List of systems of plant taxonomy

This list of systems of plant taxonomy presents “taxonomic systems” used in plant classification.

A is a coherent whole of taxonomic judgements on circumscription and placement of the considered taxa. It is only a “system” if it is applied to a large group of such taxa (for example, all the flowering plants).

There are two main criteria for this list. A system must be taxonomic, that is deal with a large number of plants, by their botanical names. Secondly it must be a system, i.e. deal with the relationships of plants. Although thinking about relationships of plants had started much earlier (see history of plant systematics), such systems really only came into being in the nineteenth century, as a result of an ever increasing influx from all over the world of newly discovered plant species. The eighteenth century saw some early systems, which are perhaps precursors rather than full taxonomic systems.

A milestone event was the publication of "Species Plantarum" by Linnaeus which serves as the starting point of binomial nomenclature for plants. By its size this would qualify to be on this list, but it does not deal with relationships, beyond assigning plants into genera.

Note that a system is not necessarily monolithic and often goes through several stages of development, resulting in several versions of the same system. When a system is widely adopted, many authors will adopt their own particular version of the system. The Cronquist system is well-known for existing in many versions.

* de Jussieu system
*:cite book|author = A.L. de Jussieu|year = 1789|title = Genera Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam
*:(available online at [http://gallica.bnf.fr/ Gallica] )
* de Candolle system
*:cite book|author = A. P. de Candolle|year = 2nd edition, 1819|title = Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de l’art de décrire et d’etudier les végétaux
*:cite book|author = A. P. de Candolle et al.|year = 1824–1873|title = Prodromus systemati naturalis regni vegetabilis sive enumeratio contracta ordinum, generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi naturalis normas digesta
*:(available online at [http://gallica.bnf.fr/ Gallica] )
* Bentham & Hooker system
*:cite book|author = G. Bentham & J.D. Hooker|year = three volumes, 1862–1883|title = Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita
*:(available online at [http://gallica.bnf.fr/ Gallica] )
* Baillon system
*:cite book|author = H. Baillon|year = thirteen volumes, 1867–1894|title = Histoire des plantes
* Eichler system
*:cite book|author = Eichler|year = 1883; 3rd edition|title = Syllabus der Vorlesungen über Phanerogamenkunde
* Engler system (also see Phylogenetic System)
*:cite book|author = A. Engler & K. Prantl|year = 1887–1915; 2nd edition, 1924–|title = Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien
* Dalla Torre & Harms system
*:cite book|author = K.W. von Dalla Torre & H. Harms|year = 1900–1907|title = Genera Siphonogamarum, ad systema Englerianum conscripta
* Bessey system
*:cite journal|author = Charles E. Bessey|year = 1915|title = The phylogenetic taxonomy of flowering plants|journal = Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden|volume = 2|pages = 109–164|doi = 10.2307/2990030
* Wettstein system
*:cite book|author = R. Wettstein|year = in two volumes, 1901-1908; 2nd edition, 1911; 3rd edition, 1923-24; 4rd edition, 1933-35|title = Handbuch der systematischen Botanik
* Hutchinson system
*:cite book|author = J. Hutchinson|year = two volumes, 1926–1934; 2nd edition 1959; 3rd edition, 1973|title = The families of flowering plants, arranged according to a new system based on their probable phylogeny

* Melchior system
*:cite book|author = H. Melchior|year = 1964|editor = Adolf Engler|title = Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien |edition = 12th edition, "II. Band" (also known as modified Engler system, in Angiospermae)

* Takhtajan system
*:cite book|author = A. Takhtajan|year = in Russian, 1966|title = A system and phylogeny of the flowering plants
*:cite book|author = A. Takhtajan|year = 1969, transl. from Russian by C. Jeffrey |title = Flowering plants: origin and dispersal
*:cite journal|author = A. Takhtajan|year = 1980|title = Outline of the classification of flowering plants (Magnoliophya)|journal = Botanical Review|volume = 46|pages = 225–359|doi = 10.1007/BF02861558
*:cite book|author = A. Takhtajan|year = 1997|title = Diversity and classification of flowering plants
* Cronquist system
*:cite book|author = A. Cronquist|year = 1968; 2nd edition 1988|title = The evolution and classification of flowering plants
*:cite book|author = A. Cronquist|year = 1981|title = An integrated system of classification of flowering plants

* Goldberg system
*:cite journal|author = Aaron Goldberg|year = 1986|title = Classification, Evolution and Phylogeny of the Families of Dicotyledons|journal = Smithsonian Contributions to Botany|volume = 58|pages = 1–314 (available online: Full text (PDF) [http://www.sil.si.edu/smithsoniancontributions/Botany/pdf/sctb-0058.pdf here] ) [there is also a comparison among 11 Dicotyledons systems since 1960 until 1985]
*:cite journal|author = Aaron Goldberg|year = 1989|title = Classification, Evolution and Phylogeny of the Families of Monocotyledons|journal = Smithsonian Contributions to Botany|volume = 71|pages = 1–73 (available online: Full text (PDF) [http://www.sil.si.edu/smithsoniancontributions/Botany/pdf/scb-0071.pdf here] )
* Dahlgren system
*:cite journal|author = R.M.T. Dahlgren|year = 1975|title = A system of classification of angiosperms to be used to demonstrate the distribution of characters|journal = Bot. Notiser|volume = 128|pages = 119–147
*:cite journal|author = R.M.T. Dahlgren|year = 1980|title = A revised system of classification of angiosperms|journal = Bot. J. Linn. Soc. |volume = 80|pages = 91–124|doi = 10.1111/j.1095-8339.1980.tb01661.x
*:cite journal|author = R.M.T. Dahlgren|year = 1983|title = General Aspects of Angiosperm Evolution and Macrosystematics|journal = Nordic Journal of Botany |volume = 3|pages = 119–149|doi = 10.1111/j.1756-1051.1983.tb01448.x
*:cite book|author = R.M.T. Dahlgren & al.|year = 1985|title = The families of the monocotyledons: structure, evolution, and taxonomy
*:cite journal|author = G. Dahlgren|year = 1989|title = An updated Angiosperm Classification|journal = Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society|volume = 100|pages = 197–203|doi = 10.1111/j.1095-8339.1989.tb01717.x

* Thorne system (1992) (also see, Thorne system, 2000)
*:cite journal|author = R.F. Thorne|year = 1968|title = Synopsis of a putative phylogenetic classification of flowering plants|journal = Aliso|volume = 6(4)|pages = 57–66
*:cite journal|author = R.F. Thorne|year = 1983|title = Proposed new alignments in the angiosperms|journal = Nordic J. Bot.|volume = 3|pages = 85–117|doi = 10.1111/j.1756-1051.1983.tb01447.x
*:cite journal|author = R.F. Thorne|year = 1992|title = Classification and geography of flowering plants|journal = Botanical Review|volume = 58|pages = 225–348|doi = 10.1007/BF02858611
*:cite journal|author = R.F. Thorne|year = 1992|title = An updated phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants|journal = Aliso|volume = 13|pages = 365–389
*:cite journal|author = R.F. Thorne|year = 2000|title = The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae|journal = Botanical Review|volume = 66|pages = 441–647|doi = 10.1007/BF02869011

* Kubitzki system (1990- )
*:cite book|author = K. Kubitzki & al.|year = 1990 ongoing|title = The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants
* Reveal system (?)
* APG system (1998)
*:cite journal|author = APG|year = 1998|title = An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants|journal = Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden|volume = 85|pages = 531–553|doi = 10.2307/2992015
*:cite book|author = W.S. Judd & al.|year = 1999; 2nd edition, 2002|title = Plant systematics: a phylogenetic approach

* APG II system (2003)
*:cite journal|author = APG|year = 2003|title = An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II|journal = Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society|volume = 141|pages = 399–436|doi = 10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x
*:(Available online: [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x/abstract Abstract] | [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x/full/ Full text (HTML)] | [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x/pdf Full text (PDF)] )
* Shipunov system (2005)
*:(Available online: [http://herba.msu.ru/shipunov/ang/current/syang.pdf Full text PDF ] )

Other systems

* Lindley system
* Endlicher system
* Skottsberg system
* Gundersen system
* Hallier system
* Benson system
* Lotsy system
* van Tieghem system
* Rendle system
* Mez system
* Tippo system
* Pulle system
* Soó system
* Novák system
* Deyl system
* Stebbins system
* Rouleau system

ee also :

* Lindley, John (1846):The Vegetable Kingdom [In English, with list of systems since 1703 (John Ray) until 1845] (available online at [http://gallica.bnf.fr/ Gallica] )
* [http://herba.msu.ru/shipunov/else/else-en.htm List of systems on a russian server, by Alexey Shipunov]


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