List of notable asteroids


List of notable asteroids
Vesta is the brightest and second-most-massive asteroid. It suffered a crust-penetrating impact approximately one billion years ago.[1]

The following is a collection of lists of notable asteroids in the Solar System. For the purposes of this article 'asteroid' means minor planet inside the orbit of Neptune, including the dwarf planet Ceres. For a complete list of minor planets in numerical order, see List of minor planets.

Note: each asteroid is given a unique sequential identifying number after its orbit is precisely determined. Prior to this, asteroids are known only by their systematic name or provisional designation, such as "1950 DA".

Contents

Largest by diameter

Estimating the sizes of asteroids from observations is difficult due to their irregular shapes, varying albedo (reflectivity), and small angular diameter. For example pure C-type asteroids are much darker than most. Asteroids with only one or two axes measured may have a falsely inflated geometric mean diameter if the unknown second and/or third axis is noticeably smaller than the primary axis.

Rank Name Diameter(km)
(geometric mean)
Dimensions (km) Mean Distance
from Sun (in AU)
Date Discovered Discoverer Class
1 Ceres, 11 Ceres 952 975×975×909 2.766 01801-01-01 January 1, 1801 Piazzi, G. G
2 Pallas, 22 Pallas 544 582×556×500 2.773 01802-03-28 March 28, 1802 Olbers, H. W. B
3 Vesta, 44 Vesta 529 578×560×458 2.362 01807-03-29 March 29, 1807 Olbers, H. W. V
4 Hygiea, 1010 Hygiea 431 530×407×370 3.139 01849-04-12 April 12, 1849 de Gasparis, A. C
5 Interamnia, 704704 Interamnia 326 350×304 3.062 01910-10-02 October 2, 1910 Cerulli, V. F
6 Europa, 5252 Europa 301 360×315×240 3.095 01858-02-04 February 4, 1858 Goldschmidt, H. C
7 Davida, 511511 Davida 289 357×294×231 3.168 01903-05-30 May 30, 1903 Dugan, R. S. C
8 Sylvia, 8787 Sylvia 286 385×265×230 3.485 01866-05-16 May 16, 1866 Pogson, N. R. X
9 Cybele, 6565 Cybele 273 302×290×232 3.439 01861-03-08 March 8, 1861 Tempel, E. W. C
10 Eunomia, 1515 Eunomia 268 357×255×212 2.643 01851-07-29 July 29, 1851 de Gasparis, A. S
11 Juno, 33 Juno 258 320×267×200 2.672 01804-09-01 September 1, 1804 Harding, K. L. S
11 Chariklo, 1019910199 Chariklo 258 15.79 01997-02-15 February 15, 1997 Scotti, J. V.,
Spacewatch
Centaur
13 Euphrosyne, 3131 Euphrosyne 256 3.149 01854-09-01 September 1, 1854 Ferguson, J. C
14 Hektor, 624624 Hektor 241 370×195(×195) 5.235 01854-02-10 February 10, 1854 Kopff, A. D
15 Chiron, 20602060 Chiron 233 13.70 01977-10-18 October 18, 1977 Kowal, C. T. Centaur
16 Thisbe, 8888 Thisbe 232 221×201×168 2.769 01866-06-15 June 15, 1866 Peters, C. H. F. B
17 Bamberga, 324324 Bamberga 229 2.684 01892-02-25 February 25, 1892 Palisa, J. C
18 Fortuna, 1919 Fortuna 225 225×205×195 2.442 01852-08-22 August 22, 1852 Hind, J. R. G
19 Herculina, 532532 Herculina 222 2.772 01904-04-20 April 20, 1904 Wolf, M. S
20 Patientia, 451451 Patientia 225 3.059 01899-12-04 December 4, 1899 Charlois, A.
21 Doris, 4848 Doris 222 278×142 3.108 01857-09-19 September 19, 1857 Goldschmidt, H. C
22 Ursula, 375375 Ursula 216 3.126 01893-09-18 September 18, 1893 Charlois, A.
23 Camilla, 107107 Camilla 215 285×205×170 3.476 01868-11-17 November 17, 1868 Pogson, N. R. C
24 Eugenia, 4545 Eugenia 213 305×220×145 2.720 01857-06-27 June 27, 1857 Goldschmidt, H. F
24 Iris, 77 Iris 213 240×200×200 2.386 01847-08-13 August 13, 1847 Hind, J. R. S
26 Amphitrite, 2929 Amphitrite 212 233×212×193 2.554 01854-03-01 March 1, 1854 Marth, A. S
27 Diotima, 423423 Diotima 209 171×138 3.065 01896-12-07 December 7, 1896 Charlois, A. C
28 Egeria, 1313 Egeria 206 217×196 2.576 01850-11-02 November 2, 1850 de Gasparis, A. G
29 Aurora, 9494 Aurora 197 225×173 3.160 01867-09-06 September 6, 1867 Watson, J. C. C
30 Hermione, 121121 Hermione 190 268×186×183 3.457 01872-05-12 May 12, 1872 Watson, J. C. C
31 Psyche, 1616 Psyche 186 240×185×145 2.924 01852-03-17 March 17, 1852 de Gasparis, A. M

The number of bodies grows rapidly as the size decreases. For a more complete list, see List of Solar System objects by size.

The inner asteroid belt (defined as the region interior to the 3:1 Kirkwood gap at 2.50 AU) has few large asteroids. Of those in the above list, only 4 Vesta, 19 Fortuna, and 7 Iris orbit there.

Largest by mass

Below are the eighteen most-massive measured asteroids.[2] The masses of asteroids are calculated from perturbations caused by Mars and other asteroids. Different sets of astrometric observations lead to different mass determinations; the biggest problem is accounting for all the perturbations of the smaller asteroid.[3]

The relative masses of the top twelve asteroids known,[2] compared to the remaining mass of the asteroid belt.[4]
  Ceres
 
  3 Juno
  all others
Name Mass
(×1018 kg)
Precision
1 Ceres 946 0.15% (945–947)
4 Vesta 259 0.4% (258–260)
2 Pallas 201 6.4% (188–214)
10 Hygiea 86.7 1.7% (85.2–88.4)
31 Euphrosyne 58.1 34% (38.4–77.8)
704 Interamnia 38.8 4.6% (37.0–40.6)
511 Davida 37.7 5.2% (35.7–39.7)
15 Eunomia 31.8 0.9% (31.5–32.1)
3 Juno 28.6 16% (24.0–33.2)
532 Herculina 22.9 Unknown
16 Psyche 22.7 3.7% (21.9–23.5)
52 Europa 22.7 6.9% (21.1–24.3)
65 Cybele 17.8 Unknown
48 Doris 17.0 Unknown
13 Egeria 16.3 Unknown
7 Iris 16.2 5.6% (15.3-17.1)
423 Diotima 16.0 Unknown
87 Sylvia 14.78 0.4% (14.72-14.84)

(All the data above are from Baer et al. 2011, apart from 532 Herculina, which is Kochetova (2004).)

Significant uncertainties remain. For example, the uncertainty in the estimate of 31 Euphrosyne is enough for its low end to overlap with both 704 Interamnia and 511 Davida, which overlap each other and also with 532 Herculina, which overlaps with 15 Eunomia and 3 Juno. Juno barely overlaps 52 Europa, which in turn overlaps with 16 Psyche. That is, outside the top four, the order of all the asteroids is uncertain. However, none of the lesser asteroids, of which the most massive are thought to be 88 Thisbe (at 17–19×1018 kg), also 7 Iris, 13 Egeria, and 29 Amphitrite (all in the range of ≈16×1018 kg), overlap with Europa or Psyche, so the asteroids in the chart above are likely to be the top dozen unless a hitherto unmeasured asteroid proves to be unexpectedly massive.

The largest asteroid with an accurately measured mass, due to the fact that it has a moon, is 87 Sylvia at 14.78±0.06×1018 kg. As of 2011, a precise mass of Vesta is being measured by the Dawn probe, which is scheduled to investigate Ceres in 2015.

For a more complete list, see List of Solar System objects by size. Other large asteroids such as 48 Doris and 423 Diotima currently only have assumed masses.[5][6]

Brightest from Earth

Only Vesta regularly attains a brightness sufficient to be visible to the naked eye. The following asteroids can all reach a magnitude higher or equal to the maximum 8.3 attained by Saturn's moon Titan, which was, owing to its closeness to easily visible Saturn, discovered 145 years before the first asteroid was found.

None of the asteroids in the outer part of the asteroid belt can ever attain this brightness. Even Hygiea and Interamnia rarely reach magnitudes of above 10.0. This is due to the different distribution of spectral types within different sections of the asteroid belt being such that the highest-albedo asteroids are all concentrated closer to Mars, and much lower albedo C and D types being common in the outer belt.

Those asteroids with very high eccentricities will only reach their maximum magnitude on unusual occasions when their perihelion is very close to a heliocentric conjunction with Earth, or (in the case of 99942 Apophis) when the asteroid passes very close to the Earth.

Asteroid Magnitude
when
brightest
Mean Distance
from Sun
(in AU)
Eccentricity
of orbit
Diameter
(km)
Year of
discovery
99942 Apophis 3.4* 0.922 0.191 0.27 2004
4 Vesta 5.1 2.361 0.089172 529 1807
2 Pallas 6.4 2.773 0.230725 544 1802
1 Ceres 6.7 2.766 0.079905 952 1801
7 Iris 6.7 2.385 0.231422 200 1847
433 Eros 6.8 1.458 0.222725 34 × 11 × 11 1898
6 Hebe 7.5 2.425 0.201726 186 1847
3 Juno 7.5 2.668 0.258194 233 1804
18 Melpomene 7.5 2.296 0.218708 141 1852
15 Eunomia 7.9 2.643 0.187181 268 1851
8 Flora 7.9 2.202 0.156207 128 1847
324 Bamberga 8.0 2.682 0.338252 229 1892
1036 Ganymed 8.1 2.6657 0.533710 32 1924
9 Metis 8.1 2.387 0.121441 190 1848
192 Nausikaa 8.2 2.404 0.246216 103 1879
20 Massalia 8.3 2.409 0.142880 145 1852

* Apophis will only achieve that brightness on April 13, 2029.[7] It typically has an apparent magnitude of 20–22.

Retrograde and highly inclined

Minor planets with orbital inclinations greater than 90° and less than 270° orbit in a retrograde direction. As of February 2011, of the 540,000+ minor planets known, there are only 36 retrograde minor planets, only two of which are numbered, and none of them are confined to the asteroid belt. In comparison, there are over 1850 comets with retrograde orbits. This makes retrograde minor planets the rarest group of all. High-inclination asteroids are either Mars-crossers (possibly in the process of being ejected from the Solar System) or damocloids.

Retrograde
Name Inclination Discovery date Comment
20461 Dioretsa 160.400° June 8, 1999 This outer-planet crosser is a damocloid and centaur; Jupiter- and Saturn-crossing minor planet.[8]
Neptune. Came within 0.03 AU of Ceres in 1930.[9]
20461 Dioretsa.
2005 VD 172.911° November 1, 2005 Centaur with a Halley-like orbit. It has the lowest eccentricity and highest inclination of the retrograde orbits
NEO that has the highest relative velocity to the Earth (282,900 km/hr) of objects that come within 0.5 AU of the Earth.
Semi-major axis of 408 AU with perihelion at 6.1 AU in April 2012 (1 year data arc)
Inclination Discovery date Comment
1373 Cincinnati 38.949° August 8, 1935 First main-belt asteroid discovered to have an inclination greater than 2 Pallas.
(5496) 1973 NA 67.999° July 4, 1973 A Mars-crosser and near-Earth object.
Mars-crosser and near-Earth object.
Uranus outer-grazer.
2003 EH1 70.790° March 6, 2003 A Mars-crosser, near-Earth object and Jupiter inner-grazer.
2004 LG 70.725° June 9, 2004 A Mercury- through Mars-crosser and near-Earth object.
edit] Landmark asteroids
Name Diameter (km) Discovered Comment
5 Astraea 117 December 8, 1845 First asteroid discovered after original four (38 years later)
87 Sylvia 261 May 16, 1866 First asteroid known to have more than one moon (determined in 2005)
90 Antiope 80×80 October 1, 1866 Double asteroid with two nearly equal components; its double nature was discovered using adaptive optics in 2000
92 Undina 126 1867 July 7 Created in one of the largest asteroid-on-asteroid collisions of the past 100 million years
216 Kleopatra 217×94 April 10, 1880 Metallic asteroid with "dog-bone" shape and 2 satellites
243 Ida 56×24×21 September 29, 1884 First asteroid known to have a moon (determined in 1993)
243 Ida I Dactyl 1.4 February 17, 1994 Moon of 243 Ida, first confirmed satellite of an asteroid
279 Thule 127 October 25, 1888 Orbits in the asteroid belt's outermost edge in a 3:4 orbital resonance with Jupiter
288 Glauke 32 February 20, 1890 Exceptionally slow rotation period of about 1200 hours (2 months)
323 Brucia 36 December 22, 1891 First asteroid discovered by means of astrophotography rather than visual observation
433 Eros 13×13×33 August 13, 1898 First near-Earth asteroid discovered and the second largest; first asteroid to be detected by radar
490 Veritas 115 1902 September 3 Created in one of the largest asteroid-on-asteroid collisions of the past 100 million years
624 Hektor 370×195 February 10, 1907 Largest Jovian trojan asteroid discovered
719 Albert 2.4 October 3, 1911 Last numbered asteroid to be lost then recovered
944 Hidalgo 38 October 31, 1920 Longest orbital period of any traditional asteroid, but with a semi-major axis beyond Jupiter, can be thought of as a centaur.
1125 China   October 30, 1957 First asteroid discovery to be credited to an institution rather than a person
1566 Icarus 1.4 June 27, 1949 Apollo class asteroid; perihelion is closer to the Sun than Mercury
2060 Chiron 95P/Chiron October 18, 1977 The first minor planet discovered among the outer planets, establishing the class of centaurs. Later found to display cometary behavior
2063 Bacchus 1.1×1.1×2.6 April 24, 1977  
3200 Phaethon 5 October 11, 1983 First asteroid discovered from space; source of Geminids meteor shower.
3753 Cruithne 5 October 10, 1986 Unusual Earth-associated orbit
4179 Toutatis 4.5×2.4×1.9 January 4, 1989 Closely approached Earth on September 29, 2004
4769 Castalia 1.8×0.8 August 9, 1989 First asteroid to be radar-imaged in sufficient detail for 3D modeling[11]
5261 Eureka ~2–4 June 20, 1990 First Martian trojan asteroid (Lagrangian point L5) discovered
(11885) 1990 SS   September 25, 1990 First automated discovery of a near-Earth object (NEO)
(29075) 1950 DA 1.1 February 23, 1950 Will approach Earth very closely in 2880, collision possibility
99942 Apophis 0.3 June 19, 2004 First asteroid to rank greater than one on the Torino Scale (it was ranked at 2, then 4; now down to 0). Previously better known by its provisional designation 2004 MN4.
1997 XR2 0.23 December 4, 1997 First asteroid to rank greater than zero on the impact-risk Torino Scale (it was ranked 1; now at 0)
1998 KY26 0.030 June 2, 1998 Approached within 800,000 km of Earth
2002 AA29 0.1 January 9, 2002 Unusual Earth-associated orbit
2004 FH 0.030 March 15, 2004 Discovered before it approached within 43,000 km of Earth on March 18, 2004.
2008 HJ .024x.012 April 24, 2008 Asteroid with fastest rotation: 42.7 seconds
2008 TC3 ~0.003 October 6, 2008 First Earth-impactor to be spotted before impact (on October 7, 2008)
2010 TK7 ~0.3 October 2010 First Earth trojan asteroid to be discovered

Spacecraft targets

The following table lists asteroids that have been visited by spacecraft.

Name Diameter
(km)
Discovered Spacecraft Year(s) Closest
Approach
(km)
Notes
Vesta, 44 Vesta 529 01807-03-29 March 29, 1807 Dawn 2011–2012 &10000000000000200000000approx. 200 Orbiting; planned to break orbit in July 2012
Lutetia, 2121 Lutetia 120×100×80 01852-11-15 November 15, 1852 Rosetta 2010 &100000000000031620000003,162 Flyby
Ida, 243243 Ida 56×24×21 01884-09-29 September 29, 1884 Galileo 1993 &100000000000023900000002,390 Flyby; discovered Dactyl (moon)
Mathilde, 253253 Mathilde 66×48×46 01885-11-12 November 12, 1885 NEAR Shoemaker 1997 &100000000000012120000001,212 Flyby
Eros, 433433 Eros 13×13×33 01898-08-13 August 13, 1898 NEAR Shoemaker 1998 &100000000000038270000003,827 Flyby
Eros, 433433 Eros 13×13×33 01898-08-13 August 13, 1898 NEAR Shoemaker 2000 &1000000000000003500000035 Orbited; first asteroid studied from orbit
Eros, 433433 Eros 13×13×33 01898-08-13 August 13, 1898 NEAR Shoemaker 2001 &100000000000000000000000 Landed
Gaspra, 951951 Gaspra 18.2×10.5×8.9 01916-07-30 July 30, 1916 Galileo 1991 &100000000000016000000001,600 Flyby; first asteroid visited by a spacecraft
Masursky, 26852685 Masursky 15-20 01981-05-03 May 3, 1981 Cassini 2000 &100000000016000000000001,600,000 Distant flyby
Šteins, 28672867 Šteins 4.6 01969-11-04 November 4, 1969 Rosetta 2008 &10000000000000800000000800 Flyby
Annefrank, 55355535 Annefrank 4.0 01942-03-23 March 23, 1942 Stardust 2002 &100000000000030790000003,079 Flyby
Braille, 99699969 Braille 2.2×0.6 01992-05-27 May 27, 1992 Deep Space 1 1999 &1000000000000002600000026 Flyby; followed by flyby of Comet Borrelly
Itokawa, 2514325143 Itokawa ~1 01998-09-26 September 26, 1998 Hayabusa 2005 &100000000000000000000000 Landed; returned samples to Earth
APL, 132524132524 APL ~2.5 02002-05-09 May 9, 2002 New Horizons 2006 &10000000000101867000000101,867 Distant flyby

The following table lists asteroids that are planned to be visited by spacecraft, or were at one time proposed as a target.

Name Diameter
(km)
Discovered Spacecraft Year(s) Notes
1 Ceres 959×933 01801-01-01 January 1, 1801 Dawn 2015 Future; to be orbited
Siwa, 140140 Siwa 103 01874-10-13 October 13, 1874 Rosetta Abandoned target
Geographos, 16201620 Geographos 5.1×1.8 01951-09-14 September 14, 1951 Clementine Abandoned target
Shipka, 25302530 Shipka   01978-07-09 July 9, 1978 Rosetta Abandoned target
Rodari, 27032703 Rodari   01979-03-29 March 29, 1979 Rosetta Abandoned target
McAuliffe, 33523352 McAuliffe 2–5 01981-02-06 February 6, 1981 Deep Space 1 Abandoned target
Mimistrobell, 38403840 Mimistrobell   01980-10-09 October 9, 1980 Rosetta Abandoned target
Nereus, 46604660 Nereus ~1 01982-02-28 February 28, 1982 NEAP;
Hayabusa
Target; probe cancelled
Abandoned target
Otawara, 49794979 Otawara 5.5 01949-08-02 August 2, 1949 Rosetta Abandoned target
(101955) 1999 RQ36 ~0.5 01999-09-11 September 11, 1999 OSIRIS 2020 Future planned landing

Numbered minor planets that are also comets

Name Cometary name Comment
2060 Chiron 95P/Chiron Discovered in 1977 as the first centaur, later found to display cometary behavior (including a coma)
4015 Wilson–Harrington 107P/Wilson–Harrington In 1992, it was realized that asteroid 1979 VA's orbit matched it with the positions of the lost comet Wilson-Harrington (1949 III)
7968 Elst–Pizarro 133P/Elst–Pizarro Discovered in 1996 as a comet, but orbitally matched to asteroid 1979 OW7
60558 Echeclus 174P/Echeclus Second centaur found to have a coma
118401 LINEAR 176P/LINEAR (LINEAR 52) Main-belt comet-asteroid discovered to have a coma on November 26, 2005

Note there are quite a few other cases where a non-numbered asteroid with only a systematic designation (such as C/2001 OG108 (LONEOS)). The above table lists only numbered asteroids that are also comets.

Minor planets that were misnamed and renamed

In earlier times, before the modern numbering and naming rules were in effect, asteroids were sometimes given numbers and names before their orbits were precisely known. And in a few cases duplicate names were given to the same object (with modern use of computers to calculate and compare orbits with old recorded positions, this type of error no longer occurs). This led to a few cases where asteroids had to be renamed.[12]

330 Adalberta An object discovered March 18, 1892 by Max Wolf with provisional designation "1892 X" was named 330 Adalberta, but was lost and never recovered. In 1982 it was determined that the observations leading to the designation of 1892 X were stars, and the object never existed. The name and number 330 Adalberta was then reused for another asteroid discovered by Max Wolf on February 2, 1910, which had the provisional designation A910 CB.
525 Adelaide The object A904 EB discovered March 14, 1904 by Max Wolf was named 525 Adelaide and was subsequently lost. Later, the object 1930 TA discovered October 3, 1930 by Sylvain Arend was named 1171 Rusthawelia. In those pre-computer days, it was not realized until 1958 that these were one and the same object. The name Rusthawelia was kept (and discovery credited to Arend); the name 525 Adelaide was reused for the object 1908 EKa discovered October 21, 1908 by Joel Hastings Metcalf.
715 Transvaalia and 933 Susi The object 1911 LX discovered April 22, 1911 by H. E. Wood was named 715 Transvaalia. On April 23, 1920, the object 1920 GZ was discovered and named 933 Susi. In 1928 it was realized that these were one and the same object. The name Transvaalia was kept, and the name and number 933 Susi was reused for the object 1927 CH discovered February 10, 1927 by Karl Reinmuth.
864 Aase and 1078 Mentha The object A917 CB discovered February 13, 1917 by Max Wolf was named 864 Aase, and the object 1926 XB discovered December 7, 1926 by Karl Reinmuth was named 1078 Mentha. In 1958 it was discovered that these were one and the same object. In 1974, this was resolved by keeping the name 1078 Mentha and reusing the name and number 864 Aase for the object 1921 KE, discovered September 30, 1921 by Karl Reinmuth.
1095 Tulipa and 1449 Virtanen The object 1928 DC discovered February 24, 1928 by Karl Reinmuth was named 1095 Tulipa, and the object 1938 DO discovered February 20, 1938 by Yrjö Väisälä was named 1449 Virtanen. In 1966 it was discovered that these were one and the same object. The name 1449 Virtanen was kept and the name and number 1095 Tulipa was reused for the object 1926 GS discovered April 14, 1926 by Karl Reinmuth.
1125 China and 3789 Zhongguo The object 1928 UF discovered October 25, 1928 by Zhang Yuzhe (Y. C. Chang) was named 1125 China, and was later lost. Later, the object 1957 UN1 was discovered on October 30, 1957 at Purple Mountain Observatory and was initially incorrectly believed to be the rediscovery of the object 1928 UF. The name and number 1125 China were then reused for the object 1957 UN1, and 1928 UF remained lost. In 1986, the object 3789 Zhongguo. Note Zhongguo is the Mandarin Chinese word for "China", in pinyin transliteration.
Asteroid 1317 The object 1914 UQ discovered April 20, 1914 by G. N. Neujmin was named 787 Moskva (and retains that name to this day). The object 1934 FD discovered on March 19, 1934 by C. Jackson was given the sequence number 1317. In 1938, G. N. Neujmin found that asteroid 1317 and 787 Moskva were one and the same object. The sequence number 1317 was later reused for the object 1935 RC discovered on September 1, 1935 by Karl Reinmuth; that object is now known as 1317 Silvretta.

Record-setting close approaches to Earth

Trajectory of 2004 FH in the Earth–Moon system

Only asteroids or meteoroids that break a previous record are included. Note that near-Earth-object detection technology drastically improved around the turn of the 21st century, so objects being detected as of 2004 would have been missed only a decade earlier. By some definitions, an asteroid must be at least 50 meters in diameter; accordingly the table lists objects smaller than this size separately, but this should not be taken as an endorsement of this particular definition of meteoroids vs. asteroids. Also, celestial objects that enter and then leave Earth's atmosphere, so-called 'Earth-grazers', are separated, as entering the lower atmosphere can constitute an impact event rather than passing close.

The distances shown are approximate and from the surface of the Earth.

Earth-grazers and fireballs

Distance
kilometers
Size (m)
(approximate)
Date of
closest approach
Object
0 Sea level
0 2–5 7 October 2008 2008 TC3 (Almahata Sitta meteorite)
57[13] 3–10 10 August 1972 1972 Earth grazer
circa 100 circa 1 between 13 October 1990 and 7 August 2007 three other Earth-grazing fireballs
100 Kármán line

Passed by outside of atmosphere

Objects with distances >100km are listed here. (There is no agreed-upon end to the upper atmosphere, just consistently thinner air until going up from the stratosphere (~50 km), mesosphere (~85 km), to the thermosphere (~690 km), to the exosphere (~10,000 km). (See also thermopause.))

Meteoroids

Smaller than about 50 meters (55 yards):[14]:

Distance
(AU)
Distance[15]
(km)
Size (m)
(approximate)
Date of
closest approach
Object
0.000079 5,500 1 February 4, 2011 2011 CQ1
0.000086 6,500 6 March 31, 2004 2004 FU162
0.000090 7,100 ≈1 October 9, 2008 2011 MD
0.000136 14,000 7 November 6, 2009 2009 VA
0.000328 43,000 30 March 18, 2004 2004 FH
0.000360 47,000 5–10 October 12, 2010 2010 TD54
0.000483 66,000 19 March 2, 2009 2009 DD45
0.000531 73,000 7[16] September 8, 2010 2010 RF12
0.000564 78,000 5 September 27, 2003 Apollo)
0.00072 101,000 15 December 9, 1994 1991 BA
0.00166 242,000 12[17] September 8, 2010 2010 RX30
0.00240 359,000 22 April 9, 2010 2010 GA6
0.00257 384,400 average distance to the Moon[18]

Asteroids

Larger than about 50 meters (55 yards):[14][19]

Distance
(AU)
Distance
(km)
Size (m)
(approximate)
Date of
closest approach
Object
0.001* 150,000 200 April 11, 1971 2002 JE9
0.00155* 232,000 500 December 31, 1914 (152680) 1998 KJ9
0.002** 300,000 200 December 26-27, 1976 2010 XC15
0.0021720 324,900 400 November 8, 2011 2005 YU55
0.00257 384,400 average distance to the Moon[18]
0.0028906 432,430 500 July 3, 2006 2004 XP14
0.0037043 554,209 250 January 29, 2008 2007 TU24
0.0042415* 634,520 300 & 300 April 26, 1942 69230 Hermes
0.00457 678,000 300 March 22, 1989 4581 Asclepius
0.00495 735,000 300 & 300 October 30, 1937 69230 Hermes

* Asteroid approach did NOT occur during an observed apparition. Passage is calculated by integrating the equations of motion.

** Only the nominal (best-fit) orbit shows a passage this close. The uncertainty region is still somewhat large due to a short observation arc.

Pass by outside of atmosphere in the future

Asteroids larger than about 50 meters (55 yards):[20]

Distance
(AU)
Distance
(km)
Size (m)
(approximate)
Date of
closest approach
Object
0.000238 35,600 ~270 April 13, 2029 99942 Apophis
0.001663 248,800 700-1500 June 26, 2028 (153814) 2001 WN5
0.001663 248,800 170-370 January 2, 2101 average distance to the Moon[18]

** Only the nominal (best-fit) orbit shows a passage this close. The uncertainty region is still somewhat large due to a short observation arc.

Exceptionally slow-rotating objects

Rotation periods have been determined for only a small fraction of asteroids (from light curves or from radar studies). Most asteroids have rotation periods of less than 24 hours; however, 288 Glauke has a rotation period of about 50 days.

Name Rotation
period
(hours)
288 Glauke 1200
1220 Crocus 737
253 Mathilde 417.7
3691 Bede 226.8
9969 Braille 226.4
Minor Planet Lightcurve Parameters

Fastest rotating objects

Name Rotation
period
(seconds)
Diameter
(m)
2010 WA 31 3
2008 HJ 42.7 24
edit] See also

Books

  • Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, 5th ed.: Prepared on Behalf of Commission 20 Under the Auspices of the International Astronomical Union, Lutz D. Schmadel, ISBN 3-540-00238-3

References

  1. ^ Savage, Don; Jones, Tammy; and Villard, Ray (1995). "Asteroid or Mini-Planet? Hubble Maps the Ancient Surface of Vesta". Hubble Site News Release STScI-1995-20. http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/1995/20/image/c. Retrieved 2006-10-17. 
  2. ^ a b "Recent Asteroid Mass Determinations". Maintained by Jim Baer. Last updated 2010-12-12. Access date 2011-09-02.
  3. ^ Baer, James; Steven R. Chesley (2008). "Astrometric masses of 21 asteroids, and an integrated asteroid ephemeris" (PDF). Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007) 100 (2008): 27–42. Bibcode 2008CeMDA.100...27B. doi:10.1007/s10569-007-9103-8. http://www.springerlink.com/content/h747307j43863228/fulltext.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-11. 
  4. ^ Pitjeva, E. V. (2004). "Estimations of masses of the largest asteroids and the main asteroid belt from ranging to planets, Mars orbiters and landers". 35th COSPAR Scientific Assembly. Held 18–25 July 2004, in Paris, France. pp. 2014. Bibcode 2004cosp.meet.2014P. 
  5. ^ Michalak, G. (2001). "Determination of asteroid masses". Astronomy & Astrophysics 374 (2): 703–711. Bibcode 2001A&A...374..703M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20010731. http://www.aanda.org/index.php?option=article&access=standard&Itemid=129&url=/articles/aa/abs/2001/29/aa10228/aa10228.html. Retrieved 2008-11-10. 
  6. ^ Michalak2001 assumed masses of perturbing asteroids used in calculations of perturbations of the test asteroids.
  7. ^ "(99942) Apophis Ephemerides for 13 Apr 2029". NEODyS (Near Earth Objects - Dynamic Site). http://newton.dm.unipi.it/neodys/index.php?pc=1.1.3.1&n=99942&oc=500&y0=2029&m0=4&d0=13&h0=18&mi0=0&y1=2029&m1=4&d1=14&h1=0&mi1=0&ti=10&tiu=minutes. Retrieved 2011-05-05. 
  8. ^ 1999 LE31 approaches to Jupiter and Saturn
  9. ^ 2008 DG8 and Ceres in 1930
  10. ^ 2007 VA85 and Jupiter/Earth
  11. ^ "1994 Release #9412" (Press release). NASA. 1994-02-18. http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/releases/94/release_1994_9412.html. Retrieved 2008-04-17. 
  12. ^ http://pdssbn.astro.umd.edu/SBNast/archive/DISCOVER/discnote.tab
  13. ^ 57 kilometres above Earth's surface is approximately 6,430 km from its centre (0.000043 UA).
  14. ^ a b Closest Approaches to the Earth by Minor Planets
  15. ^ Distance from surface of the Earth
  16. ^ 2010 RF12 Impact Risk
  17. ^ 2010 RX30 Impact Risk
  18. ^ a b c NASA Staff (10 May 2011). ""Solar System Exploration - Earth's Moon: Facts & Figures". NASA. http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Display=Facts&Object=Moon. Retrieved 2011-11-06. 
  19. ^ "NEO Earth Close-Approaches (1900 to 2200, H<=22, Nominal distance<5LD)". NASA/JPL Near-Earth Object Program Office. http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/neo_ca?type=NEO&hmax=22&sort=dist&sdir=ASC&tlim=all&dmax=5LD&max_rows=20&action=Display+Table&show=1. Retrieved 2011-11-15. 
  20. ^ "PHA Close Approaches To The Earth". http://www.minorplanetcenter.net/iau/lists/PHACloseApp.html. Retrieved 2011-11-14. 

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