- Reginald Maudling
honorific-prefix = The Right Honourable,
term_start=14 January 1957
term_end=14 October 1959
predecessor=Sir Walter Monckton
successor=The Lord Mills
President of the Board of Trade
term_start2=14 October 1959
term_end2=9 October 1961
predecessor2= Sir David Eccles
term_start3=9 October 1961
term_end3=13 July 1962
Chancellor of the Exchequer
term_start4=13 July 1962
term_end4=16 October 1964
Sir Alec Douglas-Home
term_start5=20 June 1970
term_end5=18 July 1972
alma_mater =Merchant Taylors'
Merton College, Oxford
birth_date =birth date|1917|03|17|df=y
Finchley, London, United Kingdom
death_date-death date and age|1917|03|17|1979|02|14|df=y
Reginald Maudling (7 March 1917 - 14 February 1979) [ [http://janus.lib.cam.ac.uk/db/node.xsp?id=EAD%2FGBR%2F0014%2FMLNG The Papers of Reginald Maudling] janus.lib.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved
2008-02-25] was a British politicianknown for his intellectual brilliance, political pragmatism, and easygoing nature but slightly dogged by a reputation for laziness.
He held several Cabinet posts, including
Chancellor of the Exchequer. He had been spoken of as a prospective Tory leader since 1955, and was twice seriously considered for the post; he was Edward Heath's chief rival in 1965. He also held many directorships in the British financial world.
He was responsible for Northern Irish policy during Bloody Sunday in 1972; shortly thereafter, he fell from power because of an unrelated scandal in one of the companies of which he was director.
Reginald Maudling was born in
North Finchleyand was named after his father, Reginald George Maudling, an actuary, who contracted to do actuarial and financial calculations as the Commercial Calculating Company Ltd. Shortly thereafter, his family moved to Bexhill, to escape German air raids; he won scholarships to the Merchant Taylors' School and Merton College, Oxford. At Oxford, Maudling stayed out of undergraduate politics and studied the works of Georg Wilhelm Hegel; he was to formulate his conclusions later as the inseparability of economic and political freedom: "the purpose of State control and the guiding principle of its application is the achievement of true freedom". He worked hard, and obtained his degree in Classicswith first class honours. [Baston, "Reggie" Chapter 1, and pp.40-42, 173-4; quotation, from Maudling's essay, "Conservatives and Control", on Baston, p. 41.]
Shortly after graduating he formed the idea of going into politics. He set up a meeting with
Harold Nicolsonto discuss whether it would be better, as a moderate conservative by nature, to join the Conservative Party or National Labour; Nicolson advised him to wait. Maudling was called to the Bar at the Middle Templein 1940. However he did not practise as a barrister, having volunteered for service in the Royal Air Forcein World War II. Poor eyesight led him to the RAF intelligence branch where he rose to the rank of Flight Lieutenant; he was then appointed Private Secretaryto the Secretary of State for Air, Sir Archibald Sinclair. [Baston, "Reggie", Chapter 2]
Failed to win seats
He wrote an essay on Conservative policy in November 1943, recommending that the Conservatives neither imitate the Labour Party nor reflexly oppose all controls; in the general election of July 1945, he was selected as parliamentary candidate for
Hestonand Isleworth, a newly created constituencyin West London, although there were four applicants and he had no ties to the constituency. In the subsequent Labour landslide, Maudling was defeated like many others, although Heston was expected to be a safe Conservative seat.
After their defeat in the 1945 general election, the Conservative Party engaged in an extensive rethink of its policy. Maudling's argument, that the Party had depended excessively on the popularity of
Winston Churchilland outdated economic slogans, was seriously considered. In November 1945, he became the first staff member of the Conservative Parliamentary Secretariat, later the Conservative Research Department, where he was head of the Economic Section; his biographer argues that this made him the first professional politician in Britain. He persuaded the party to accept many of the Labour government's nationalisationprogramme and social services while cutting government spending. In March 1946, Maudling was chosen the prospective candidate for Barnet, close to his birthplace in north London, and began giving speeches there. Labour had unexpectedly won the seat in 1945, but it was considered to be marginal. In 1950 he was elected as Member of Parliamentwith an absolute majority. [Baston, "Reggie", Chapters 3-5; "professional politician" (as opposed to gentleman amateur, born to politics, p. 49. Maudling had 53% of the vote in a three-party contest; the Conservative lead was 10,534 out of 70,687.]
Member of Parliament and Cabinet
Following the 1951 election, Churchill made Maudling a junior Minister at the Ministry of Civil Aviation. However, his experience of preparing economic policy led to his speaking on behalf of the Treasury on the 1952 budget and thus to an appointment, later that year, as Economic Secretary to the Treasury. With his mentor
Rab Butleras Chancellor of the Exchequer, Maudling worked to reduce taxes and controls in order to move from post-war austerity to affluence. He endorsed Butler's great vision of a doubling of incomes within 25 years. Maudling was also a natural performer on television, which was to prove a great asset in his later career.
Anthony Edentook over as Prime Minister in 1955, Maudling was promoted to head a department as Minister of Supply. He supported the invasion of Suez. The Ministry was responsible for aircraft production and supplying the armed forces, and Maudling came to agree with critics who argued that it was an unnecessary intermediary; he therefore recommended its abolition. Although supportive of Harold Macmillan's appointment as Prime Minister over the rival claims of Butler in 1957, Maudling found himself in difficulties over his position in the new government. He refused to continue at the Ministry of Supply and also rejected an offer of the Ministry of Health because Iain Macleod, with whom he had a rivalry, had held the post five years earlier and Maudling did not want to be seen as five years behind him.
Macmillan thought Maudling clever but also vain and somewhat lazy. He appointed him to the near sinecure post of
Paymaster Generaland spokesman in the House of Commons for the Ministry of Fuel and Power, which was technically a demotion. Nine months later, Maudling had proved his usefulness and Macmillan brought him into the Cabinet(17 September 1957) where he acted more as a Minister without Portfolio: he had specific responsibility for chairing the talks to persuade the six members of the European Economic Community to join a free-trade area with Britain. This attempt was vetoed by General de Gaulle. Meanwhile Maudling became an underwriting member of Lloyd's of Londonin December 1957, although his assets were somewhat below average for other 'names'. [Baston, "Reggie", Chapter 6-8]
President of the Board of Trade
Maudling entered the front line of politics after the 1959 election when appointed President of the Board of Trade. He was responsible for introducing the government's proposals to help areas of high
unemployment. This was achieved by paying grants to companies to create new plants in these deprived areas, and also by the government taking over unused land for development. Maudling also succeeded in negotiating a free trade agreement between the countries outside the Common Market, this became the European Free Trade Associationand was some compensation for his failure to negotiate a free trade area with the Common Market. Maudling was opposed to any proposal to join the Common Market, remarking "I can think of no more retrograde step economically or politically". This remark was to be quoted against him when he was part of later governments applying for Common Market membership.
Reginald Maudling was for a short time, as
Secretary of State for the Coloniesin 1961, responsible for the process of decolonisation. In this position he chaired constitutional conferences for Jamaica, Northern Rhodesia and Trinidad and Tobagowhich prepared them up for independence; his plan for Northern Rhodesia was controversial and he had to threaten resignation before it was approved. However Maudling was keen to return to economic policy, and seized his opportunity when Macmillan made it clear in private that he supported a voluntary incomes policy. Maudling promptly made a persuasive case in public, and three weeks later was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequerin Macmillan's "Night of the Long Knives" attempt to rejuvenate his Cabinet. [Baston, "Reggie", Chapters 9 and 10]
Chancellor of the Exchequer
As Chancellor of the Exchequer, Maudling soon cut Purchase tax and bank
interest rates. His 1963 budget[ [http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw3641.gif"April - The Chancellor, Reginald Maudling, announces the Budget"] Illingworth Exhibition: Cartoons of the 1960s. Contemporary cartoon of the budget announcement. Retrieved 2008-02-25] aimed at "expansion without inflation". Following a period of economic difficulty, with a growth target of 4%. Maudling was able to remove income taxfrom owner occupiers' residential premises. He also abolished the rate of duty on home-brewed beerwhich in effect legalised it. This was the period in which Maudling was at his most popular within the Conservative Party and in the country.
However, later commentators have been less kind to Maudling -
Harold Wilsonand his Chancellor Jim Callaghanblamed the "dash for growth" that followed the 1963 budget for increasing Sterling's chronic instability between 1964 and 1967 and by greatly increasing domestic demand the budget certainly exacerbated the existing balance of paymentsproblem. Maudling largely recognised this himself by the time of the 1964 budget and although he increased taxes then he did little to subdue demand in an election year.
By 1963 Maudling was being considered as a possible future Prime Minister after Macmillan. However, Macmillan's sudden illness and announcement of his resignation in October 1963 came at a time when Maudling was considered too junior. He had also performed disappointingly at the Conservative Party conference, which had become a hustings for the leadership. He retained his post as Chancellor under the new prime Minister
Alec Douglas-Home, and in the 1964 election Maudling had a prominent role at the helm of the party's daily press conferences while Douglas-Home toured the country.
Maudling was praised for conveying a calm and relaxed image, but was unable to prevent the party's narrow defeat. On the
BBC's election results programme, the journalist Anthony Howard said that he believed that if Maudling had been leader, the narrow Conservative defeat would have been a narrow Conservative victory. [Baston, "Reggie", chapters 11-13. Howard quote from Maudling's autobiography.]
Failed leadership bid
Out of office, Maudling felt the loss of his Chancellor's salary keenly. He accepted the offer of a seat on the board of
Kleinwort Bensonin November 1964, one of the factors which led to his being shifted to spokesman on Foreign Affairs in early 1965. Unlike other potential leadership contenders, Maudling publicly maintained his loyalty to Douglas-Home as criticisms of his leadership mounted. When Douglas-Home resigned, after putting in place a system in which the leadership was directly elected, Maudling fought against Edward Heathfor the position of candidate to the party centre-right. Unfortunately, for Maudling, Enoch Powellalso stood as a candidate supporting monetaristand proto-Thatcherite economics.
Maudling's business directorships with Kleinwort Benson and others were mentioned by his opponents as evidence of his lack of commitment for the role, and he was felt to be too close to the Macmillan/Douglas-Home style of politics when the Conservative Party needed a fresh start. He won 133 votes against Heath's 150; Powell's 15 votes would have been more likely to go to Maudling had Powell not stood. The defeat was a surprise to Maudling, as the Conservative Parliamentary Party was felt to be more in tune with his policies than with those of Heath (although feeling in the country and in most newspapers favoured the election of Heath).
Deputy Leader and Home Secretary
Maudling served as Deputy Leader under Heath, and was also a prominent member of the
Shadow Cabinet. However, he was neither close to Edward Heath personally or politically, and as a consequence his influence declined; his support for an incomes policy now went against party policy. He also tended to make gaffes, as for example when he said Harold Wilsonhad been following the same policy as the Conservatives on Rhodesiaand "I can't think of anything he has done wrongly". When the Conservatives returned to power in 1970, Maudling was appointed Home Secretary; the most pressing problem at the Home Office was tackling the Troublesin Northern Ireland. Maudling did not enjoy this responsibility. After boarding the aeroplane at the end of his first visit to the province, he remarked "For God's sake bring me a large Scotch. What a bloody awful country." [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/4587382.stm The politics of drinking in power] BBC News Online, 2006-01-06. Retrieved 2008-02-25]
Maudling's tendency to exude reassuring calmness in interviews, normally helpful to him, was damaging when he referred to reducing IRA violence to "an acceptable level", a remark widely regarded as a
gaffe. He also tended to trust the Unionist controlled Government of Northern Irelandand gloss over differences between their approach and that of the United Kingdom government. This approach backfired when the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland James Chichester-Clarkresigned over a split in March 1971. That August, Maudling reluctantly authorised the Northern Ireland government to introduce internmentwithout trial for terror suspects, which caused widespread upheaval and anger among the nationalist population due to its exclusive use on that community, [ [http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/othelem/people/biography/mpeople.htm Biographies of Prominent People - 'M'] CAIN Web Service. Retrieved 2008-02-25] and was followed by a massive escalation in the level of violence.
Maudling's statement in the House of Commons after Bloody Sunday agreed with the
British army's claim that the Parachute Regiment had only fired in self-defence, [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,903280-3,00.html The Bitter Road from Bloody Sunday] www.time.com. Retrieved 2008-02-25] and so inflamed the nationalist MP Bernadette Devlin, a witness to the events who was not called on to speak, that she punched him. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/vote2001/hi/english/northern_ireland/newsid_1263000/1263861.stm Maiden speeches in short supply] BBC News Online, 2001-04-06Retrieved 2008-02-25]
Edward Heathdecided to bring in direct rule of Northern Ireland under a separate Secretary of State. Maudling's prominence within the Heath government led to lampooning by comedians, especially Monty Python, which Maudling himself took in good humour. On one occasion Maudling was called upon to present a TV award from The Sun to Graham Chapmanof the Python team; Chapman fell to the ground on receiving the award and "crawl [ed] all the way back to his table, screaming loudly, as loudly as he could." [ [http://www.geocities.com/fang_club/chapman_memorial.html Graham Chapman's funeral speech ] ]
Regarding criminal justice, Maudling was mildly progressive. He made no attempt, despite his personal support, to reintroduce
capital punishmentafter its abolition in 1969. He introduced Community Service, a new alternative to prison, and in 1971 modestly tightened the immigration rules. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/24/newsid_2518000/2518513.stm 1971: UK restricts Commonwealth migrants] BBC News Online. Retrieved 2008-02-25] He was criticised for ordering the deportationof Rudi Dutschke, later one of the founders of the German Green Party. Dutschke, who was in Britain to recuperate from an assassination attempt, was considered a student anarchist.
In 1972 Maudling's business activities were causing considerable disquiet and speculation in the press. In 1966, he had obtained a directorship in the company of
John Poulson, an architectMaudling helped obtain lucrative contracts. Poulson routinely did business through briberyand in 1972 was made bankrupt. The bankruptcy hearings disclosed his bribe payments, and Maudling's connection became public knowledge. Maudling came to the decision that his responsibility for the Metropolitan Police, which was beginning fraudinvestigations into Poulson, made his position as Home secretary untenable. He resigned on 18 July, to general sympathy from the press. Shortly after receiving Maudling's resignation Edward Heath's government performed a 'U-turn' on economic policy and subsequently adopted an approach strikingly similar to Maudling's.
Heath advised Maudling not to drop out of the public eye and he continued to make many media appearances. On the Conservative Party's electoral defeat in 1974,
Edward Heathwas replaced as leader by Margaret Thatcher. She surprised many by appointing Maudling to the post of Shadow Foreign Secretary. However, Maudling failed to make an impact in his new role and clashed with Mrs Thatcher over economics. He was dismissed on 19 November 1976. Maudling then openly attacked the monetaristeconomic theory she had adopted.
Last Years and Death
Maudling's business interests were to return and haunt his final years. In 1969, he had been President of the Real Estate Fund of America, whose Chief Executive had been imprisoned for fraud; Maudling had also been an adviser to the Peachey Property Corporation, whose Chairman Sir Eric Miller had
embezzledcompany money and later committed suicide. In addition Maudling was revealed to have lobbied for more aid to Maltaafter obtaining a commission for Poulson there which had led to heavy losses to the Maltese government. These further revelations led to a Parliamentary inquiry into the conduct of Maudling and two other MPs linked to Poulson. This inquiry published its report on 14 July 1977; the report concluded that Maudling had indulged in "conduct inconsistent with the standards which the House is entitled to expect from its members".
When the report was considered by the House of Commons, the Conservative Party organised its MPs to attend the debate to 'Save Reggie'. An amendment was put down to merely 'take note' of the report, instead of endorsing it, and carried by 230 votes (211 Conservatives, 17 Labour, 2 Liberals and 2 Ulster Unionists) to 207. No punishment was imposed. An attempt by back-bench Labour MPs to expel Maudling from the House was defeated by 331 votes to 11, and a move to suspend him for six months was lost by 324 to 97.
As Lewis Baston's 2004 biography recounts, Maudling (and his wife) became heavy drinkers once his political career — which once, realistically, could have ended in the office of Prime Minister — was effectively ended by the scandal. The drinking turned to
alcoholismand Maudling's health rapidly deteriorated in the late 1970s.
In early 1979 he collapsed and there were fears his treatment would be hindered by the strikes in the '
Winter of Discontent'. He died on 14 February of cirrhosisof the liverand kidneyfailure in the Royal Free Hospitalat the age of 61. Maudling married the actress Beryl Laverick six days after the outbreak of World War II in 1939; they had three sons and a daughter.
*Lewis Baston (2004) "Reggie: The Life of Reginald Maudling". Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-2924-3 Principal source, where no other is specified.
*Michael Gillard (1974) "A little pot of money. The story of Reginald Maudling and the Real Estate Fund of America".
Private Eyeproductions / André Deutsch. ISBN 0-233-96444-4
*Michael Gillard (1980) "Nothing to declare: the political corruptions of John Poulson". John Calder. ISBN 0-7145-3625-3
*Reginald Maudling (1978) "Memoirs". Sidgwick & Jackson. ISBN 0-283-98446-5
*Robert Shepherd (2004) " [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/31428 Reginald Maudling] " in "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography",
Oxford University Press.
* [http://newssearch.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/24/newsid_2518000/2518513.stm BBC News 'On this Day', includes a 1971 filmed interview on the Immigration Bill]
NAME = Maudling, Reginald
ALTERNATIVE NAMES =
SHORT DESCRIPTION = British politician
DATE OF BIRTH = 7 March 1917
PLACE OF BIRTH =
North Finchley, London
DATE OF DEATH = 14 February 1979
PLACE OF DEATH =
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Reginald Maudling — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Reginald Maudling (7 de marzo de 1917 14 de febrero de 1979) fue un político británico conocido por su inteligencia, su pragmatismo político y por su actitud despreocupada que le hizo ganarse una reputación de… … Wikipedia Español
Reginald Maudling — (* 17. März 1917 in London; † 14. Februar 1979 ebenda) war ein britischer Politiker der Conservative Party. Biografie Während des Zweiten Weltkrieges war er Privatsekretär von Luftfahrtminister Sir Archibald Sinclair. Nach dem Ende des Zweiten… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Reginald Maudling — (7 mars 1917 14 février 1979) était un homme politique britannique. Après avoir aidé à reconstruire le parti conservateur après la défaite de 1945 aux élections, il devint député à la Chambre des communes, puis Chancelier de l Échiquier au cours… … Wikipédia en Français
Maudling — is a surname and may refer to one of the following: Jonny Maudling, English composer Reginald Maudling (1917 1979), British Conservative Party politician This page or section lists people with the surname Maudling. If an … Wikipedia
Maudling — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Jonny Maudling, englischer Komponist, Keyboard und Schlaugzeugspieler Reginald Maudling (1917–1979), britischer Politiker Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unterscheidung mehrerer mit demselben … Deutsch Wikipedia
Reginald Bevins — (John) Reginald Bevins, PC (20 August 1908 ndash; 16 November 1996) was a British politician who served as a Liverpool Member of Parliament for fourteen years. A lower middle class Conservative, he served in the governments of the 1950s and 1960s … Wikipedia
Conservative Government 1957–1964 — In January 1957 Sir Anthony Eden resigned from his positions of Leader of the Conservative Party and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. This was mainly a consequence of the Suez Crisis fiasco of the previous autumn but also due to his… … Wikipedia
Harold Macmillan — The Right Honourable The Earl of Stockton OM PC FRS Prime Minister of the United Kingdom In office … Wikipedia
John Poulson — John Garlick Llewellyn Poulson (April 14, 1910 January 31, 1993) was a disgraced British architect who caused a major political scandal when his use of bribery and connections to senior politicians were disclosed in 1972. The highest ranking… … Wikipedia
Conservative Party (UK) leadership election, 1965 — Conservative Party (UK) leadership election 27 June 1965 (1965 06 27) 6 December 2005 … Wikipedia