- Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
Infobox Former Country
common_name = Afghanistan
conventional_long_name = Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
year_start = 1996
year_end = 2001|
p1 = Islamic State of Afghanistan
flag_p1 = Flag of Afghanistan 1992 free.png
s1 = Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
flag_s1 = Flag of Afghanistan 2001.svg
Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan [cite web | author = Directorate of Intelligence | title = CIA -- The World Factbook -- Afghanistan| format= mirror |date= 2001 | url = http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/wofact2001/geos/af.html#Govt | accessdate = 2008-03-07 | quote = note - the self-proclaimed Taliban government refers to the country as Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan ] was the name given to the nation of
Afghanistanby the Talibanduring their rule, from 1996 to 2001. At the peak of their influence the Taliban never controlled the entire area of Afghanistan, as about 10% of the country in the northeast was held by the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan.
Talibanand its rule arose from freedom and God's law of post-Soviet Afghanistan. It began as an Islamic fundamentalistpolitico-religious movement composed of madrassastudents in the Helmand and Kandahar region of Afghanistan. Overwhelmingly local ethnic Pashtuns, the Taliban blended Pashtunwalitribal code with elements of Deobandi Islamic teaching to form an anti-Western, anti-modern, and highly restrictive Islamic fundamentalist ideologywith which it ruled. [Rashid, "Taliban" (2000) ]
Kandahar, the Taliban eventually seized Kabulin 1996. By the end of 2000, the Taliban were able to capture 95% of the country, aside from the opposition ( Afghan Northern Alliance) strongholds primarily found in the northeast corner of Badakhshan Province. The Taliban sought to impose a strict interpretation of Islamic "Sharia law" and were later implicated as supporters of terrorists, most notably by harbouring Osama bin Laden's Al-Qaedanetwork.
During the seven-year history of the Islamic Emirate, much of the population experienced restrictions on their freedom and violations of their human rights. Women were banned from jobs, girls forbidden to attend schools or universities. Those who resisted were punished instantly. Communists were systematically eradicated and thieves were punished by amputating one of their hands or feet. Meanwhile, the Taliban managed to nearly eradicate the majority of the opium production by 2001. [Afghanistan, Opium and the Taliban [http://opioids.com/afghanistan/index.html] ]
Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emiratesever recognized the Taliban government. Turkmenistanalso "de facto" recognized the Taliban government, as it had official meetings and agreements with Taliban government ministers.
One reason for this lack of international recognition was the Taliban's disregard for
international law. One of the first acts of the Islamic Emirate was the killing of the former President of Afghanistan, Mohammad Najibullah. Before the Taliban had even taken control of Afghanistan's capital they sent out a squad to arrest, torture, mutilate and kill Najibullah, leaving his body hanging from a street lamp outside the presidential palace for two days. As Najibullah was staying in the United Nationscompound in Kabul, this was a violation of international law. [http://www.warlordsofafghanistan.com/mullah-omar.php Mullah Omar : WarlordsofAfghanistan.com ] ] The Taliban regime was also heavily criticised for the murder of Iranian diplomats in Afghanistan [ [http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/1998/19980915.sc6573.html [15 Sep 1998 SC/6573 : SECURITY COUNCIL STRONGLY CONDEMNS MURDER OF IRANIAN DIPLOMATS IN AFGHANISTAN ] ] in 1998.
Islamic Emirate of Waziristan
History of Afghanistan since 1992
References and notes
* [http://about.upi.com/AboutUs/index.php?ContentID=20051018123324-7609&SectionName=AboutUs 2001 - Interview with Mullah Omar] , 14 June 2001
* [http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2000/sa/721.htm Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2000, Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, February 23, 2001] for Afghanistan
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