleid=3174| title = The Methodist Church in India: Bangalore Episcopal Area| publisher = The United Methodist Church GBGM|accessdate = 2007-10-18] cite web|url = http://www.umc.org/site/c.gjJTJbMUIuE/b.2213807/k.A1A1/Indias_Methodists_celebrate_150_years_of_ministry.htm|title =India Methodists celebrate 150 years of ministry|publisher = The United Methodist Church|accessdate = 2007-10-18]
The United Methodist Church (UMC) is also active in the
World Methodist Council, an interdenominational group composed of various churches in the tradition of John Wesleyto promote the Gospelthroughout the world. On July 18, 2006, delegates to the World Methodist Council voted unanimously to adopt the " Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification," which was approved in 1999 by the Vatican and the Lutheran World Federation.cite web|url = http://www.umc.org/site/c.gjJTJbMUIuE/b.1863123/k.FF49/World_Methodists_approve_further_ecumenical_dialogue.htm| title = World Methodists approve further ecumenical dialogue |publisher = The United Methodist Church|accessdate = 2007-06-08] cite web|url = http://www.catholicnews.com/data/stories/cns/0604186.htm| title = Methodists adopt Catholic-Lutheran declaration on justification|publisher = Catholic News Service (CNS)|accessdate = 2007-06-08]
Conferences of the United Methodist Church
* Confessing Movement within the United Methodist Church
Cross and Flame
General Commission on Christian Unity and Interreligious Concerns
International council of the United Methodist Church in Germany
List of Bishops of the United Methodist Church
List of Methodist theologians
Methodist Federation for Social Action
Order of St. Luke
Reconciling Ministries Network
* Social Creed
* The Upper Room
United Methodist Committee on Relief
United and uniting churches
* [http://www.umc.org/ Official website]
* [http://www.umc.org/site/c.lwL4KnN1LtH/b.1355375/k.B7C0/News.htm United Methodist News Service]
* [http://confessingumc.org/v2/ The Confessing Movement within the United Methodist Church]
* [http://www.goodnewsmag.org/ Good News Magazine:] Renewal Movement within the United Methodist Church
* [http://www.themethodistchurch.com/ The Methodist Church:] Website concerning issues facing the UMC today
* [http://lifewatch.org/index.html Lifewatch (United Methodist)]
* [http://www.themissionsociety.org/ The Mission Society (United Methodist)]
* [http://evangelize.org/homepage/ The Foundation for Evangelism:] an affiliate of the GBOD
* [http://www.rmnetwork.org/ The Reconciling Ministries Network]
* [http://www.gcfa.org/ General Council on Finance and Administration (GCFA)]
* [http://www.umc-gbcs.org/ The General Board of Church and Society (GBCS)]
* [http://www.gbod.org/ General Board of Discipleship (GBOD)]
* [http://www.upperroom.org/ The Upper Room]
* [http://www.umph.org/ United Methodist Publishing House (UMPH)]
* [http://www.gbgm-umc.org/ The General Board of Global Ministries (GBGM)]
* [http://www.gbhem.org/ General Board of Higher Education and Ministry (GBHEM)]
* [http://www.gcumm.org/ General Commission on United Methodist Men (GCUMM)]
* [http://www.naums.org/ National Association of United Methodist Scouters]
* [http://www.gcorr.org/ General Commission on Religion and Race (GCORR)]
* [http://www.gccuic-umc.org/ General Commission on Christian Unity and Interreligious Concerns (GCCUIC)]
* [http://www.gcsrw.org/ General Commission on the Status and Role of Women (GCSRW)]
* [http://www.umcom.org/ United Methodist Communications (UMCom)]
* [http://www.mfsaweb.org/ Methodist Federation for Social Action (MFSA)]
* [http://www.boardofchildcare.org/html/history.htm Board of Child Care of The United Methodist Church] previously known as
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