Transylvania ( _ro. Ardeal or _ro. "Transilvania"; _hu. Erdély; Audio-de|Siebenbürgen|De-Siebenbürgen.ogg, see also other denominations) is a Central European region located in the eastern half of the Carpathian Basin, in present-day central
Romania. Bounded on the east and south by the Carpathian mountain range, historic Transylvania extended in the west to the Apuseni Mountains; however, since 1919, Transylvania also encompasses, in the north-west, parts of the historical regions of Crişanaand Maramureş(see also Partium), and in the west, eastern-(Romanian) Banat.
Transylvania is an ancient land, once the nucleus of the powerful Kingdom of Dacia. After 106 AD the
Roman Empireconquered the territory and its wealth (gold and salt) was systematically exploited. After the Romans' withdrawal in 271 AD, it was subject to various temporary influences and migration waves: Visigoths, Carpians, Huns, and Gepids Slavic peoples. Starting with the 10th century Magyar tribes slowly subdued Transylvania, which became part of the Kingdom of Hungary(11th–16th century). As a political entity, Transylvania is mentioned from the 11th century (after the Hungarian conquest) as a voivodeship, part of the Kingdom of Hungary. After the battle of Mohácsit became an autonomous principalityunder the Ottoman Empire's suzerainty, then successively a part of Hungary ruled by the Habsburgs in 1711, again a part of the Kingdom of Hungary(within the newly established Austria-Hungary) in 1867, and a part of the Kingdom of Romaniaafter World War I. cite encyclopedia|title=Transylvania|url=http://britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/603323/Transylvania|encyclopedia= Encyclopædia Britannica|publisher= Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.|year=2008|accessdate=2008-08-01]
Outside Romania, it is strongly associated with the novel "
Dracula", [ [http://www.afn.org/~vampires/tsd.html Transylvania Society of Dracula Information ] ] [ [http:/query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE6DE143BF931A1575BC0A965958260 Travel Advisory Lure of Dracula In Transylvania - New York Times ] ] [ [http://www.icromania.com/infoTransylvania.asp Romania Transylvania ] ] while within Romania and Hungary the region is known for the scenic beauty of its Carpathian landscape and its rich history.
Transylvania was first referred to in a
Medieval Latindocument in 1075 as "ultra silvam", meaning "beyond the forest" ("ultra" (+accusative) meaning "beyond" or "on the far side of" and the accusative caseof "sylva" (sylvam) meaning "wood or forest"). Transylvania, with an alternative Latin prepositional prefix, means "on the other side of the woods".
The first occurance of a somewhat similar phrase to this phrase referring to a forest in today's
Belgiumcan be found in Julius Caesar’s work “ De Bello Gallico”, where the Forest of Soignesis called by him “Ardeunna Silva”. The name “Ardeunna Silva” for "wooded heights" was applied to several forested mountainsSyn|date=September 2008, including Ardennesin France. [ [http://encyclopedia.farlex.com/Ardennes+(plateau) Encyclopedia.farlex.com] ] [Delamarre pp.51-52]
A Hungarian historian claims that the Medieval Latin form "Ultrasylvania", later "Transylvania", was a direct translation from the Hungarian form "Erdő-elve" (not the Hungarian was derived from the Latin).Engel, Pál (2001). "Realm of St. Stephen: History of Medieval Hungary, 895-1526 (International Library of Historical Studies)", page 24, London: I.B Taurus. ISBN 1-86064-061-3]
The German name "Siebenbürgen" means "seven fortresses", after the seven (
ethnic German) Transylvanian Saxons' cities in the region (Kronstadt, Schäßburg, Mediasch, Hermannstadt, Mühlbach, Bistritz and Klausenburg). This is also the origin of many other languages' names for the region, such as the Polish "Siedmiogród".
The Hungarian form "Erdély" was first mentioned in the 12th century
Gesta Hungarorumas "Erdeuleu".
The Romanian name "Ardeal" has a few possible origins. The first known occurrence of the Romanian name appeared in a document in 1432 as "Ardeliu".citation | last= Pascu | first= Ştefan | title= Voievodatul Transilvaniei | volume= I | year= 1972 | pages= 22] It may be a result of an
elisionfrom the Romanian words "aur" and "deal" ("gold" and "hill", respectively), resulting in "Ardeal" from the composed word "Aur-deal". It may also take its origin from the Indo-Europeanroot "Ard" found in hundreds of geographic locations, all sharing these topographic characteristics .Examples : Ardal(Iran) , Arduba (Albania), Ardnin(Austria), Ardel(Italy), Ardelu(France), Arduinna(region of Belgium, Luxembourg and France) etc. [Delamarre pp.51-52]
See also other languages.
In its early history, the territory of Transylvania belonged to a variety of empires and states, including
Dacia, the Roman Empire, the Hun Empireand the Gepid Kingdom [cite web |title=History of Transylvania |url=http://mek.oszk.hu/03400/03407/html/33.html |publisher=Atlantic Research and Publications, Inc. |author=Béla Köpeczi (editor) |accessdate=2007-01-29] . There were also periods when autonomus political entities arose under the control of the Byzantine and the Bulgarian Empire [ [http://mek.oszk.hu/03400/03407/html/49.html 6. SOUTHERN TRANSYLVANIA UNDER BULGAR RULE ] ] . As a political entity, (Southern) Transylvania is mentioned from the 12th century as a county(Alba) of the Kingdom of Hungary("M. princeps ultrasilvanus - comes Bellegratae"). Transylvania's seven counties were brought under the voivode's (count of Alba Iulia) rule in 1263. It then became an autonomous principality under nominal Ottoman suzeraintyin 1571. A few centuries later, in 1688, it was added to the expanding territories of Habsburg Monarchy, then became again a part of the Kingdom of Hungarywithin the newly established Austro-Hungarian Empirein 1867. Since World War I, it has been part of Romania, apart from a brief period of Hungarian occupation during World War II. Cluj-Napocais today considered to be the region's spiritual capital, although Transylvania was also ruled from Alba Iuliaduring its period as an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire, and from Sibiu, where the Habsburg governor was located from 1711 to 1848. The seat of the Transylvanian Dietwas itself moved to Sibiu for some time in the 19th century.
Since medieval times, the population of the region has been a mixture of ethnic Romanians (historically known as
Vlachs), Hungarians, the ethnic Hungarian [cite encyclopedia|title=Szekler|url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/579333/Szekler|encyclopedia= Encyclopædia Britannica|publisher= Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.|year=2008|accessdate=2008-06-30] Székelypeople, Germans (known as Saxons), Bulgarians(see Şchei, Şcheii Braşovului, Banat Bulgarians), Armenians (especially in Gherla (Armenopolis), Gheorgheniand Tarnaveni), Jews and Roma (known as Gypsiesor "tatars" - "Tatern" in Transylvanian Saxon or "tătăraşi" in Romanian).
The Roman province of Dacia, 105-271
The Kingdom of Dacia was in existence at least as early as the beginning of the 2nd century
BCwhen, Rubobostes, a Dacian king from the territory of present-day Transylvania, undertook the control of the Carpathian basinby defeating the Celtswho previously held the power in the region.
Dacia reached its maximum extent under the rule of
Burebista. The area now constituting Transylvania was the political center of the ancient Kingdom of Dacia, where several important fortified cities were built; among them was the capital Sarmizegetusa, located near the current Romanian town of Hunedoara.
In 101-102 and 105-106 AD, Roman armies under the Emperor
Trajanfought a series of military campaigns to subjugate the wealthy Dacian Kingdom. The Romans under Trajan succeeded by 106 to subdue the south and the center regions of Dacia. After the conquest, the Romans seized an enormous amount of wealth (the Dacian Wars were commemorated on Trajan's Columnin Rome) and immediately started to exploit the Dacian gold and salt mines located in today territory of Transylvania. Roman influence was broadened by the construction of modern roads, and some existing major cities, like Sarmizegethusaand Tsierna(today Orsova) were made colonies. The new province was divided under Hadrian: Dacia Superior, that corresponded roughly to Transylvania and Dacia Inferior, similar to the region of South Romania (Walachia)Fact|date=August 2008. During Antoninus Pius (138-161) the same territory was included in the provinces Dacia Porolissensis (capital at Porolissum) and Dacia Apulensis (capital at Apulum, today Alba-Iuliacity in Romania). The Romans built new mines, roads and forts in the province. Colonists from other Roman provinces were brought in to settle the land and found cities like "Apulum" (now Alba Iulia), "Napoca" (now Cluj-Napoca), Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa and Aquae. During the Roman administration also Christianity entered in the current territory of Transylvania from the neighboring Roman provinces where, according to the tradition of the Romanian Orthodox Church, St. Peterpreached.
Due to increasing pressure from the Visigoths, [Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition] the Romans abandoned the province during the reign of the Emperor
Aurelianin 271. As across much of Europe, a period of chaos and conquests followed after the collapse of Roman rule. However, as shown by the archeological research, many of the Roman cities continued to exist, building fortifications. Also Christianity survived as proved by the many artifacts discovered. Among the most famous is the donarium from Biertan (4th century) having the inscription 'Ego Zenovius votvm posui' (I, Zenovie, offered this). The territory fell under the control of the Visigoths and Carpiansuntil they were in turn displaced and subdued by the Hunsin 376, under the leadership of their infamous warlord Attila. After the disintegration of Attila's empire, the Huns were succeeded by Gepids of Eurasian Avardescent. The region was also influenced during this period by massive Slavic immigration.
At the beginning of the 9th century, Transylvania, along with eastern
Pannonia, was under the control of the First Bulgarian EmpireFact|date=June 2008. After a brief period of Bulgarian rule, the territory, was partially under Byzantine control.
Conquest of Transylvania and integration into the Kingdom of Hungary
No written or architectural evidence bears witness to the presence of "proto-Romanians" the lands north of the Danube during the millennium after Rome's withdrawal from
Daciacite book |title=A Country Study: Romania |publisher=Federal Research Division, Library of Congress|chapter=Transylvania, Walachia, And Moldavia From The Eleventh Century To The Seventeenth Century |accessdate=2008-08-08 ] . This fact has fueled a centuries-long feud between Romanian and Hungarian historians over Transylvania. The Romanians assert that they are the descendants of Latin-speaking Dacian peasants who remained in Transylvania after the Roman exodus, and of Slavs who lived in Transylvania's secluded valleys, forests, and mountains, and survived there during the tumult of the Dark Ages. Romanian historians explain the absence of hard evidence for their claims by pointing out that the region lacked organized administration until the twelfth century and by positing that the Mongols destroyed any existing records when they plundered the area in 1241. Hungarians assert, among other things, that the Roman population quit Dacia completely in 271, that the Romans could not have made a lasting impression on Transylvania's aboriginal population in only two centuries, and that Transylvania's Romanians descended from Balkan nomads who crossed northward over the Danube in the thirteenth century and flowed into Transylvania in any significant numbers only after Hungary opened its borders to foreigners.
Between 10th-12th centuries A.D. Transylvania was slowly conquered by the Magyar tribes, during a period of 300 years. cite encyclopedia|author=Matei Cazacu |editor=Andre Vauchez, Richard Barrie Dobson, Adrian Walford, Michael Lapidge |encyclopedia=Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages |title=Transylvania|url=http://books.google.hu/books?id=om4olQhrE84C&printsec=frontcover&dq=gelou+transylvania&lr=&hl=ro&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0#PPA1457,M1|page=1457|accessdate=2008-07-31]
At the beginning of the 9th century the Hungarian tribes were located in the north of the Black Sea. In 895 as a result of a planned 'conquest' and a massive withdrawal caused by a Bulgarian-Pecheneg attack they established in the Upper-
Tiszaregion and Transylvania and started to expand their territories towards west only in 899. According to the Gesta Hungarorumdescribing among others the conquest of Transylvania, three statal structures ruled by Menumorut, Gladand Gelu, the most powerful local leaders who opposed the MagyarsFact|date=August 2008 were encountered and defeated by the Magyars. . The privileged position of these figures tended to put brakes on the normal exercise of Romanian critical historiography[cite book|last=Boia|first=Lucian|title=History and Myth in Romanian Consciousness|url=http://books.google.hu/books?id=RM6MRPWXxQYC&printsec=frontcover#PPA125,M1|page=222|publisher= Central European University Press|isbn=9639116971|chapter=The Romanian state during the "Dark Millennium"|year=2001|accessdate=2008-08-01] . Gelou(Gelu in Romanian, Gyalu in Hungarian) leader of the Vlachs(ancient Romanians) and Slavs in Transylvania was ruling over the Middle part of Transylvania and had his capital at Dăbâca. He was defeated by the warriors of the Magyar chieftain Tétény (also called Töhötöm; in the original Latin: Tuhutum) sometime during the 10th century.
Glad (Bulgarian and Serbian Cyrillic: Глад) ruled over the South-West of Trabsylvania, having authority over the Slavs and Vlachs, which consisted most of the population of mentioned regions at the time. He was, according to the
Gesta Hungarorum, a voivod (dux) from Bundyn (Vidin), ruler of the territory of Banat, during the 9th and 10th centuries. He also ruled part of south Transylvania, and Vidin region, and was a local governor or vassal of the First Bulgarian Empire under Bulgarian tsar Simeon. Glad was defeated by the Hungarians during the 10th centuryFact|date=July 2008. One of his descendants, Ahtum, was a duke of Banat and the last rulerFact|date=July 2008 who opposed to the establishment of the Hungarian Kingdom in the 11th century, but he was too, defeated by the Hungarian Crown. Menumorut, a vassal of Byzantium ruled the lands between the River Tisza and the Ygfon ForestFact|date=July 2008 in the direction of Ultrasilvania (Transylvania), from the Mureş river to the Someş river. He declined the request of the Magyar ruler Árpád (907) to cede his territory between the Someş river and the Meses Mountains, and in the negotiations with the ambassadors Usubuu and Veluc of Árpád he invoked the sovereignty of the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise. The Magyars first besieged the citadel of Zotmar (Romanian: Satu Mare, Hungarian: Szatmár) and then Menumorut's castle in Bihar, and were able to defeat him. The Gesta Hungarorum then retells the storyFact|date=July 2008 of Menumorut. In the second telling, he married his daughter into the Árpád dynasty. Her son Taksony, the grandson ofFact|date=July 2008 Menumorut, became ruler of the Magyars and father of Mihály and Géza, whose son Vajk became the first King of Hungary in 1001 under the Christian baptismal name Stephen.
The early 11th century was marked by the conflict between King
Stephen I of Hungaryand his uncle Gyula, the ruler of Transylvania. The Hungarian ruler was successful in these wars, and Transylvania was incorporated into the Christian Kingdom of Hungary. The Transylvanian Christian bishopricand the comitatus system were organised. By the early 11th century the ethnic Hungarian Székely were established in southeastern Transylvania as a border population of ready warriors, and in the 12th and 13th centuries, the areas in the south and northeast were settled by German colonists called Saxons. Romanians maintained control over a few autonomous regions called 'terrae': Fagaras, Amlas. Hateg, Maramures, Lapus. However the autonomy was taken by the end of Árpád dynastyin 1301.
In 1241-1242, during the
Mongol invasion of Europe, Transylvania was among the territories devastated by the Golden Horde. A large portion of the population perished. This was followed by a second Mongol invasion in 1285, led by Nogai Khan.
Following this devastation, Transylvania was reorganized according to a class system of Estates, which established privileged groups ("universitates") with power and influence in economic and political life, as well as along ethnic lines. The first Estate was the lay and ecclesiastic aristocracy, ethnically heterogeneous, but undergoing a process of homogenization around its Hungarian nucleus. The other Estates were Saxons, Szeklers and Romanians (or
Vlachs- " Universitas Valachorum"), all with an ethnic and ethno-linguistic basis ("Universis nobilibus, Saxonibus, Syculis et Olachis"). The general assembly ("congregatio generalis") of the four Estates had few genuine legislative powers in Transylvania, but it sometimes took measures regarding order in the country.
Decree of Turda(1366), which openly called for "to expel or to exterminate in this country malefactors belonging to any nation, especially Romanians" in Transylvania, [ I. Dani, K. Gündish et al.(eds.) "Documenta Romaniae Historica, vol. XIII, Transilvania (1366-1370)", Editura Academiei Române, Bucharest 1994, p. 161-162] the only possibility for Romanians to retain or access nobility was through conversion to Roman Catholicism. Some Orthodox Romanian nobles converted, being integrated in the Hungarian nobility, but the most of them declined, thus losing their status and privileges. [ Pop I.-A., [http://www.stm.unipi.it/Clioh/tabs/libri/9/08-Pop_111-124.pdf "Nations and Denominations in Transylvania (13th - 16th Century)"] In "Tolerance and Intolerance in Historical Perspective", edited by Csaba Lévai et al., Edizioni PLUS, Università di Pisa, 2003, p. 111 – 125 ]
In some border regions (Maramureş, Ţara Haţegului) the Orthodox Romanian ruling class of "nobilis kenezius" (classed as lower nobility in the Kingdom as a whole) had the same rightsFact|date=August 2008 as the Hungarian "nobilis conditionarius". Nevertheless, because of the gradual loss of a nobility of its own, Romanians were no longer able to keep their "Universitas Valachorum".
A key figure to emerge in Transylvania in the first half of the 15th century was
John Hunyadi/János Hunyadicite web|title=János Hunyadi|url=http://britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/277182/Janos-Hunyadi|encyclopedia= Encyclopædia Britannica|publisher= Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.|year=2008|accessdate=2008-07-31] /Iancu de Hunedoara, a native of Transylvania, born in a family of Romanian origins. cite encyclopedia|author=Gábor Klaniczay |editor=Andre Vauchez, Richard Barrie Dobson, Adrian Walford, Michael Lapidge |encyclopedia=Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages |title=John Hunyadi|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=qtgotOF0MKQC&pg=PA705&dq=john+hunyadi+Romanian&lr=&hl=ro&sig=ACfU3U3UpXF3LNv55OGmlyI2E_jfhOjRWw#PPA705,M1|page=705|accessdate=2008-07-31] . (According to the usage of Hungarian noblemen of the time, Iancu/John/János took his family name after his landed estate.) He was one of the greatest military figures of the time, being Hungarian generalcite encyclopedia|title=János Hunyadi|url=http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761557950/Janos_Hunyadi.html|encyclopedia= Encarta|year=2008|accessdate=2008-08-01] , voivode of Transylvania and then governor of the Kingdom of Hungaryfrom 1446 to 1452. He was a Transylvanian noble of Romanianorigin some sources indicating him as the son of Voicu/Vajk, a Romanian boyarfrom Wallachia[Enea Silvius Piccolomini, ( Pope Pius II), "In Europa" - "Historia Austrialis", BAV, URB, LAT. 405, ff.245, IIII kal. Aprilis MCCCCLVIII, Ex Urbe Roma] though other sources are telling that his father was "a Transylvanian Vlach/ Romanian" [ cite web|title=Jean W. Sedlar, "East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500", Uniiversity of Washington Press, 1994|url=http://books.google.hu/books?id=ANdbpi1WAIQC&pg=PA41&dq=%22Transylvanian+Vlach%22&hl=ro&sig=ACfU3U3Y-_A50x6WX4HqGLL-fyfHUI-4oA|accessdate=2008-07-31] . Hungarian historians claim that his mother was Erzsébet Morzsinay the daughter of a Hungarian noble familycite web|title=A Hunyadiaktól karácsonyig|language=Hungarian|publisher="Zoltán Balassa"|url=http://web.axelero.hu/kesz/jel/01_12/hunyadiak.htm#10|accessdate=2008-04-25] . His fame was built in the effective wars of defence against the Turkish attacks, waged from 1439. With his private mercenary army John rapidly rose to the heights of power. His military campaigns against the Ottoman Empirebrought him the status of Transylvanian governorin 1446 and papal recognition as the Prince of Transylvania in 1448. Continuing his military activity, he won an important victory at Belgrade in 1456, which halted the Ottomans advance for several decades, but died shortly afterwards during an epidemic.
After the suppression of the Budai Nagy Antal-revolt in 1437, the political system was based on "
Unio Trium Nationum" ("The Union of the Three Nations"). According to the Union, which was explicitly directed against serfs and other peasants, society was ruled by three privileged Estates of the nobility (mostly ethnic Hungarians), the Székelys, also an ethnic Hungarian people who primarily served as warriors, and the ethnic German, Saxon burghers.
The only possibility for Romanians to retain or access nobility in Hungarian Transylvania was through conversion to Catholicism. Some Orthodox Romanian nobles converted, becoming integrated into the Hungarian nobility. These circumstances marked the beginning of a conflict between ethnic Hungarian Catholics and ethnic Romanian Orthodox in the territory of Transylvania which in some regions remains unresolved to this very day. [ [http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/62/456.html Romania Confronts Transylvanian Separatism ] ]
Transylvania as an Independent Principality
The 16th century in
Southeastern Europewas marked by the struggle between the Muslim Ottoman Empireand the Catholic Habsburg Empire. After the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificentoverran central Hungary (see Ottoman Hungary), Transylvania became a semi-independent principality where Austrian and Turkish influences vied for supremacy for nearly two centuries. It is this period of independence and Turkish influence that contributed to Transylvania being seen as exotic in the eyes of Victorians such as Bram Stoker, whose novel " Dracula" was published in 1897. [ [http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/uni/nec/coundour92.htm ELENI COUNDOURIOTIS, Dracula and the Idea of Europe ] ]
Due to the fact that Transylvania was now beyond the reach of Catholic religious authority,
Protestantpreaching such as Lutheranism and Calvinism were able to flourish in the region. In 1568 the Edict of Turdaproclaimed four religious expressions in Transylvania - Catholicism, Lutheranism, Calvinismand Unitarianism, while Orthodoxy, which was the confession of the Romanian population, was proclaimed as "tolerated" ("tolerata").
Báthoryfamily began to rule Transylvania as princes under the Ottomans in 1571, and briefly under Habsburg suzerainty until 1600. The latter period of their rule saw a four-sided conflict in Transylvania involving the Transylvanian Báthorys, the emerging Austrian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Romanian voivoideship (province) of Wallachia. This included a brief period of Romanian rule after the conquest of the territory by Wallachian voivod Michael the Brave. As he subsequently extended his rule over Moldavia, Michael the Brave unified for the first time in history all the territories where Romanians lived, rebuilding the mainland of the ancient Kingdom of Dacia[ Rezachevici, Constantin, Mihai Viteazul et la "Dacie" de Sigismund Báthory en 1595, Ed. Argessis, 2003, 12, p.155-164 ] The Calvinistmagnate of Bihar county Stephen Bocskaimanaged to obtain, through the Peace of Vienna( June 23, 1606), religious liberty and political autonomy for the region, the restoration of all confiscated estates, the repeal of all "unrighteous" judgments, as well as his own recognition as independent sovereign prince of an enlarged Transylvania. Under Bocskai's successors, most notably Gabriel Bethlenand George I Rákóczi, Transylvania passed through a golden agefor many religious movements and for the arts and culture. Transylvania became one of the few European States where Roman Catholics, Calvinists, Lutherans and Unitarians lived in peace, although Orthodox Romanianscontinued to be denied equal recognition.
This golden age and relative independence of Transylvania ended with the reign of
George II Rákóczi. The prince, coveting the Polish crown, allied with Sweden and invaded Polandin spite of the Turkish Porteclearly prohibiting any military action. Rákóczi's defeat in Poland, combined with the subsequent invasions of Transylvania by the Turks and their Crimean Tatar allies, the ensuing loss of territory (most importantly, the loss of the most important Transylvanian stronghold, Oradea) and diminishing manpower led to the complete subordination of Transylvania, which now became a powerless vassal of the Ottoman Empire.
Within the Habsburg Empire
After the defeat of the Ottomans at the
Battle of Viennain 1683, the Habsburgs gradually began to impose their rule on the formerly autonomous Transylvania. Apart from strengthening the central government and administration, the Habsburgs also promoted the Roman Catholic Church, both as a uniting force and also as an instrument to reduce the influence of the Protestant nobility. In addition, they tried to persuade Romanian Orthodox clergymen to join the Greek (Byzantine Rite) Catholic Church in union with Rome. As a response to this policy, several peaceful movements of the Romanian Orthodox population advocated for freedom of worship for all the Transylvanian population, most notably being the movements led by Visarion Sarai, Nicolae Oprea Miclăuş and Sofronie of Cioara.
From 1711 onward, the princes of Transylvania were replaced with Austrian governors and in 1765 Transylvania was declared a grand principality.
The revolutionary year 1848 was marked by a great struggle between the Hungarians, the Romanians and the Habsburg Empire. Warfare erupted in November with both Romanian and Saxon troops, under Austrian command, battling the Hungarians led by the Polish born general
Józef Bem. He carried out a sweeping offensive through Transylvania, and Avram Iancumanaged to retreat to the harsh terrain of the Apuseni Mountains, mounting a guerrilla campaign on Bem's forces. After the intervention by the armies of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, Bem's army was defeated decisively at the Battle of Timişoara(Temesvár, Hun.) on 9 August 1849.
Having quashed the revolution, Austria imposed a repressive regime on Hungary, ruled Transylvania directly through a military governor and granted citizenship to the Romanians.Fact|date=July 2008
The 300-year long special separate status came to an end by the
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, which established the dual monarchyand reincorporated Transylvania into the Kingdom of Hungary. On 20 June 1867, the Diet was dissolved by royal decree, and an ordinance abrogated the legislative acts of the Cluj-Napocaprovincial assembly. The department of the interior inherited the responsibilities of the Transylvanian Gubernium, and the government reserved the right to name Transylvania's royal magistrates as well the Saxon bailiff of the Universitas Saxorum. Hungarian legislation also came to supersede the Austrian code of civil procedure, penal law, commercial law, and regulations for bills of exchange. The new unity of Austria-Hungary created a process of Magyarization affecting Transylvania's Romanians and German Saxons.
Part of Romania
Austro-Hungarianempire had begun to disintegrate after the end of World War I, the nationalities living inside proclaimed their independence from the empire. The 1228-member National Assembly of Romanians of Transylvania and Hungary, headed by leaders of Transylvania's Romanian National Partyand Social Democratic Party, passed a resolution calling for unification of all Romanians in a single state on 1 December in Alba Iulia.cite web | title= December 1 - Romania National Day | publisher= Honorary Consul of Romania in Boston | url= http://www.roconsulboston.com/Pages/InfoPages/History/December1.html | accessdate= 2008-01-12] This was approved by the National Council of the Germans from Transylvania and the Council of the Danube Swabiansfrom the Banat, on 15 Decemberin Mediaş. In response, the Hungarian General Assembly of Cluj reaffirmed the loyalty of Hungarians from Transylvania to Hungary on December 22, 1918. ("See also: Union of Transylvania with Romania")
Treaty of Versaillesplaced Transylvania under the sovereignty of Romania, an ally of the Triple Entente, and after the defeat in 1919 of Béla Kun's Hungarian Soviet Republicby the Romanian army the Treaty of St. Germain(1919) and the Treaty of Trianon(signed in June 1920) further elaborated the status of Transylvania and defined the new border between the states of Hungary and Romania.cite web | last= Bachman | first= Robert D. | title= Romania: A Country Study | year= 1989 | url= http://countrystudies.us/romania/20.htm | accessdate= 2008-01-12] cite web | title= Trianon, Treaty of | publisher= Encyclopædia Britannica| url= http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9073332/Treaty-of-Trianon | accessdate= 2008-01-12] King Ferdinand I of Romaniaand Queen Maria of Romania were crowned at Alba Iulia in 1922 as King and Queen of all Romania.
In August 1940, the second Vienna Award granted the northern half of Transylvania to
Hungary. After the Treaty of Paris (1947), at the end of World War II, the territory was returned to Romania. The post-WWII borders with Hungary, agreed on at the Treaty of Paris, were identical with those set out in 1920.
After World War II and especially after the fall of Communism, Transylvania lost almost all of the German-speaking population, most of them left for Germany.
Romanian Revolution of 1989, a Hungarian minority group is pressing for greater autonomy in the Szekler Region (the counties of Harghitaand Covasnaand part of Mures County) where its members outnumber Romanians [cite web|title=BREAKAWAY ROLE MODEL - Romania: The Magyars in Székely Land|url=http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/0,1518,537008-2,00.html|work= Der Spiegel|date=2008-02-22|accessdate=2008-07-29] . There have been tensions in Transylvania between Romanians and ethnic Hungarians who want autonomy. The Hungarians said they were the target of attacks by Romanian politicians and news organizations.cite web|title=Hungarians and Romanians At Odds in Transylvania|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C02E4DB1E3EF935A15751C1A961958260|work= The New York Times|date=1997-12-26|accessdate=2008-08-01] . They say the aim is to forcibly assimilate the Hungarian minority of 1.7 million people, or 7.1 percent of the Romanian population. Romanians chided the Hungarians for refusing to integrate and in some cases for their ignorance of the Romanian language..
The Szekler National Council is a local Hungarian group founded in 2003 with
autonomyas its stated goal. Unlike the Kosovars, the Szeklers are asking for autonomy within Romania rather than complete independence, leaving foreign policyand national defensein the hands of the government in Bucharest.
A new and more radical organization, the Hungarian Civic Party, has risen to challenge the establishment Hungarian party and has advocated for the autonomy of the Szekler region. cite web|title=Kosovo’s Actions Hearten a Hungarian Enclave|publisher="
The New York Times"|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/07/world/europe/07hungarians.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=Szekler&st=nyt&oref=slogin|date=2008-04-07|accessdate=2008-06-30] .
The Hungarian politician, László Tőkés, one of the party leaders, is pressing for greater autonomy, saying that Romanian and Hungarian authorities have to reach an agreement regarding the statute of the Hungarian community, the Szeckler county respectively. cite web | title= Magyar Autonomy, An Issue Romania Needs To Deal With| publisher=
Mediafax| url= http://www.mediafax.ro/engleza/magyar-autonomy-an-issue-romania-needs-to-deal-with-official.html?6966;2411796 | accessdate= 2008-02-24] .
Historical coat of arms of Transylvania
The first heraldic representation of Transylvania is foundFact|date=July 2008 on the coat of arms of
Michael the Brave. Besides the Walachian eagle and the Moldavian auroch, Transylvania is here represented by two afronted lions holding a sword (elements referring to the Dacian Kingdom), standing upon seven hills.
The Diet of 1659 codified the representation of the privileged nations in Transylvania's
coat of arms. It depicts:
* A black
turulon a blue background, representing the medieval nobility, which was mainly Magyar.
Sunand the Moon representing the Székelys.
* Seven red towers on a yellow background representing the seven fortified cities of the
Transylvanian Saxons(The red dividing band was originally not part of the coat of arms.)
Geography and ethnography
The Transylvanian plateau, 300 to 500 metres (1,000-1,600 feet) high, is drained by the Mureş, Someş, Criş, and Olt rivers, as well as other tributaries of the
Danube. This core of historical Transylvania roughly corresponds with nine counties of modern Romania. Other areas to the west and north, which also united with Romania in 1918 (inside the border established by peace treaties in 1919-20), are since that time widely considered part of Transylvania.
Administrative divisions of the Kingdom of Hungary". In common reference, the Western border of Transylvania has come to be identified with the present Romanian-Hungarian border, settled in the Treaty of Trianon, although geographically the two are not identical.
The historical region granted to Romania in 1920 covered 23 counties including nearly 102,200 km² (102,787 - 103,093 in Hungarian sources and 102,200 in contemporany Romanian documents) now due to the several administrative reorganisations Transylvania covers 16 present-day counties (Romanian: "
judeţ") which include nearly 99,837 km² of central and northwest Romania. The 16 counties are:
* Satu Mare
The most populous cities are:
* Arad (172,824)
Historic definitions of Transylvania vary geographically. The 2002 Romanian census classified Transylvania as the entire region of
Romaniawest of the Carpathians. This region has a population of 7,221,733, with a large Romanian majority (75,9%). There are also sizeable Hungarian (20%), Roma (3.3%), German (0.7%) and Serb (0.1%) communities. [2002 Census official results: [http://www.recensamant.ro/] ] ["Ethnocultural Diversity Resource Centre" database: [http://www.edrc.ro/recensamant.jsp?language=0] ] The ethnic Hungarian population of Transylvania, largely composed of Székely, form a majority in the counties of Covasna and Harghita.
The percentage of Romanian majority has increased since the union of Transylvania with Romania after
World War Iin 1918 (the 1910 Census indicates a total population of 5,262,495, Romanians 53.8%; Hungarians 31.6%; Germans 10.7%). This is due to the emigration of non-Romanian peoples, assimilation and internal migration within Romania (estimates show that between 1945 and 1977, some 630,000 people moved from the Old Kingdom to Transylvania, and 280,000 from Transylvania to the Old Kingdom, most notably to Bucharest). [Varga, E. Árpád, [http://www.kia.hu/konyvtar/erdely/erdang.htm "Hungarians in Transylvania between 1870 and 1995"] , Translation by Tamás Sályi, Budapest, March 1999 , p. 27.] The assimilation process for Hungarians slowed during the first stages of the communist era, when most of the region's ethnic Hungarian population was granted nominal political autonomy, but accelerated under the Ceauşescu regime.
"For people connected to Transylvania's cultural life see:
List of Transylvanians."
Transylvania is rich in mineral resources, notably
lignite, iron, lead, manganese, gold, copper, natural gas, saltand sulfur.
There are large iron and
steel, chemical, and textileindustries. Stock raising, agriculture, wineproduction and fruit growing are important occupations. Timberis another valuable resource.
Transylvania accounts for around 35% of Romania's GDP, and has a GDP per capita (PPP) of around $11,500, around 10% higher than the Romanian average.
medievalcities of Alba Iulia, Cluj-Napoca, Sibiu(European Capital Of Culture-2007) , Târgu Mureşand Sighişoara
* The city of
Braşovand the nearby Poiana Braşovski resort
* The city of
Hunedoarawith the 14th century Hunyadi Castle
* The citadel and the
Art Nouveaucity centre of Oradea
* The Wooden Churches of the
Dacian Fortresses of the Orăştie Mountains, including Sarmizegetusa
* The Saxon fortified churches
* Romanian traditions and folk culture,
ASTRA National Museum Complex, Sibiu
* Hungarian traditions and folk culture
* The cafe culture [http://sibiupeople.ro/en/reports/732] ,
street theatreand cosmopolitan society of Sibiu
Transylvania in fiction
Transylvania's long history of Muslim Turkish influenceClarifyme|date=May 2008, as well as its late
industrialization(which meant that in the late 19th century, Transylvania was still mostly covered with wildernessFact|date=May 2008), created an orientalist fascination with the region by a number of notable Victorian writers. Following the publication of Emily Gerard's "The Land Beyond the Forest" (1888), Bram Stokerwrote his gothic horrornovel " Dracula" in 1897, using Transylvania as a setting. Due to the success of the latter work, Transylvania became associated in the English-speaking world with vampires. Since then it has been represented in fiction and literature as a land of mystery and magic. For example, in Paulo Coelho's novel The Witch of Portobello, the main character, Sherine Khalil, is described as a Transylvanian orphan with a Romani mother, in an effort to add to the character's exotic mystique. The so-called Transylvanian trilogy of historical novels by Miklos Banffy, "The Writing on the Wall", is an extended treatment of the 19th and early 20th century social and political history of the country.
Patrick Leigh Fermor, " Between the Woods and the Water" (New York Review of Books Classics, 2005; ISBN 1-59017-166-7). Fermor travelled across Transylvania in the summer of 1934, and wrote about it in this account first published more than 50 years later, in 1986.
* Zoltán Farkas and Judit Sós, [http://www.keletnyugat.hu/ujkonyvek/transylvania.php Transylvania Guidebook]
* [http://rti-radio.de/ RTI Radio - Radio Transsylvania International]
* [http://www.ce-review.org/99/14/lovatt14.html "Tolerant Transylvania - Why Transylvania will not become another Kosovo"] , Katherine Lovatt, in Central Europe Review, Vol 1, No 14 27 September 1999.
* [http://www.sibiweb.de/geschi/7b-history.htm "The History Of Transylvania And The Transylvanian Saxons"] by Dr. Konrad Gündisch, Oldenburg, Germany
*de icon [http://people.freenet.de/Transsylvania/ "Historical Literature about Transilvania and Neighbouring Territories"] by Klaus Popa, Germany
* [http://depts.washington.edu/cartah/text_archive/boner/toc_pag.shtml "Transylvania, its Products and its People, by Charles Boner, 1865"]
*hu icon [http://www.familyhistory.ro/index.php?id=20061130erdelyi_csaladt_ Transylvanian Family History Database]
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