Thomas McKean

Infobox Officeholder
honorific-prefix =
name = Thomas McKean
honorific-suffix =


imagesize =
small

office = Governor of Pennsylvania
term_start = December 17 1799
term_end = December 20 1808
predecessor = Thomas Mifflin
successor = Simon Snyder
office2 = Chief Justice of Pennsylvania
term_start2 = July 28 1777
term_end2 = December 17 1799
predecessor2 = Benjamin Chew
successor2 = Edward Shippen
office3 = 2nd President of the United States in Congress Assembled
term_start3 = July 10, 1781
term_end3 = November 4, 1781
predecessor3= Samuel Huntington
successor3 = John Hanson
office4 = Continental Congressman
from Delaware

term_start4 = December 17 1777
term_end4 = February 1 1783
term_start5 = August 2 1774
term_end5 = November 7 1776
office6 = President of Delaware
term_start6 = September 22 1777
term_end6 = October 20 1777
predecessor6 = John McKinly
successor6 = George Read
birth_date = birth date|1734|3|19|mf=y
birth_place = New London Township, Pennsylvania
death_date = death date and age|1817|6|24|1734|3|19
death_place = Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
spouse = Mary Borden
Sarah Armitage
party = Federalist
Democratic-Republican
residence = New Castle, Delaware
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
alma_mater =
occupation =
profession = lawyer
religion = Presbyterian

Thomas McKean (March 19, 1734ndash June 24, 1817) was an American lawyer and politician from New Castle, Delaware, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was a militia officer during the American Revolution, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, a Continental Congressman from Delaware, and the second President of the Continental Congress under the Articles of Confederation. He was at various times a member of the Federalist and Democratic-Republican Parties, who served as President of Delaware, Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, and Governor of Pennsylvania.

Early life and family

McKean was born March 19, 1734 in New London Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania, the son of William McKean and Letitia Finney. His father was a tavern keeper in New London and both his parents were Ulster-Scots who came to Pennsylvania from Ireland as children. Mary Borden was his first wife. They married in 1763, lived at 22 The Strand in New Castle, Delaware, and had six children, Joseph, Robert, Elizabeth, Letitia, Mary, and Anne. Mary Borden McKean died in 1773 and is buried at Immanuel Episcopal Church in New Castle. Sarah Armitage was McKean’s second wife. They married in 1774, lived at the northeast corner of 3rd and Pine Streets in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and had four children, Sarah, Thomas, Sophia, and Maria. They were members of the New Castle Presbyterian Church in New Castle and the First Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia. Sarah's son, Carlos Fernando de Yrujo, would later become Prime Minister of Spain.

Early career

McKean's education began at the Reverend Francis Allison's New London Academy. At the age of sixteen, he went to New Castle, Delaware to begin the study of law under his cousin, David Finney. In 1755, he was admitted to the Bar in the Lower Counties, as Delaware was then known, and likewise in the Province of Pennsylvania the following year. In 1756 he was appointed deputy Attorney General for Sussex County. From the 1762/63 session through the 1775/76 session he was a member of the General Assembly of the Lower Counties, serving as its Speaker in 1772/73. From July 1765, he also served as a judge of the Court of Common Pleas and began service as the customs collector at New Castle in 1771. In November 1765, his Court of Common Pleas became the first such court in the colonies to establish a rule that all the proceedings of the court be recorded on un-stamped paper.

Eighteenth century Delaware was politically divided into loose political factions known as the "Court Party" and the "Country Party." The majority Court Party was generally Anglican, strongest in Kent County and Sussex County, worked well with the colonial Proprietary government, and was in favor of reconciliation with the British government. The minority Country Party was largely Ulster-Scot, centered in New Castle County, and quickly advocated independence from the British. McKean was the epitome of the Country party politician and was, as much as anyone, its leader. As such, he generally worked in partnership with Caesar Rodney from Kent County, and in opposition to his friend and neighbor, George Read.

American Revolution

tamp Act Congress

At the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, McKean and Caesar Rodney represented Delaware. McKean proposed the voting procedure that the Continental Congress later adopted: that each colony, regardless of size or population, have one vote. This decision set the precedent, the Congress of the Articles of Confederation adopted the practice, and the principle of state equality continued in the composition of the United States Senate.

McKean quickly became one of the most influential members of the Stamp Act Congress. He was on the committee that drew the memorial to Parliament, and with John Rutledge and Philip Livingston, revised its proceedings. On the last day of its session, when the business session ended, Timothy Ruggles, the president of the body, and a few other more cautious members, refused to sign the memorial of rights and grievances. McKean arose, and addressing the chair, insisted that the president give his reasons for his refusal. After refusing at first, Ruggles remarked, "it was against his conscience." McKean then disputed his use of the word "conscience" so loudly and so long that a challenge was given by Ruggles and accepted in the presence of the congress. However, Ruggles left the next morning at daybreak, so that the duel did not take place. [Lives of the Signers to the Declaration of Independence [http://www.colonialhall.com/mckean/mckean.php] ]

Continental Congress and Declaration of Independence

In spite of his primary residence in Philadelphia, McKean remained the effective leader for American Independence in Delaware. Along with George Read and Caesar Rodney, he was one of Delaware's delegates to the First Continental Congress in 1774 and the Second Continental Congress in 1775 and 1776.

Being an outspoken advocate of independence, McKean's was a key voice in persuading others to vote for a split with Great Britain. When Congress began debating a resolution of independence in June 1776, Caesar Rodney was absent. George Read was against independence, which meant that the Delaware delegation was split between McKean and Read, and therefore could not vote in favor of independence. McKean requested that the absent Rodney ride all night from Dover to break the tie. After the vote in favor of independence on July 2, McKean participated in the debate over the wording of the official Declaration of Independence, which was approved on July 4.

A few days after McKean cast his vote, he left Congress to serve as colonel in command of the Fourth Battalion of the Pennsylvania Associators, a militia unit created by Benjamin Franklin in 1747. They joined Washington's defense of New York City at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Being away, he was not available when most of the signers placed their signatures on the Declaration of Independence on August 2, 1776. Since his signature did not appear on the printed copy that was authenticated on January 17, 1777, it is assumed that he signed after that date, possibly as late as 1781. [G. S. Rowe, "McKean, Thomas". "American National Biography Online", February 2000.]

U.S. Congress and the Articles of Confederation

In a conservative reaction against the advocates of American independence, the 1776/77 Delaware General Assembly did not reelect either McKean or Caesar Rodney to the Continental Congress in October 1776. However, the British occupation following the Battle of Brandywine swung opinions enough that McKean was returned to Congress in October 1777, by the 1777/78 Delaware General Assembly. He then served continuously until February 1, 1783. McKean helped draft the Articles of Confederation and voted for their adoption on March 1, 1781. When poor health caused the Congress' first president, Samuel Huntington, to resign in July 1781, McKean was elected its second president, serving from July 10, 1781, until November 4, 1781. In this position, McKean presided over the unicameral assembly of the United States Congress and held the highest political office in the United States at the time. He was the first person to whom the title “President of the United States” was applied in an official document. However, it was not an executive position in any way comparable to the Presidency as configured in the later U.S. Constitution of 1787. During his time in office, Lord Cornwallis' British army surrendered at Yorktown, effectively ending the war.

Government of Delaware

Meanwhile, McKean led the effort in the General Assembly of the Lower Counties to declare its separation from the British government, which it did on June 15, 1776. Then, in August, he was elected to the special convention to draft a new state constitution. Upon hearing of it, McKean made the long ride to Dover, Delaware from Philadelphia in a single day, went to a room in an Inn, and that night, virtually by himself, drafted the document. It was adopted September 20, 1776. The Delaware Constitution of 1776 thus became the first state constitution to be produced after the Declaration of Independence.

McKean was then elected to Delaware's first House of Assembly for both the 1776/77 and 1778/79 sessions, succeeding John McKinly as Speaker on February 12, 1777 when McKinly became President of Delaware. Shortly after President McKinly's capture and imprisonment, McKean served as the President of Delaware for a month from September 22, 1777 until October 20, 1777. That was the time needed for the rightful successor to John McKinly, the Speaker of the Legislative Council, George Read, to return from the Continental Congress in Philadelphia and assume the duties.

At this time, immediately after the Battle of Brandywine, the British Army occupied Wilmington and much of northern New Castle County. Its navy also controlled the lower Delaware River and Delaware Bay. As a result the state capital, New Castle, was unsafe as a meeting place, and the Sussex County seat, Lewes, was sufficiently disrupted by Loyalists that it was unable to hold a valid general election that autumn. As President, McKean was primarily occupied with recruitment of the militia and with keeping some semblance of civic order in the portions of the state still under his control.

{|class=wikitable style="width: 94%" style="text-align: center;" align="center"
-bgcolor=#cccccc!colspan=12 style="background: #ccccff;" |Delaware General Assembly
"(sessions while President)"
-!Year!Assembly!!Senate Majority!Speaker!!House Majority!Speaker
-
1776/77
1st|
Party shading/Federalist |"non-partisan"
Party shading/Federalist |George Read|
Party shading/Federalist |"non-partisan"
Party shading/Federalist |vacant
-
###@@@KEYEND@@@###

Government of Pennsylvania

McKean started his long tenure as Chief Justice of Pennsylvania on July 28, 1777, and served in that capacity until 1799. There he largely set the rules of justice for revolutionary Pennsylvania. According to biographer John Coleman "only the historiographical difficulty of reviewing court records and other scattered documents prevents recognition that McKean, rather than John Marshall, did more than anyone else to establish an independent judiciary in the United States. As chief justice under a Pennsylvania constitution he considered flawed, he assumed it the right of the court to strike down legislative acts it deemed unconstitutional, preceding by ten years the U.S. Supreme Court's establishment of the doctrine of judicial review. He augmented the rights of defendants and sought penal reform, but on the other hand was slow to recognize expansion of the legal rights of women and the processes in the state's gradual elimination of slavery."

He was a member of the convention of Pennsylvania, which ratified the Constitution of the U.S. In the Pennsylvania State Constitutional Convention of 1789/90, he argued for a strong executive and was himself at that time a Federalist. Nevertheless, in 1796, dissatisfied with Federalist domestic policies and compromises with England, he became an outspoken Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican.

McKean was elected Governor of Pennsylvania, and served three terms from December 17, 1799 until December 20, 1808. In 1799 he defeated the Federalist Party nominee, James Ross, and again more easily in 1802. At first, McKean ousted Federalists from state government positions. Because of that, he has been called the father of the spoils system. However, in seeking a third term in 1805, McKean was at odds with factions of his own Democratic-Republican Party and the Pennsylvania General Assembly instead nominated Speaker Simon Snyder for Governor. McKean then forged an alliance with Federalists, called "the Quids," and defeated Snyder. Afterwards, he began removing Jeffersonians from state positions.

The governor's beliefs in strong executive and judicial powers were bitterly denounced by the influential "Aurora" newspaper publisher, William Duane, and the Philadelphia populist, Dr. Michael Leib. After they led public attacks calling for his impeachment, McKean filed a partially successful libel suit against Duane in 1805. The Pennsylvania House of Representatives impeached the governor in 1807, but his friends prevented a trial for the rest of his term and the matter was dropped. When the suit was settled after McKean left office, his son Joseph angrily criticized Duane's attorney for alleging, out of context, that McKean referred to the people of Pennsylvania as "Clodpoles" (clodhoppers). [Pennsylvania Governors [http://www.phmc.state.pa.us/bah/dam/governors/mckean.asp?secid=31] ]

Some of McKean's other accomplishments included expanding free education for all and, at age eighty, leading a Philadelphia citizens group to organize a strong defense during the War of 1812. He spent his retirement in Philadelphia, writing, discussing political affairs and enjoying the considerable wealth he had earned through investments and real estate.

Death and legacy

McKean was a member of the Pennsylvania Society of the Cincinnati in 1785, and was subsequently its vice-president. Princeton gave him the degree of L.L.D. in 1781; Dartmouth presented the same honor in 1782, The University of Pennsylvania gave him the degree of A.M. in 1763, and L.L.D. in 1785. With Professor John Wilson he published "Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States" (London, 1790).

McKean died June 24, 1817 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and was buried in the First Presbyterian Church Cemetery there. In 1843, his body was moved to the Laurel Hill Cemetery, also in Philadelphia. Thomas McKean High School in New Castle County, Delaware is named in his honor, as is McKean Street in Philadelphia, McKean County, Pennsylvania, and the McKean Hall dormitory at the University of Delaware. Penn State University also has a residence hall and a campus road named for him.

McKean was over six feet tall, always wore a large cocked hat and carried a gold-headed cane. He was a man of quick temper and vigorous personality, "with a thin face, hawk's nose and hot eyes." He was known for a "lofty and often tactless manner that antagonized many people," as well as for being "cold, proud and vain." Some thought, "his popularity with his clients was difficult to understand. He seldom mixed with people except on public occasions. Many people found his company insufferable. Still others concluded that he attracted so much business because people simply had confidence in his integrity and impressive credentials." John Adams described him as "one of the three men in the Continental Congress who appeared to me to see more clearly to the end of the business than any others in the body." As Chief Justice and Governor of Pennsylvania he was frequently the center of controversy. [Thomas McKean biography [http://www.si.edu/harcourt/npg/col/age/mckean2.htm] ] [Pine Run Farms - The McKean Estate [http://www2.cybergolf.com/sites/courses/talamore.asp?id=300&page=7779] ]

Almanac

Delaware elections were held October 1st, and members of the General Assembly took office on October 20th, or the following weekday. State Assemblymen had a one year term. The General Assembly chose the Continental Congressmen for a one year term and the State President for a three year term.

{|class=wikitable style="width: 94%" style="text-align: center;" align="center"
-bgcolor=#cccccc!colspan=8 style="background: #ccccff;" | Public Offices
-! Office! State! Type! Location! Elected! Took Office! Left Office! notes
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
Assemblyman
Lower Counties
Legislature
New Castle
1763
October 20, 1763
October 20, 1764|
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
Assemblyman
Lower Counties
Legislature
New Castle
1764
October 20, 1764
October 21, 1765|
-Party shading/Anti-Administration
Judge
Lower Counties
Judiciary
New Castle|
1765
1774
Court of Common Pleas
-Party shading/Anti-Masonic
Delegate
Lower Counties
Legislature
New York|
October 7, 1765
October 19, 1765
Stamp Act Congress [Members of the Delaware Assembly acted unofficially in selecting these delegates as the assembly was not in session. ]
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
Assemblyman
Lower Counties
Legislature
New Castle
1765
October 21, 1765
October 20, 1766|
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
Assemblyman
Lower Counties
Legislature
New Castle
1766
October 20, 1766
October 20, 1767|
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
Assemblyman
Lower Counties
Legislature
New Castle
1767
October 20, 1767
October 20, 1768|
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
Assemblyman
Lower Counties
Legislature
New Castle
1768
October 20, 1768
October 20, 1769|
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
Assemblyman
Lower Counties
Legislature
New Castle
1769
October 20, 1769
October 20, 1770|
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
Assemblyman
Lower Counties
Legislature
New Castle
1770
October 20, 1770
October 21, 1771|
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
Assemblyman
Lower Counties
Legislature
New Castle
1771
October 21, 1771
October 20, 1772|
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
Assemblyman
Lower Counties
Legislature
New Castle
1772
October 20, 1772
October 20, 1773
Speaker
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
Assemblyman
Lower Counties
Legislature
New Castle
1773
October 20, 1773
October 20, 1774|
-Party shading/Anti-Masonic
Delegate
Lower Counties
Legislature
Philadelphia|
September 5, 1774
October 26, 1774
Continental Congress
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
Assemblyman
Lower Counties
Legislature
New Castle
1774
October 20, 1774
October 20, 1775|
-Party shading/Anti-Masonic
Delegate
Lower Counties
Legislature
Philadelphia|
May 10, 1775
October 21, 1775
Continental Congress
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
Assemblyman
Lower Counties
Legislature
New Castle
1775
October 20, 1775
June 15, 1776|
-Party shading/Anti-Masonic
Delegate
Lower Counties
Legislature
Philadelphia|
October 21, 1775
November 7, 1776
Continental Congress
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
Delegate
Delaware
Convention
Dover|
August 27, 1776
September 21, 1776
State Constitution
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
State Representative
Delaware
Legislature
New Castle
1776
October 28, 1776
September 22, 1777
Speaker [He was elected Speaker on February 12 1777 when John McKinly became State President]
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
Chief Justice
Pennsylvania
Judiciary
Philadelphia|
July 28, 1777
December 17, 1799
State Supreme Court
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
State President
Delaware
Executive
New Castle|
September 22, 1777
October 20, 1777
Acting [As Speaker of the State Assembly he was third in line of succession and assumed the position upon the capture of John McKinly, and in the absence of George Read.]
-Party shading/Anti-Masonic
Delegate
Delaware
Legislature
York|
December 17, 1777
June 27, 1778
Continental Congress
-Party shading/Anti-Masonic
Delegate
Delaware
Legislature
Philadelphia|
July 2, 1778
January 18, 1779
Continental Congress
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
State Representative
Delaware
Legislature
Dover
1778
October 20, 1778
October 20, 1779|
-Party shading/Anti-Masonic
Delegate
Delaware
Legislature
Philadelphia|
January 18, 1779
December 22, 1779
Continental Congress
-Party shading/Anti-Masonic
Delegate
Delaware
Legislature
Philadelphia|
December 24, 1779
February 10, 1781
Continental Congress
-Party shading/Anti-Masonic
Delegate
Delaware
Legislature
Philadelphia|
February 10, 1781
March 1, 1781
Continental Congress
-Party shading/Anti-Masonic
President
Delaware
Legislature
Philadelphia|
March 1, 1781
November 4, 1781
Confederation Congress [He was elected President on July 10 1781 and served until November 4 1781 ]
-Party shading/Anti-Masonic
Delegate
Delaware
Legislature
Philadelphia|
November 5, 1781
February 2, 1782
Confederation Congress
-Party shading/Anti-Masonic
Delegate
Delaware
Legislature
Philadelphia|
February 2, 1782
November 2, 1782
Confederation Congress
-Party shading/Anti-Masonic
Delegate
Delaware
Legislature
Philadelphia|
November 4, 1782
February 1, 1783
Confederation Congress
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
Delegate
Pennsylvania
Convention
Philadelphia|
1789
1790
State Constitution
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
Governor
Pennsylvania
Executive
Philadelphia
1799
December 17, 1799
December 15, 1802|
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
Governor
Pennsylvania
Executive
Philadelphia
1802
December 15, 1802
December 18, 1805|
-Party shading/Anti-Jacksonian
Governor
Pennsylvania
Executive
Philadelphia
1805
December 18, 1805
December 20, 1808|
###@@@KEYEND@@@###

{|class=wikitable style="width: 94%" style="text-align: center;" align="center"
-bgcolor=#cccccc!colspan=7 style="background: #ccccff;" |Delaware General Assembly "service"
-! Dates! Assembly! Chamber! Majority! Governor! Committees! District
-Party shading/Federalist
1776/77
1st
State House
"non-partisan"
John McKinly
Speaker
New Castle "at-large"
-Party shading/Federalist
1778/79
3rd
State House
"non-partisan"
Caesar Rodney|
New Castle "at-large"
###@@@KEYEND@@@###

{|class=wikitable style="width: 94%" style="text-align: center;" align="center"
-bgcolor=#cccccc!colspan=13 style="background: #ccccff;" |Election results
-!Year!Office!State!!Subject!Party!Votes!%!!Opponent!Party!Votes!%
-
1799
Governor
Pennsylvania|
Party shading/Democratic-Republican |Thomas McKean
Party shading/Democratic-Republican |Republican
Party shading/Democratic-Republican |38,036
Party shading/Democratic-Republican |54%|
Party shading/Federalist |James Ross
Party shading/Federalist |Federalist
Party shading/Federalist |32,641
Party shading/Federalist |46%
-
1802
Governor
Pennsylvania|
Party shading/Democratic-Republican |Thomas McKean
Party shading/Democratic-Republican |Republican
Party shading/Democratic-Republican |47,879
Party shading/Democratic-Republican |83%|
Party shading/Federalist |James Ross
Party shading/Federalist |Federalist
Party shading/Federalist |9,499
Party shading/Federalist |17%
-
1805
Governor
Pennsylvania|
Party shading/Independent |Thomas McKean
Party shading/Independent |Independent
Party shading/Independent |43,644
Party shading/Independent |53%|
Party shading/Democratic-Republican |Simon Snyder
Party shading/Democratic-Republican |Republican
Party shading/Democratic-Republican |38,438
Party shading/Democratic-Republican |47%
###@@@KEYEND@@@###

Notes

References

*cite book |title=Thomas McKean, Forgotten Leader of the Revolution |last=Coleman |first=John M. |authorlink= |coauthors= |work= |publisher=American Faculty Press |location=Rockaway, New Jersey |pages= |year=1984 |id=ISBN 0-912834-07-2
*cite book |title=History of the State of Delaware, 3 vols. |last=Conrad |first=Henry C. |coauthors= |work= |publisher=Wickersham Company |location=Lancaster, Pennsylvania |year=1908 |id=
*cite book |title=Democracy in Delaware |last=Hoffecker |first=Carol E. |coauthors= |work= |publisher=Cedar Tree Books |location=Wilmington, Delaware |pages= |year=2004 |id=ISBN 1-892142-23-6
*cite book |title=A History of Delaware Through its Governors |last=Martin |first=Roger A. |coauthors= |work= |publisher=McClafferty Press |location=Wilmington, Delaware |pages= |year=1984 |id=
*cite book |title=Memoirs of the Senate |last=Martin |first=Roger A. |coauthors= |work= |publisher=Roger A. Martin |location=Newark, Delaware |year=1995 |id=
*cite book |title=The Philadelawareans |last=Munroe |first=John A. |coauthors= |work= |publisher=University of Delaware Press |location=Newark, Delaware |pages= |year=2004 |id=ISBN 0-87413-872-8
*cite book |title=Federalist Delaware 1775-1815 |last=Munroe |first=John A. |coauthors= |work= |publisher=Rutgers University |location=New Brunswick, New Jersey |pages= |year=1954 |id=
*cite book |title=History of Delaware |last=Munroe |first=John A. |coauthors= |work= |publisher=University of Delaware Press |location=Newark, Delaware |pages= |year=1993 |id=ISBN 0-87413-493-5
*cite book |title=Biographical Directory of American and Revolutionary Governors 1607-1789 |last=Racino |first=John W. |year=1980 |publisher=Meckler Books |location=Westport, CT |id=ISBN 0-930466-00-4
*cite book |title=Collected Essays on Early Delaware |last=Rodney |first=Richard S. |coauthors= |work= |publisher=Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Delaware |location=Wilmington, Delaware |pages= |year=1975 |id=
*cite book |title=Thomas McKean, The Shaping of an American Republicanism |last=Rowe |first=G.S. |coauthors= |work= |publisher=Colorado University Press |location=Boulder, Colorado |year=1984 |id=ISBN 0-87081-100-2
*cite book |title=History of Delaware 1609-1888. 2 vols. |last=Scharf |first=John Thomas |coauthors= |work= |publisher=L. J. Richards & Co. |location=Philadelphia |year=1888 |id=
*cite book |title=The Governors of Pennsylvania, 1790-1990 |last=Swetnam |first=G. |authorlink= |coauthors= |publisher=McDonald/Sward |location= |year=1941 |id=ISBN 0-945437-04-8
*cite book |title=Delaware Continentals, 1776-1783 |last=Ward |first=Christopher L. |coauthors= |work= |publisher=Historical Society of Delaware |location=Wilmington, Delaware |year=1941 |id=ISBN 0-924117-21-4
*cite book |title=Appletons Encyclopedia of American Biography |last=Wilson |first=James Grant. |coauthors=John Fiske |work= |publisher=D. Appleton and Company |location=New York |year=1888 |id=


=

* [http://www.ushistory.org/carpentershall/history/pa.htm Carpenter's Hall ] "Courtesy of Independence National Historical Park."
* [http://www.state.de.us/research/Tour/information/Governors/govs.shtml Hall of Governors Portrait Gallery ] "Portrait courtesy of Historical and Cultural Affairs, Dover."

External links

*CongBio|M000493
* [http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgnextoid=8a94e47a58d5c010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e449a0ca9e3f1010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD Thomas McKean at the "Biographical Directory of the Governors of the United States"]
*Find A Grave|id=2676
* [http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/mckeague-mckechnie.html#RAZ0UEQKM Thomas McKean at the "Political Graveyard"]
* [http://users.clover.net/mckean/ Thomas McKean biography by Keith J. McLean]
* [http://www.russpickett.com/history/delgov1.htm#mckean Thomas McKean at "Delaware’s Governors"]
* [http://www.russpickett.com/history/keanbio.htm Thomas McKean biography by Russell Pickett]
* [http://www.hsd.org/DHE/DHE_who_McKean.htm Thomas McKean biography at the "Historical Society of Delaware"]
* [http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/declaration/bio30.htm Thomas McKean biography at the "National Park Service"]
* [http://www.phmc.state.pa.us/bah/dam/governors/mckean.asp?secid=31 Thomas McKean biography at the "Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission"]

Places with more information

* [http://www.hsd.org/ Historical Society of Delaware ] , 505 Market St., Wilmington, Delaware (302) 655-7161
* [http://www.hsp.org/ Historical Society of Pennsylvania ] , 1300 Locust St. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (215) 732-6200
* [http://www.forever-care.com/ Laurel Hill Cemetery ] , 3822 Ridge Ave., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (215) 228-8200
* [http://www.lib.udel.edu/ University of Delaware Library ] , 181 South College Ave., Newark, Delaware (302) 831-2965


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  • Thomas McKean — (Porträt von Charles Willson Peale, um 1797) Thomas McKean (* 19. März 1734 in New London Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania; † 24. Juni 1817 in Philadelphia) war ein Rechtsanwalt und Politiker, Offizier der Kontinentalarm …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Thomas McKean — Portrait de Thomas McKean par l artiste Charles Willson Peale Thomas McKean né le 19 mars 1734, mort le 24 juin 1817, était un politicien américain et un Pères fondateurs des États Unis. Il signa la déclaration d indépendance des États Unis en… …   Wikipédia en Français

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